18 Nov 5 Leadership stages involving Work from Home employees (WFH/Remote) , and Traditional employees as well.? ?? Chapter 2 – Literature Review Your literature review should be completed as part
I need Chapter 2 to be rewritten all over again. I need for it to focus on the 5 Leadership stages involving Work from Home employees (WFH/Remote) , and Traditional employees as well.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
Your literature review should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.
As part of clear writing, the judicious use of summary paragraphs is helpful. Even the best-written literature reviews and research can lose connection or flow with the reader. Periodic summary statements that clarify the key points or findings of a section can help keep the reader informed and engaged.
**The Literature Review will need to be lengthy to have enough information. An example has been attached below, as well as my actual report to get an overview on what you're looking at. .
THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUS8100 8
The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine whether relationships
exist among job performance, transformational leadership style, and employee turnover intention
in the United States. Interest grew in the past 30 years, combining transformational leadership
and employee turnover intention, based on the assumptions that employees are likely to be
influenced by their leader’s behavior (Gyensare et al., 2016). Gyensare et al. (2016) noted
transformational leadership style was a key variable in lowered employee turnover intention and
enhanced employee well-being. Buil et al. (2019) stated job performance was an organizational
benefit deriving from transformational leadership style.
This literature review was structured to provide key concepts and related factors to the
research variables. In the first section, the researcher defined job performance and measurements
related to this performance. This included the 360-feedback and performance appraisal. The next
section discussed and measured transformational leadership style followed by employee turnover
intention. The fourth section covered contrasting and supporting theories relative to my
theoretical framework. The final section entailed profitability and a discussion of the auto
The existing research in the literature review focused on the relationships between the
variables of employee turnover intention, transformational leadership style, and job performance.
The top journals used include the International Journal of Academic Research in Business and
Social Sciences, International Journal of Productivity and performance management, Journal of
Managerial Psychology, International Journal of Business and Management, Journal of Human
Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, International Journal of Business Administration,
International Journal of Selection & Assessment, SAM advanced management journal, and
Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research.
To locate research for this study, EbscoHosts and Education Resources Information
Center (ERIC) were used. The keywords used in the searches include employee turnover
intention, transformational leadership style, factors of employee turnover intention, job
performance impact, employee turnover and job performance, transformational and
transactional leadership style, the cost of employee turnover intention, LMX theory, measuring
job performance, employee turnover and profit, transformational leadership theory, and
measuring employee turnover intention.
The Automotive Industry
In the early days, the majority of U.S. manufacturing was centered in a small part of the
Northwest and eastern side of the Midwest (Krugman, 1991). The early automotive
manufacturers primarily put together the completed product by components and parts brought
from outside suppliers (Peterson, 1987). Henry Ford established a vision of the automobile by
introducing the Model T in 1909 (Sturgeon & Florida, 2000). This Model T introduction
symbolized the mass production of identical objects, interchangeable parts, and sequentially
ordered moving assembly lines (Peterson, 1987). By 1909, unit output per worker rose from 6.8
to 11.4 in 1912 and 19.2 in 1913 (Sturgeon & Florida, 2000). For example, in 1910, one car was
found for every 19,000 people and by the 1930s, one car was possessed by every 4.5 individuals
Cooney and Yacobucci (2007) stated that today, over one million Americans have
employment in motor vehicle, parts, and equipment manufacturing. Ford, Chrysler, and General
Motors (the Big Three) shed roughly 600,000 U.S. jobs since the 1980s and 25 percent of
employed Americans work for foreign-owned companies (Cooney & Yacobucci, 2007). By
2003, most of the vehicles sold in the U.S. were manufactured or imported by foreign-based
producers at new plants in North America (Cooney & Yacobucci, 2007). The North American
production has been accompanied by industry tension created by the entrance of international
competitors as domestic manufacturers (Drummond & Maxwell, 2010).
Job performance is performing the duty and responsibility of a given task encompassing
already known factors like time, speed, and efficiency (Zeb et al., 2019). Job performance can
worsen or improve with a change of employees (Dokko et al., 2009). At the most basic level, job
performance is about what an employee does and does not do on the job (Jackson & Frame,
2018). Jackson and Frame (2018) stated job performance is multidimensional, requiring different
kinds of behaviors. Job performance behaviors can be negative, neutral, or positive in terms of
the degree to which the behaviors contribute toward attaining the employee’s goals,
organizational mission, or department objectives (Jackson & Frame, 2018). Zeb et al. (2019)
noted in the corporate sector, research into employee job performance was a valuable resource
for organizational leaders as job performance destroyed or built the profitability and reputation
of a company.
