22 Jun After reading the journal article entitled The Effect of Mobile Marketing Design on Consumer Mobile Shopping, provide an overview and answer to the following discussion
After reading the journal article entitled The Effect of Mobile Marketing Design on Consumer Mobile Shopping, provide an overview and answer to the following discussion prompt:
1) Based on the article, what do you believe is the essential element of how mobile design influences consumer shopping?
2) Pick a mobile retail app of your choice as an example and relate it to the article. What of this mobile app design do you think this retailer does well to engage consumer shopping well? What could they do better?
Research Article The Effect of Mobile Marketing Design on Consumer Mobile Shopping
Junhong He , Fu Li, Zhongxiang Li, and Hongxiu Liu
School of Management, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510520, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Junhong He; [email protected]
Received 5 February 2021; Revised 1 April 2021; Accepted 3 April 2021; Published 14 April 2021
Academic Editor: Zhihan Lv
Copyright © 2021 Junhong He et al. (is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
(e rapid popularity of mobile shopping makes people’s lives more convenient, but it also makes it easier for customers to change providers. How to use marketing stimulus to retain customers has become an urgent concern for mobile sales companies. However, the theoretical researches in this field are not enough. For this reason, this study used the methods of literature review and structural equation to explore the effects of mobile marketing design factors on the continual intention of consumers in mobile shopping by using the S-O-R model and its extended theories. (e conclusions of the research showed that interface quality of mobile sales terminal and integrity of mobile sales terminal had significant positive impacts on consumption emotion; sales promotion in mobile sales terminal had a significant positive impacts on continual intention of mobile shopping; con- sumption emotion had a significant positive effect on continual intention of consumers in mobile shopping; consumption emotion played a significant mediating role in the relationship between interface quality of mobile sales terminal and continual intention of mobile shopping and between integrity of mobile sales terminal and continual intention of mobile shopping. (e conclusions could not only enrich the theories of mobile shopping behavior but also provide guidance for companies to carry out mobile marketing activities and allocate marketing resources rationally.
With the continual improvement and development of mobile terminals and mobile networks, mobile shopping has gradually become the new highlight of Chinese consump- tion. Mobile shopping refers to consumers using mobile phones and other mobile devices to carry on e-commerce activities [1, 2]. By the end of Double Eleven festival in 2020, the order volume of Tmall was 498.2 billion yuan (forward- looking economist; the summary of the sales of major platforms on Double 11 in 2020; sales across the network hit a new high, and Tmall’s share is far ahead; https://baijiahao. baidu.com/s?id�1683759770756585129&wfr�spider&for�p c, 2021-03-29), and the total transaction volume of JD was 271.5 billion yuan. In the festival, the proportion of mobile shoppers reached 69.31% (Huang Jiang; on Double 11 in 2020, clicks on e-commerce websites increased by 54%, and the proportion of mobile shoppers reached 69.31%; https:// www.chinairn.com/hyzx/20201125/094959530.shtml, 2021-
03-29). (ese figures fully illustrate that the era of mobile shopping had come.
However, with the gradual improvement in the mobile shopping environment, although mobile shopping has been generally adopted by consumers, many consumers still have doubts about mobile shopping due to the influence of un- favorable factors, such as the complicated interface in the mobile shopping process, the unattractive nature of mobile promotions, and the dishonesty behavior of mobile termi- nals in companies. For those companies who carry out mobile sales, how to encourage consumers to participate in mobile shopping continually so that they can make more profits is the urgent concern of many companies who sell on the mobile terminals. On the contrary, mobile shopping means people can shop anytime and anywhere, so con- sumers’ consumption emotions will be more easily to be influenced by companies’ mobile marketing stimulus and be turned into purchase behaviors quickly. (erefore, it is more efficient for companies to influence consumers’
Hindawi Complexity Volume 2021, Article ID 5571506, 10 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5571506
consumption emotions through good mobile marketing designs to make consumers continue purchasing. However, the existing researches have mainly used the classical technology acceptance theories  (e.g., TRA, TPB, TAM, and TAM2) to explore the influence of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived pleasure on mobile shopping adoption intention or mobile shopping intention. In the existing research, the studies on the influencing factors on consumers’ continual intention of mobile shopping were slightly inadequate. What is more, the re- searches on the effects of mobile marketing design factors and the effects of emotions in mobile shopping were rarely concerned in the researches.
