Chat with us, powered by LiveChat A bibliography of three library and three Internet sources you consulted for background knowledge of the music culture you explored. ?A record of | WriteDen

A bibliography of three library and three Internet sources you consulted for background knowledge of the music culture you explored. ?A record of

  A bibliography of three library and three Internet sources you consulted for background knowledge of the music culture you explored.  A record of your observations as a participant or observer, demonstrating sophisticated insight into the music culture. 

MUSC 210 7381

Joseph Arthur

Dr. Pelaez 


Music in Worlds Culture

​A total of three instruments from diverse cultures can be seen in the World Gallery. Music is held in high esteem worldwide, regardless of cultural background. Every civilization on the face of the planet has a distinct style of music that is unique to it. The Sachs-Hornbostel classification system categorizes acoustic musical instruments extensively used in the field of acoustic musical instruments. According to Estrella Espie, two European musicologists came up with the idea in 1914, which has been around ever since (2). The following are the five different types of musical classifications: Idiophones, Chordophones, Aerophones, Membranophones, and Electrophones are just a handful of the instruments available (Espie, 2013). They are the following three instruments, which were chosen from among the classes of idiophones, chordophones, and membranophones, respectively: Among the instruments included in this World Instrument Gallery are the Caribbean steel drums, Biwa, and CuicaCuica, which will be explored in-depth in terms of their history, culture, who plays them, and the musical environment in which they are played.

​It is a sort of percussion instrument that belongs to the Idiophones family of instruments, and it is most found in the Caribbean region. Throughout the Caribbean, it manifests African culture that can be found in various forms. As Alexandra Daley of The Caribbean Current points out, the steel drum is unique among musical instruments. It can be used as both a voice and an instrument, and it is the only instrument capable of performing both duties in Caribbean music (1). In some circles, the steel drum, also called a pan, is thought to have originated in Trinidad and Tobago, in the western Caribbean. This institution was founded sometime around the period of the French Revolution.

​It was obtained from the website drums/ that the image of a Caribbean steel drum shown above was taken from was got from The Caribbean steel drum is made of sheet metal that ranges in thickness from.8mm to 1.5mm. The pans were made from oil drums, which were recycled. Drums are pounded with straight hardwood sticks with rubber tips to produce music. Until the early 1970s, women were not permitted to play the Caribbean steel drum; only men were able to do so. To enhance the cultural experience, the steel drum is often performed in conjunction with other instruments, and it is frequently heard as background music in carnival tunes. The Biwa from Japanese culture and the steel drum from the Caribbean are regarded as seminal historical-cultural instruments.

​Biwa is a lute that belongs to the Chordophone family. It is a short-necked lute that has its origins in the Japanese music tradition. Its origins can be traced back to the Chinese Pipa. Senzoku Gakuen College of Music describes the Biwa as having numerous distinct forms, known as the gagaku Biwa, used in imperial court music, blind monks' prayer, and storytelling, among other places (3). The Biwa is shaped like a pear. Strings of silk are used to hang it, and it can contain anywhere between four and five. Biwa is a game that both men and women may enjoy. Males play biwas slightly larger than the Uehara Mari, and females play the Uehara Mari. The Biwa is available in several different sizes. The image above is of a typical Biwa that might be played during imperial court music, prayer, or storytelling; it was located on the Senzoku Gakuen College of Music's website biwa.html, along with information about this instrument. Apart from their deep cultural ties, the Biwa and Cuica also have a prominent representation of Latin and African traditions.

The Cuica is a type of tube drum classified as a Membranophone. It began in African culture and was later introduced to Latin America. Brazil is the home of CuicaCuica. According to Roger Vetter, there are numerous theories on the origins of the CuicaCuica; some claim it began in Bantu Africa, while others claim it originated with Muslim traders (4). Cuica is a cylinder-shaped soundbox with a steel or aluminum shell ranging from six to twelve inches. The shell can be fitted with one or two brass horns.

The two images illustrate how unique the CuicaCuica is compared to other percussion-like instruments; these images are available at Inaddition to the data that has been supplied for this device. Cuica is used in all musical ensembles and rural and urban dances. Until the 1980s, women were not permitted to play the CuicaCuica or any other instrument because men were the traditional performer. It is possible to perform the CuicaCuica in many ways due to its versatility as an instrument. One approach is to push and pull a part of it back and forth, which produces a vibration that sounds like music when done repeatedly. Identical in both appearance and sound, each of the three instruments chosen is unique. All three devices were classified using the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme. Every one of them has a different cultural connotation in their own countries. A distinct cultural meaning is attached to each of the three gadgets. According to the prevalent belief at the time, they were all initially depicted by men in their own cultures. Through this World Instrument Gallery, I was able to gain a better understanding of a variety of instruments and musical genres from around the globe.