Ramawickrama et al. (2017) discussed in the 1920s that job performance was stated as
quantity and quality of the output of each employee working in an organization. Arvey and
Murphy (1998) found from 1950 to 1980, most research focused on improving the tools used in
making job performance rating scales. Anderson et al. (2001) discussed in 1957 that job
performance had six dimensions: (a) lost time, (b) output, (c) quality, (d) satisfaction, (e) training
time, (f) and turnover.
Researchers and leaders showed an interest in recognizing conditions that encouraged job
performance (Hui et al., 2007). Mahdinezhad et al., (2013) explained the idea of performance
included two concepts: efficiency relating inputs with outcomes and effectiveness linking
outcomes with the anticipated goals and results. Mahdinezhad et al. (2013) mentioned leaders’
performance was an important factor in assessing organizational performance. High employee
performance was needed for organizations to achieve goals (Mahdinezhad et al., 2013). Hui et al.
(2007) declared employees with turnover intentions developed low job performance expectations
that undermined their actual performance.
Measuring Job Performance
Rating scales, job knowledge tests, hands-on job samples, and archival records were
previously used to assess job performance (Sonnentag et al., 2008). Pringle and Blumberg (1986)
explained influences in performance were organized into two categories: the first had to do with
an individual’s capacity to perform and the second with a leader’s willingness to perform.
Pringle and Blumberg (1986) discussed job performance be written as P= f (O, C, W) meaning
performance (P) is a function (f) of opportunity, capacity, and willingness (O, C, W). All three
categories- opportunity, capacity, and willingness- needed to be present for high job performance
to happen (Pringle & Blumberg, 1986). London and Tornow (1998) mentioned one measurement
of job performance is performance appraisal. From these measurement options, performance
ratings such as peer or supervisor ratings were the most frequent way of measuring job
performance (Sonnentag et al., 2008). Two performance ratings are discussed below.
The 360-degree Feedback
Ward (1997) defined 360-degree feedback as the systematic collection and feedback of
performance data on an individual or group derived from the individuals around them. London
and Beatty (1993) mentioned that the 360-degree feedback approach identified minimum change
to be expected without feedback. Ghorpade (2000) noticed the 360-degree feedback was
different from traditional performance appraisals, as feedback was given anonymously. The use
of 360-degree feedback in organizations had roots in several industrial and organizational
psychology (London & Tornow, 1998). Ghorpade (2000) stated the 360-degree feedback
program permitted organizational members to receive feedback on their performance. London
and Beatty (1993) noted that 360-degree feedback enhanced performance and communication in
employees by initiating leadership training programs for developmental purposes and guidance.
In some organizations, the 360-degree feedback was solely used for employee development
while in others served as input for merit evaluation and compensation adjustment (London &
Beatty, 1993). London and Tornow (1998) declared the performance dimensions measured by a
360-degree feedback instrument represented the standards used to evaluate organizational
In 360-degree feedback, rating scales could be similar for all raters or be customized to
reflect the unique features of each relationship (London & Beatty, 1993). For example, London
and Beatty (1993) stated that upward feedback, where subordinates rated their supervisor, may
consist of items focused on the manager-subordinate relationship. Ghorpade (2000) stated the
360-degree concept did not solely rely on the information of leaders but instead enlisted
subordinates, peers, supervisors, and customers on providing feedback on aspects of their
performance. London and Beatty (1993) revealed feedback called attention to important
performance dimensions thus neglected by an organization in conveying organizational values.
Ghorpade (2000) mentioned research demonstrated that anonymous feedback was more honest
and closer to how raters felt.
This feedback cannot be seen as a tool of a one-time event but understood as a part of an
ongoing process of assessment, performance evaluation, and discussion of performance with
supervisors and subordinates (London & Tornow, 1998). Many of the programs were carried out
in the absence of a strategic context and failed to focus on contributions they made to the
organization’s competitive advantage (Ghorpade, 2000). London and Beatty (1993) stated the
costs associated with 360-degree feedback as time and money for preparation and
implementation. Many organizations adopted the 360-degree feedback without clearly defining
the program’s mission and left employees to figure out the results and not develop goals/action
plans (Ghorpade, 2000). For instance, Ghorpade (2000) detailed that employees who receive
feedback be left by themselves to figure out how to cope with results and not develop action
plans or goals following the 360-degree application.