Based on this, the study took the mobile marketing design-consumption emotion-continual intention as a path to explore the impact of mobile marketing design factors on the continual intention of consumers in mobile shopping from the perspective of emotion. (e study could com- plement the existing researches on mobile shopping be- haviors and consumption emotion. Firstly, the proposed marketing stimulus variables such as interface quality of mobile sales terminal, sales promotion in mobile sales ter- minal, and integrity of mobile sales terminal were very different from the variables such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and consumer satisfaction, which were used widely in existing researches. Secondly, this study used the S-O-R model and its extended theory to explore the impact of mobile marketing stimulus on mobile shopping from the perspective of emotion, which was quite different from the researches on mobile shopping from the per- spective of traditional technology acceptance models. (irdly, this study explored the factors impacting con- sumption emotion under the mobile environment context, which could expand the research context of consumption emotion research.
2. Literature Review
With the evolution of e-commerce to mobile commerce, mobile shopping is ushering in an unprecedented devel- opment opportunity. More and more scholars have begun to pay attention to mobile shopping. (is research used soft- ware CiteSpace V to analyze 216 mobile shopping articles collected from Core Collection of Web of Science database before 2020. (e results showed that, in the past years, the main research hot spots of mobile shopping were as follows: mobile shopping, adoption, user acceptance, information technology, intention, online, commerce, model, trust, and consumer (as shown in Figure 1). It shows that consumer behavior is an important topic of mobile shopping.
2.1. "e Research of Consumer Behavior of Mobile Shopping. Mobile shopping behavior is a hot research topic in mobile commerce, which has gradually appeared in im- portant publications in recent years. Lu et al.  studied the intention of consumers to use mobile shopping from the perspective of mobile commerce. Empirical studies showed that perceived pervasiveness, perceived
personalization, and provision of perceived context as well as perceived risk had significant impact on con- sumers’ intention to use mobile shopping. (e studies of the consumer intention and behavior in mobile shopping in recent years had been summarized and compared in this paper (see Table 1).
Since mobile shopping is a new kind of consumer be- havior that arises in mobile network environment, most researchers still adopt the major technology acceptance models and related theories to study the usage intention and behavior of mobile shopping consumers; for example, Chen et al.  combined flow into TAM to explore the mediating effect of flow in mobile shopping intention and behavior model. (e research showed that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness had direct effects on flow and had indirect effects on attitude and intention.
Compared to most of researches related to mobile shopping consumer adoption behavior, the researches of continual intention and behavior of consumers in mobile shopping were relatively rare, and previous studies had mainly focused on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and other variables influencing on mobile shopping intention. (e impact of the mobile marketing design factors which the companies could control in mobile shopping was rarely concerned in the researches.
2.2. "e Research of Consumption Emotion and Consumer Behavior. Consumption emotions are a series of specific emotional reactions triggered by product consumptions . With the keyword “consumption emotion,” this re- search acquired 91 articles published during 2011∼2021 in the Web of Science database. (e analyzing results of those articles showed that scholars were paying great attention to the research of consumption emotion, and the research achievements of high quality were steadily increasing before 2019 (as referred to in Figures 2 and 3).