Daley, Alexandra. “The Traditional Styles of the Caribbean Steel Drums.”, 5 Oct. 2013,

Estrella, Espie. “Classification of Musical Instruments: Sachs-Hornbostel.” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 17 Jan. 2019,

Senzoku Gakuen College of Music. “BIWA.” BIWA | Traditional Music Digital Library, 2014,, Roger. “cuica,” Grinnell College Musical Instrument Collection,


Running head; MUSIC 1


Music as Cultural Expression

MUSC 210 7381

Joseph Arthur

Dr. Palaez


Choose a topic and find a live listening opportunity to hear and observe musicians participating in your chosen music culture. Secure permission to participate in music-making or participate as an active observer. Confirm that you will be able to speak with at least one of the musicians

Music is an art comprising composition, tone, and instrumentation. Depending on music culture, different music varies in design, technique, and instrumentation. However, the heart of music is tone. It makes music lively and shapes it according to the culture (Titon,2016). Music genres also vary depending on culture and composition subject. It would be positive and educative to listen to a live music concert.

Music has several subjects usually recognizable through melody and composition. Music is also distributed in several genres according to country of origin and purpose. Music culture displays different designs, artistic works, and tools (Titon,2016). I prefer Afro-American music, which is easily accessible in my area. The afro-American theme is built on an authentic tonal and embraces all cultures in composition. I want to monitor and record the different tones and designs at a live event embracing music culture.

In the live event, the attendance requires a ticket book before the date. The venue is also accessible from my residence. With an interest in attending the live event and learning and observing musicians, I have sought permission from my family and obtained a pass to book a ticket earlier. In addition, the musicians performing will be attending to personal interviews with content creators. I will embrace the chance to at least speak to one of the American afro musicians and enquire more about the topic. Paying an expensive advance ticket guarantees a moment with the musicians and thus it is confirmed I will be able to speak to one of them.


Titon, J. T. (2016). Worlds of music: an introduction to the theme of the world's peoples. Cengage Learning.




Afro-American music research questions

Joseph Arthur

Dr. Paleaz

Music as Cultural Expression


Research question 1: What has been the role of New Orleans in Afro-American music?

New Orleans, a city noted for its vibrant and laid-back vibe, is recognized for its contributions to African American music history. Louis Armstrong, Victor Eugene McCarty, Buddy Bolden, and Bill Johnson were all New Orleans residents who have contributed a lot towards African American music's global growth and popularity (Jerde, 1990). New Orleans has its own particular culture, including things like second lines and Mardi Gras Indians, both prominent in African American music. While second lines are most often associated with New Orleans, their origins may be traced back to Africa. The second lines are derived from a similar celebration known as "Pinkster Day," a Dutch festival adopted by Northern Americans.

Blacks would assemble on "Pinkster Day" to dance the same way they live in their homeland. Many white tourists described this occasion as comparable to an event in New Orleans' Place Congo. Hundreds of black people would assemble after church on Sunday afternoons to dance at these dance parties. Blues and jazz have proved to be very important aspects of African American music since they serve as the basis for all black music (Robertson, 2018). Bassist Bill Johnson departed New Orleans to travel with a small group called Original Creole Orchestra to help disseminate jazz throughout the country. Eventually, he created his band with his old New Orleans band players to raise jazz's stature nationally (Robertson, 2018). With the aid of these well-known musicians, New Orleans became most vital city in the development of Afro-American music.

What is Pinkster? - Historic Hudson Valley

"Pinkster Day"

Research question 2: what role does blue music play in different forms of Afro-American music?

While the origins of Blues are uncertain, it is widely accepted that it is a result of African American musical ideals. The origins of the blues music genre may be traced back to slavery spirituals and folksongs, which categorized them as a bleak sounding kind of music (Riis, 2020). The blues used an unusual framework that became the foundation for succeeding musical genres. Some think that Blues had their origins around the time of W.C. (Riis, 2020). Handy first appeared in the 1910s, earning him the moniker "Father of the Blues." In the 1910s, popular songs by Handy and other blues artists like Artie Matthews and Hart A. Wand were regarded as a "basic repertoire of stock tunes" that jazz writers often adopted.