Vinson (1996) noted individuals use their role as feedback providers to criticize others or
vent negative personal feelings. Ghorpade (2000) discussed raters who scored high on the
feedback examined their results with appraisers while fearful feedback raters attempted to force
providers to reveal themselves through intimidation. London and Beatty (1993) maintained the
time and money associated with 360-degree feedback for preparation and implementation added
complexity to the appraisal process. This complexity included distributing the forms to the
correct individuals, gathering data, entailing the use of sophisticated computer programming, and
getting outside help.
Performance appraisals are conducted primarily for organizational evaluation and have
opportunities for job assignments and promotions (London & Beatty, 1993). Jackson and Frame
(2018) noted performance appraisals are meant for an organization to regularly describe and
assess the weakness and strengths of an employee’s performance. In traditional performance
appraisals, supervisory ratings were often the sole source of evaluation data (London & Beatty,
1993). Jackson and Frame (2018) stated that performance appraisals take standardized multi-item
scales and are rated by the leaders/supervisors working with employees. Hui et al. (2007)
provided leaders with evaluations of individual employee performances with a five-item job
performance scale. Sample questions for that study included “never neglects aspects of the job
he/she is obligated to perform” and “fulfills all responsibility required by his/her job” (Hui et al.,
2007, p. 740).
Mahdinezhad et al. (2013) found that leadership effect on performance was vital. Some
researchers view leadership as a key motivating force for enhancing job performance. Training in
job performance help ensure employee competency and encourages employees to meet
organizational objectives and goals, acquire new skills, ensure satisfactory performance, and
perform jobs in the organization (Long et al., 2012). Mahdinezhad et al. (2013) identified that
evaluation on the performance of a leader encompassed inquiring how well he/she is conducting
his/her functions. Hui et al. (2007) contended that the more desire an employee had to stay with
an organization, the more willing an employee would be to invest in the organization by doing
Models in Job Performance
The first aspect of job performance is task performance (Rich et al., 2010). Rich et al.
(2010) defined task performance as the activities directly involved in accomplishing job tasks
that supported the organization’s technical core. Jankingthong and Rurkkhum (2012) further
explained task performance as the effectiveness in which job incumbents performed activities
that contributed to the organizational foundation. Rich et al. (2010) noted that task performance
behaviors are central to any given job. Sonnentag et al. (2008) explained task performance
covered fulfilling the requirements that are part of the contract between employee and employer.
Rich et al. (2010) noted that job performance included task performance and emergent behaviors
that indirectly contributed to the organization, such as contextual performance.
Jankingthong and Rurkkhum (2012) noted contextual performance is a performance not
formally required as part of the job but helps shape the psychological and social context of the
organization. Viswesvaran and Ones (2000) described contextual performance as cooperating
with others, supporting organizational objectives, and volunteering to carry out tasks not part of
their job. Contextual behaviors were less likely to be role-prescribed and less likely to be built
into a formal reward structure, while task-related behaviors were crucial in organizational
functioning (Schmitt et al., 2003). Sonnentag et al. (2008) mentioned contextual performance
indirectly contributed to organizational operations by facilitating task completion. Motowildo et
al., (1997) stated contextual performance does not contribute to an organization’s core processes
but did maintain the broader social, psychological, and organizational environment where the
core should function.
Organizations have been characterized by changing, dynamic environments where the
need for adaptive performance became increasingly significant (Pulakos et al., 2000). Shoss et al.
(2012) suggested adaptive performance is a fact that reflected acquiring enhanced competencies
in employees to respond to organizational change. An aspect of adaptive performance involved
adapting to physical factors such as noise, heat, difficult environments, and uncomfortable
climates (Pulakos et al., 2000). Charbonnier‐Voirin and Roussel (2012) mentioned successful
adaptive performance required that employees adapt quickly and made decisions in the face of
inherent uncertainty and ambiguity. Employees have demonstrated adaptive performance by
adjusting behaviors to new events and work situations (Pulakos et al., 2000). Without
consideration of adaptive performance, performance models become too static to represent the
vagaries and exigencies of the modern workplace (Schmitt et al., 2003). Tasks performance is
predicted mainly by ability, contextual performance is mainly predicted by personality and
motivation, whereas cognitive ability is associated with adaptive performance (Sonnentag et al.,
Transformational Leadership Style
Leaders use transformational leadership style to inspire workers to fulfill the vision of the
organization. Alatawi (2017) noted transformational leaders are concerned with vision,
supportive leadership, staff development, innovative thinking, empowerment, leading by
example, and charisma. A leader’s transformational leadership style will lower employee
turnover through increased trust in management and improved job performance
(Ariyabuddhiphongs & Kahn, 2017). Transformational leaders have influenced subordinate
emotional attachment to the organization which helped to reduce employee turnover and advance
job performance (Ariyabuddhiphongs & Kahn, 2017). Ariyabuddhiphongs and Kahn (2017)
stated that transformational leadership style helped organizations thrive in changing
environments by putting extra effort into performance, challenging attitudes, and encouraging
followers to have established creative solutions for complex problems.