In the study of consumption emotion and consumer behavior, consumption emotions were mainly divided into positive emotions and negative emotions. Some scholars had only studied one of them; for example, Yoo and Kim  showed that mental imagery increased consumers’ behav- ioral intentions by eliciting a positive emotional response to product presentations, and Liu et al.  studied regret emotions. Some scholars explored the impact of both of positive emotions and negative emotions on consumer behavior. Maheswaran et al.  believed that consumers’ positive emotions or negative emotions about the country of origin helped to increase or decrease consumers’ intention to buy foreign products. (ere were still some scholars using the S-O-R model to explore the impact of environmental stimuli on shopping intention and behavior from three dimensions such as pleasure, arousal, and dominance. In addition, scholars had also focused on building and im- proving consumption emotion scales in different environ- ments; for example, Han and Jeong  first proposed the scales specifically for measuring the emotion of consuming the upscale restaurants. However, in the above researches of consumption emotion and consumer behavior, the
researchers mainly focused on the traditional fields, and there were few scholars studying the influence of con- sumption emotion on consumer behavior in the network environment. (e researches of consumption emotion in the mobile environment were particularly scarce. Mobile shopping is a new consumer behavior that is rapidly emerging in recent years, so it is very necessary to study consumption emotion and consumer behavior in mobile shopping.
3. Research Hypotheses
Based on the S-O-R model and its extension theories, this study explored the impact of mobile marketing design factors on the continual intention of consumers in mobile shopping.
3.1. "e Impact of Mobile Marketing Design Factors on the Consumption Emotion in Mobile Shopping. (e researches had showed that, besides the service environment, the factors controlled by marketers such as services and ad- vertisements which were not related to product attributes also could impact consumption emotion. Wang et al.  found that price discounts had positive effects on consumer arousal. In the mobile environment, the impact of company marketing design incentives on emotions may also exist; for example, under the assurance of good technologies, the good quality of mobile sales terminal interface refers to clear shopping interface displays, rich product information, and the simple shopping processes  and guidelines can re- duce the uncertainty and the time of consumers’ shopping, thereby enhancing the consumers’ pleasure and dominance, and attract consumers to purchase repeatedly. Based on the records of consumer browsing and purchasing in mobile shopping, mobile retailers often push the right product promotion information and interactive information to the target customers or potential customers anytime and any- where so that the consumption emotion of consumers could be aroused. Mobile retailers, for example, usually make full use of customer’s fragmentary time to launch attractive promotional activities such as low-priced buying, spike, and prize-winning contests during the fragmentary time (e.g., waiting time and lunch breaks) to arouse consumers’ emotions and encourage them to participate in mobile shopping continually. Moreover, studies by Maheswaran et al.  showed that the integrity of sellers would have an impact on consumption emotion and the purchase intention of consumers. On this basis, the following assumptions could be proposed in this research:
H1: interface quality of mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on consumption emotion. H2: sales promotion in mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on consumption emotion. H3: integrity of mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on consumption emotion. H4: interface quality of mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on continual intention.
H5: sales promotion in mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on continual intention.
3.2. "e Impact of the Consumption Emotion on the Continual Intention of Consumers in Mobile Shopping. Consumers’ consumption emotion will impact consumers’ shopping behavior . Lots of studies had shown that both pleasure and arousal can impact the purchase intention and behavior of consumers [11, 14, 15, 18]. In addition to impact the initial purchase intention and behavior of consumers, the emotions also could impact the consumers’ repurchase intentions [19, 20]. (ese effects may also exist in mobile shopping. In addition, consumers may be more willing to participate in mobile shopping if they feel that mobile shopping is con- trollable. On this basis, the following assumptions could be proposed in this research:
H6: consumption emotion has a significant positive impact on continual intention.
3.3. Mediating Effects of the Consumption Emotion. Because mobile shopping is mainly carried out on mobile sales terminals, the mobile terminal sales marketing design factors may have important impact on consumers’ cognitive and emotional experience. At the same time, some studies showed that cognitive and emotional experience impacts consumers’ purchase intention significantly and positively . As a result, mobile marketing design factors such as the interface quality of the mobile sales terminal, sales pro- motion in mobile sales terminal, and integrity of mobile sales terminal may have indirect impacts on the continual in- tention in mobile shopping through stimulating con- sumption emotion. Accordingly, the following assumptions could be proposed in this research:
H7: consumption emotion plays a mediating role in the relationship between interface quality of mobile sales terminal and continual intention. H8: consumption emotion plays a mediating role in the relationship between sales promotion in mobile sales terminal and continual intention. H9: consumer emotion plays a mediating role in the relationship between integrity of mobile sales terminal and continual intention.