Artists such as Gertrude "Ma" Rainey and Bessie Smith are noted for connecting rural and country blues to the sophisticated blues that came before them. Along with many other female blues singers, they were a significant part of blues history. Around 1925, the emphasis on blues shifted to rural blues, commonly known as "Downhome Blues" (Hall, 2017). The guitar, banjo, and other domestic things such as washboards were used in this Downhome Blues, prevalent in country music themes. Many jazzes and blues performers suffered during the Great Depression as record sales plummeted; consequently, these musicians began to concentrate their efforts on piano blues and boogie-woogie (Hall, 2017). As a result, the boogie-woogie genre was born, as was the publishing of Lux Lewis's now-classic piano blues composition Honkey-tonk train blues (Hall, 2017). An example of blue music is "Five Finger Death Punch – Blue On Black (feat. Kenny Wayne Shepherd, Brantley Gilbert & Brian May).” Link

Research question 3: the gospel music is considered to have originated from the whites; therefore, what is the major religious Afro-American music since the 19th century?

Beginning with white people's spiritual songs in the 19th century, gospel music has a long history. While gospel music is mostly associated with black people today, its origins may be traced back to white protestant churches. Spirituals were born in rural regions in the late 19th century, with figures like Dwight Lyman Moody and Ira David Sankey spearheading the trend. While Moody and Sankey are significant figures in gospel history, Homer A. Rodeheaver is crucial when discussing the origins of black gospel music (Mungons & Yeo, 2021). African Americans were interested in Rodeheaver's songs due to his trips around the nation (Mungons & Yeo, 2021).

African Americans could recreate the elements of the songs that they desired when the gospel spread into black churches and assemblies. The four shape-note singing was a note singing that was only seen in traditional black churches. This Shape-note singing, comparable to lining-out, was derived from W.M. Cooper's The Sacred Harp. In later years, instruments were introduced to gospel performances, resulting in a new sort of church music (Koking, 2018). While gospel has white origins, black gospel music is said to have originated in Chicago in the 1920s due to black Americans migrating to the city (Koking, 2018). In reality, Thomas Dorsey, the first black to use the word "gospel song" and the only artist to be dubbed the "Father of Gospel," rose to prominence in the 1920s (Koking, 2018). Charles A. Tindley, Clara Ward, and Mahalia Jackson were among the black Americans who affected the creation of gospel music in Afro-American music.

Homer A. Rodeheaver performing

Happy Birthday Homer Rodeheaver - The Scriptorium Daily


Hall S. (2017, February 24). The painful birth of blues and jazz. Library of Congress Blogs.

Jerde, C. D. (1990). Black music in New Orleans: A historical overview. Black Music Research Journal10(1), 18.

Koking N. (2018, March 22). The evolution of African American gospel music. Home.

Mungons, K., & Yeo, D. (2021). Homer Rodeheaver and the rise of the gospel music industry.

Riis, T. L. (2020). The original blues: The emergence of the blues in African American vaudeville. American Music38(1), 102-109.

Robertson, C. C. (2018). New Orleans jazz in the world. The Journal of African American History103(4), 664-674.




Joseph Arthur

Dr Pelaez

MUSC 210 7381


Interview Questions

1. What do you like best about music making?

2. What prompted you to begin playing and producing music?

3. Discuss the methods via which you create new songs.

4. Which musician would you most want to work with and why?

5. Is there a particular musician who inspires you? Which characteristics do you respect most about them?

6. Describe your preferred performance venue.

7. Which talents have you acquired that enable you to perform as a musician effectively?

8. Tell me about your most memorable performance during your career.

9. Have you ever coached or guided another musician? Explain how you assisted them.

10. Have you ever attempted to teach someone to play an instrument? Describe this encounter.

11. What is the finest piece of advice you've ever received from another musician?

12. Have you ever coached or guided another musician? Explain how you assisted them.

13. Have you ever attempted to teach someone to play an instrument? Describe this encounter.

14. What is the finest piece of advice you've ever received from another musician?

15. How do you cope with performance anxiety?

16. How do you cope with performance anxiety?

17. Describe your least effective performance. What did this experience teach you?

18. Which characteristics, in your opinion, define a great musician?

To compile my observations, I will use a tablet to compile the responses. The tablet will involve ranges of responses, which will group responses that are similar. This will help me analyze the observations through the use of qualitative methods. I have also prepared a different sheet that I will use to compile answers that require explanations. I have prepared the tablet and interview questions that I will use.


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