Kark et al. (2003) mentioned transformational leadership style often resulted in employee
independence, growth, and empowerment. Rolfe (2011) noted the premise in transformational
leadership style is that a leader possessed the skills to grow successful relationships with
employees and created an environment where the employee and leader strive to have
organizational goals met. A transformational leader in an organization is one who considers how
to maintain and improve the quality and quantity of performance, and who has the strength to
argue for what is right, and who displays self-confidence (Ariyabuddhiphongs & Kahn, 2017).
Bass and Avolio (1990) and Kark et al. (2003) explained the impact of transformational
leadership style on employee performance was often described as stemming from employee
empowerment and development, which raised their motivation and ability. Kark et al. (2003)
determined transformational leadership style included empowering employee behaviors such as
the enhanced capacity for independent thought, increased responsibility, or the ability to delegate
and encourage new and creative ideas. Holsinger and Carlton (2018) stated only transformational
leadership style had been linked to employee satisfaction, improved quality, productivity, and
perceived leadership efficacy.
Research continues to invest efforts in exploring new frontiers of this leadership
paradigm, such as Siangchokyoo et al. (2020) study of the development of transformational
leadership, while critics noted serious flaws in transformational leadership style and called for
the abandonment of this leadership style. Van Knippenberg and Sitkin (2013) refuted that the
transformational leadership style’s measurement tools were invalid, failed to reproduce the
dimensional structure specified by theory, and failed to achieve distinctiveness from other
leadership aspects. Kuantan (2015) countered transformational leadership style did not clearly
recognize a condition where the leadership was unfavorable. Rolfe (2011) mentioned while the
benefits of implementing a transformational leadership style were significant, an awareness of
the limitations was crucial. One awareness was leaders being conscious of the misuse that may
have occurred when incorporating this leadership into practice (Rolfe, 2011). This occurred
when leaders strived to become transformational and misused the training to their self-interested
values (Bass & Avolio, 1990). Employees under this form of transformational leader misuse
could be misdirected away from their best interests and those of the organization (Bass &
Multifactor leadership questionnaire. Frey et al. (2009) declared that the multifactor
leadership questionnaire (MLQ) instrument was designed to measure transformational leadership
style and the degree to which leaders exhibited these styles. The MLQ is the most widely used
instrument for measuring transformational leadership style (Tejeda et al., 2001). The MLQ was
administered to employees to rate how often their leader used each form of leadership behavior
(Yukl, 1999). Frey et al. (2009) mentioned there are five leadership dimensions included on the
MLQ scale (a) idealized-influence attribute, (b) idealized-influence behavior, (c) inspirational
motivation, (d) individualized consideration, and (e) intellectual stimulation.
There are two aspects to idealized influence: the leader’s behavior and the fundamentals
attributed by followers to the leaders (Long et al., 2014). An example from the MLQ that
represented idealized influence is “the leader emphasizes the significance of possessing a
collective sense of mission” (Long et al., 2014, p 118). Frey et al. (2009) mentioned idealized
influence attributes and behaviors describe a purposeful, visionary, and trustworthy leader. Kark
and Shamir (2002) stated that idealized influences included sacrificing for the group’s benefit,
setting a personal example, and demonstrating high ethical standards.
Frey et al. (2009) discussed inspirational motivation exemplified a leader who motivated
performance levels in employees beyond expectations. Kark and Shamir (2002) noted
inspirational motivation included the formation and presentation of future visions, emotional
arguments, and demonstration of enthusiasm and optimism. An MLQ example from this
dimension can be found in Appendix G.
