Chat with us, powered by LiveChat After reading the case study in Module 5, from the information provided in this case study and the power points for the week analyze and answer the following questions: What have you lea | WriteDen

After reading the case study in Module 5, from the information provided in this case study and the power points for the week analyze and answer the following questions: What have you lea


 After reading the case study in Module 5, from the information provided in this case study and the power points for the week analyze and answer the following questions:

  1. What have you learned regarding Clark's abilities in the following language skills: 
    1. Phonology
    2. Morphology
    3. Syntax
    4. Semantics
    5. Pragmatics
  2. What information do you have about his relative abilities in the four language functions of listening, speaking, reading and writing? What are the implications of those differences?
  3. How does Clark's language functioning affect other areas of his life?
  4. How might the classroom application of the principles of universal design for learning help alleviate his difficulties while supporting his strengths?
  5. What concerns and implications for intervention might you derive from this analysis?

Please submit a one-page analysis in response to the questions above. This analysis must be grounded in the case study. Assume that your audience is already familiar with the case, eliminating the need for background information. No need for any header information…begin your answer on line one of your page. There should be strict adherence to the 1 PAGE MAXIMUM. The analysis will be graded on the basis of (10 points per item) : 

  • does the answer reflect familiarity with the case study-
  • does the answer reflect knowledge and/or application of the concepts outlined in the reading     
  • Grammar/Technical components (including APA 7th edition guidelines)
  • Adherence to assignment guidelines (length and formatting as directed)

ONLY ANSWER THE QUESTION(S) ASKED.Reference:Learners with Mild Disabilities: A Characteristics Approach, Enhanced Pearson 5th Edition By Eileen B. Raymond Published by Pearson, p. 251 – 253. Copyright © 2017 ISBN-10: 0-13-382711-9; ISBN-13: 978-0-13-382711-8 

A Case Study : Clark

Clark is 16 years old and has just completed the tenth grade. His oral language is somewhat awkward, and he lacks the skills for natural adolescent banter. He has had some difficulty relating to peers over the years and often tends to be isolated. At times, he is teased and picked on, but he tends to accept this treatment with resignation. Clark enjoys spending his time reading, working on his computer, and watching TV-all solitary pursuits. He also enjoys basketball but does not get to play much because of a lack of friends.

Clark was slow to develop language skills and received speech therapy until age 12. His spoken language remains somewhat deliberate and labored. His handwriting is still poor, often quite illegible. His written compositions are not well structured or organized. Although Clark has a history of expressive language difficulties, he is currently being served in honors classes at his school because of his strengths in math and science. He maintains consistent honor roll grades even though he struggles in his English classes.

Clark's spelling, vocabulary, and intellectual functioning are appropriate for his grade, although his handwriting often makes it seem as if he has deficits in these areas. He knows how to use a word processor, but his English teacher is reluctant to let him use it for routine assignments, asserting that he needs to develop his handwriting skills. Written syntax is very problematic. His sentences frequently include problems with verb tenses and subject-verb agreement, as well as pronoun referent mismatches and an inaccurate use of homophones. His written sentences also tend to be short and choppy, although his oral speech reflects use of more complex language. He is able to process very sophisticated language structures in listening and reading.

Clark has problems with the organization of most written assignments, from paragraphs needed for short essay responses on tests to longer compositions and papers. His written work rambles, failing to reflect the complex thinking and reasoning he is clearly capable of. After several attempts with private tutoring failed to improve Clark's writing ability, his parents sought an independent evaluation of his abilities as part of the process of exploring alternative schools to help him function closer to his potential. The following testing was conducted to assist them in determining Clark's current personal and academic capabilities and needs.

Assessment Results

Intellectual Functioning

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV):

Full Scale IQ 117 (high-average)

Verbal Comprehension (VCI)


Working Memory (WMI)


Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)


Processing Speed (PSI)




Digit Span


Block Design








Virtual Puzzles


Symbol Search




Matrix Reasoning




(Picture Completion)


Clark is functioning in the high-average range of intelligence but with considerable variability among his scores. He is extremely adept at performing rapid hand-eye coordination movements; he displays an excellent capacity for exercising clear and logical judgments; and he has a well-developed fund of general information. His poorest score occurred on a task dependent on auditory learning and spoken response (digit span).

Academic Achievement

Clark is functioning at or above the level of his peers in reading comprehension, spelling, and mathematics. On the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (Passage Comprehension subtest), Clark displayed accelerated abilities, comprehending written material well beyond the capability of his peers (92nd percentile). Consistent with Clark's longstanding difficulties in expressive language, his reading decoding score lags mildly behind his actual grade placement.

On the Test of Adolescent and Adult Language (TOAL-4), Clark attained a general language quotient of 108, in the high-average range. However, his scores on the various subtests varied considerably (10 is the mean score):

Spoken Language


Word Opposites


Word Derivations


Spoken Analogies


Written Language


Word Similarities


Sentence Combining


Orthographic Usage


General Language


Clark's language-related strengths are apparent when his writing is evaluated for ideas as opposed to mechanical competence. His strengths are also apparent when he is asked to define vocabulary words. Relative weaknesses become evident when spoken language and grammar tasks are presented to him.

On the Test of Written Language (TOWL-4), Clark attained a written language quotient of 101, significantly lower than the estimates of his overall intelligence but still in the average range. On this task, Clark created an original and creative story. However, his good descriptive abilities are compromised by his frequent grammatical errors, which detract from his idea development and for which he is penalized in school when written language assignments are assessed. His handwriting is cramped and at times illegible (average subtest score is 10):

Language Quotient (Overall Writing)


Contrived Writing








Logical Sentences


Sentence Combining


Spontaneous Writing


Contextual Conventions


Story Composition


Personality Functioning

Clark seems to have a quiet, reserved interpersonal relationship style. He appears to particularly enjoy topics that are more theoretical and scientific rather than those having social components. His declaration that "I am best when a new idea interests me" reflects his efforts to invest himself in safer, theoretical, abstract interests, rather than in those of a more interpersonal nature. Some of his responses suggest that he has not yet developed appropriate ways of releasing his bad feelings but just internalizes them. He admitted to sometimes feeling sad, acknowledging that he often "did not know what to do next" and "felt a little too different." He indicated that he frequently feels helpless and overwhelmed.

Clark has a strong need for acceptance and support. However, he has learned to expect criticism and rejection and attempts to steel himself against the hurt and frustration associated with others' rejection. He has developed a wall of indifference to insulate himself from social hurts, but this tactic reinforces his sense of loneliness and isolation. His social avoidance and withdrawal actually limit opportunities for gaining the degree of social at­tention and fulfillment he craves. His emotional distress may soon deplete his energy and optimism and may interfere with his ability to carry out the tasks and responsibilities expected of an adolescent.


Clark demonstrates above-average intellectual abilities. He is particularly adept in his mathematical skills and has well-developed conceptual and abstraction capabilities. He scores beyond his actual grade placement on most academic tasks but has encountered long-standing difficulties in language-related skills, particularly in spoken and written expression. On personality testing, he displays significant feelings of inadequacy and insecurity, relying on avoidance, withdrawal, and fantasy activities in an attempt to maintain an indifference to the slights and rejections of others.

Learners with Mild Disabilities: A Characteristics Approach, Enhanced Pearson 5th Edition By Eileen B. Raymond Published by Pearson, p. 251 – 253.

Copyright © 2017 ISBN-10: 0-13-382711-9; ISBN-13: 978-0-13-382711-8


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