4.1. ScalesDesign. (e scales of this study mainly come from the literatures (see Table 2). According to the opinions of experts and interviews with mobile shoppers, the scales of some variables are further modified and supplemented to make them more in line with mobile shopping scenarios. (e scales used the 7-point Likert scale from “very disagree” to “very agree.”
4.2. Data Collection. In addition to the main scales, the questionnaire used in the study also included gender, age, income, and other demographics information. After the
questionnaire was modified by experts, the study first se- lected 130 college students randomly in Guangdong to carry out pretest. 122 copies were collected. Among these ques- tionnaires, 89 copies were valid. (en, the SPSS 20.0 software was used to test the reliability and validity of the scales.
Cronbach’s α coefficient was used to test the reliability of the scales and the KMO scale, and Bartlett’s significant test was used to analyze the validity of the scales. (e scales were adjusted according to the test results, which resulted in the formal scales and questionnaire.
Figure 1: (e keyword cooccurrence map of mobile shopping literature.
Table 1: (e researches of consumer intention and behavior of mobile shopping.
Topics Main variables Main research methods Main theories Sources
Mobile shopping trust Perceived usefulness and trust
tendency Questionnaire survey and structural equation
(e Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model
(TAM2), the (eory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
(e adoption of mobile shopping
Perceived situation, perceived value, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived risk, and adoption
Structural equation, questionnaire survey,
(e (eory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the Innovation Diffusion (eory (IDT), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
[1, 3, 5]
Continual intention of mobile shopping and mobile commerce
Personalized advertising, impulse buying tendency, mobile shopping,
urge to buy impulsively, environmental knowledge, sustainable purchase decision, perceived quality,
perceived interaction, perceived enjoyment, degree of involvement,
self-efficacy, degree of attention, trust, privacy concerns, self-disclosure
intentions, and continual intention
Structural equation and questionnaire
(e theory of immersion, the theory of reasoned action (TRA)
Consumer behavior of mobile shopping
Attribute conflicts, self-efficacy, interpersonal conflicts, emotional
ambivalence, hesitation at checkout, choice-process satisfaction, shopping
cart abandonment, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, flow, concentration, enjoyment, attitude,
mobile shopping experiences, intention, perceived service quality, perceived value, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived cost, and
Structural equation and questionnaire
(e Cognition-affect-behavior (CAB), the Technology Acceptance
Model (TAM) [2, 8, 9]
A study of the effect of mobile marketing design on consumer mobile shopping
Interface quality of mobile sales terminal, sales promotion in mobile sales terminal, integrity of mobile sales terminal, consumption emotion and
Structural equation and questionnaire
(e Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model and its extension
(e formal investigation of study was carried out during the period from 2016.11.18 to 2016.12.21. (e study used the forms of paper and electronic versions through WeChat and Internet. During the surveys, 446 questionnaires were sent out and 406 questionnaires were returned, among which 372 were valid with an effective rate of 91.63%. (e question- naires filled in by the consumers who had never participated in mobile shopping were excluded. In addition to Guang- dong, the sources of questionnaires included Hubei, Yunnan, Chongqing, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Beijing in China and some foreign regions. (e women and the men in the respondents accounted for 58.1% and 41.9%, respectively.
4.3. Data Analysis Results. After collecting and sorting out the formal questionnaire data, this study was first carried out
through descriptive statistical analysis by using SPSS 20.0. (en, the reliability of the scales was tested by Cronbach’s α coefficient in SPSS, and the validity of the scales was tested by the confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS 20.0. Finally, AMOS software was used to carry out the path analysis of the model, and the SPSS was used to test the mediating effects. Data analysis results are shown in Tables 3–7 and Figures 4–6.