In individualized consideration, transformational leaders wage distinct attention to every
individual’s need for development and attainment by taking responsibility for each need (Long et
al., 2014). Schriesheim et al. (2009) mentioned leaders in individualized consideration uniquely
treated employees according to their individual capabilities and needs. Frey et al. (2009) noted
individualized consideration described an empathic leader who listened to employees’ needs. An
example of this dimension can be found in Appendix G.
Frey et al. (2009) stated that intellectual stimulation was designed to assess leader
attributes that question the status quo, value intellect, and prefer reasons over emotionally made
decisions. Followers are inspired to try new ways and their ideas are not disapproved if they
differ from a leader’s thoughts (Long et al., 2014). Intellectual stimulation included the behaviors
that raise awareness of issues and challenge followers to look at problems from a different
perspective (Kark & Shamir, 2002). An example of intellectual stimulation in the MLQ can be
found in Appendix G.
Employee Turnover Intention
Rahman and Nas (2013) described employee turnover as the employee’s permanent
movement beyond their current organization. In 2013, more than 25 million U.S. employees quit
their jobs, making employee replacement costs average up to 500% of the vacated employee’s
yearly salary (Okae, 2018). Even before an employee formally quit a job, turnover intentions
were likely to affect the employee’s performance in the organization (Biron & Boon, 2013).
Biron and Boon (2013) suggested employees having high turnover intentions were likely to show
minimal organizational citizenship behavior and often gave poor customer service.
Allen and Griffeth (1999) and March and Simon (1958) noted theory and research on
employee turnover intention drew from the perceived desirability and ease of movement
framework. This ease of movement happened when an employee began the quitting process after
another job is readily available (March & Simon, 1958; Jha, 2009). An individual with employee
turnover intention would lose long-term financial benefits such as health benefits, retirement
plans, and be a target of the “grass looks greener” phenomenon (Jha, 2009, p. 26). Employees
responded to “shocks” in the work environment causing them to think of quitting their jobs as
these shocks happened from employees receiving negative feedback during formal performance
appraisals or informal job performance feedback (Allen & Griffeth, 1999; Zimmerman &
Darnold, 2009, p. 144).
Kim et al. (2017) found employee turnover intention was linked with actual voluntary
turnover. Employees would consider the impact on family, career, and life before taking action
in leaving an organization (Hongvichit, 2015). Hongvichit (2015) mentioned employee turnover
intention was a direct factor that predicted the behavior of turnover and led to turnover behavior.
Hongvichit (2015) stated many factors were involved between turnover intention and job
performance, a multi-link and multi-path system of relationships. Jackofsky (1984) stated high
job performance employees were more likely to leave willingly, yet Dreher (1982) found
employees with high job performance may have less yearning to leave as they received greater
rewards from the organization.
Committed employees were less likely to leave an organization and achieved beyond
stated job requirements while contributing to the company (Perryer et al., 2010). Caldwell et al.
(2012) noted leaders benefited by understanding that committed employees whose character and
code of conduct not only motivated them to excel but assumed any risks that accompanied
having the courage to be the best at their work. Committed employees having courage
understood that while sacrificing principles to be the best, the organization could move toward
failure, but they cared enough to risk failure since it is the right thing to do (Caldwell et al.,
Employees committed to their organization were more likely to remain and exert efforts
on behalf of the organization and work toward its success (Dixit & Bhati, 2012). A committed
employee made a significant and personal organizational contribution, performed better than a
standard employee, engaged in organizational citizenship behaviors, and was less likely to
partake in unproductive behaviors (Perryer et al., 2010). Non-committed employees depicted the
organization in negative terms to outsiders, thereby inhibiting the organization’s ability to recruit
high-quality employees (Dixit & Bhati, 2012). Moreland (2013) estimated the costs of noncommitted employees in the U.S. economy exceeded $350 billion.
Measuring Employee Turnover Intention
Saridakis and Cooper (2016) stressed that the need to understand turnover came from
measuring turnover. Lee et al. (2018) mentioned company leaders were regularly surveying
employers to track job satisfaction, withdrawal thoughts, and employee engagement. Often,
organizational leaders used a turnover measure such as the number of employees leaving in a
year divided by the amount of staff present (Saridakis & Cooper, 2016). For example, if 200
employees work in an organization and 40 leave in a year, the turnover rate is 20%. Saridakis
and Cooper (2016) stated the downside of employee turnover rates is there are no distinguishing
factors whether employees lea
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