4.4. Descriptive Analysis of the Demographic Data and the Main Variables. Since the mobile shopping is a kind of consumption which only emerged in recent years, the mobile shopping experiences of many respondents have been between 3 and 4 years, accounting for 41.1% of the total respondents. In addition, the mobile shopping experiences of 22.0% of respondents were between 1 and 2 years. (ese two parts accounted for 61.1% of the total respondents. (is showed that most of respondents had rich mobile shopping experiences so that they were familiar with mobile shopping activities, which could ensure the rationality of the survey data. (e monthly consumption amount of most of re- spondents which accounted for 32.8% of the total respon- dents was less than 250 yuan. In addition, 28.0% of the respondents had an average monthly consumption from 250 yuan to 500 yuan. (e above two proportions accounted for 60.8% of the total respondents. (e mobile shopping fre- quency of the most respondents was from 1 to 3 times per month, accounting for 37.1% of the total; the second pro- portion was 17.7% of respondents, whose mobile shopping frequency was from 1 to 3 times a week; the two parts accounted for 54.8% of the total.
(e data showed that the main categories of con- sumption in mobile shopping included clothing, shoes and bags, books and audio-visual, home and kitchen, enter- tainment, fresh food, and travel and traffic (as referred to in Figure 4). (e data also showed that the mobile sales ter- minals used by consumers mainly included Taobao/Tmall, Meituan.com, JD, Didi Chuxing, and China Railway 12306 (as referred to in Figure 5). (ere was no significant dif- ference between male and female consumers on the mobile sales terminal.
By using two indicators including the mean and standard deviation in SPSS software to carry out descriptive statistical analysis of variables, the study concluded the means of the main variables were greater than the median 4 in Likert 7 scale. (is indicated that consumers thought the interface quality of mobile sales terminal was relatively high, the sales promotion in mobile sales terminal was positive, and the integrity of mobile sales terminal was relatively high; the consumption emotions of consumers in mobile shopping were relatively high; the continual intention of consumers in mobile shopping was relatively strong.
4.5. "e Reliability and the Validity Analyses of the Scales. (e study carried out the reliability test of the scales with Cronbach’s α coefficient in SPSS 20.0 and got some results (see Table 3).
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
0 2 4 6 8
10 12 14 16
ua l p
Figure 2: (e annual published volume related to “consumption emotion” during 2011∼2021.
6 10 30
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
0 20 40 60 80
100 120 140 160
ua l c
Figure 3: (e annual cited volume related to “consumption emotion” during 2011∼2021.
Table 2: (e main sources of the scales.
Variables Sources Interface quality of mobile sales terminal (MSQ)  Sales promotion in mobile sales terminal (MSP)  Integrity of mobile sales terminal (CRED) 
Consumption emotion (CE) Pleasure (PLE) [11, 19, 24] Arouse (ARO) [11, 19]
Domination (DOM)  Continual intention (BI) [19, 20]
Table 3: (e results of the reliability analysis.
Item Squared multiple correlation Alpha if item deleted Cronbach’s α MSQ
0.881 MSQ2 0.650 0.888 MSQ3 0.792 0.831 MSQ4 0.775 0.835 MSQ5 0.771 0.836 MSP
0.842 MSP1 0.682 0.804 MSP2 0.726 0.761 MSP3 0.712 0.775 CRED
0.892 CRED1 0.746 0.868 CRED2 0.786 0.853 CRED3 0.744 0.868 CRED4 0.776 0.857 PLE
PLE1 0.864 0.929 PLE2 0.889 0.924 PLE3 0.888 0.924 PLE4 0.770 0.946 PLE5 0.842 0.933 ARO
0.950 ARO2 0.899 0.923 ARO3 0.908 0.916 ARO4 0.876 0.939 DOM
DOM1 0.858 0.879 DOM2 0.844 0.882 DOM3 0.805 0.890 DOM4 0.731 0.905 DOM5 0.686 0.918 BI
BI1 0.690 0.893 BI2 0.814 0.868 BI3 0.726 0.890 BI4 0.817 0.869 BI5 0.752 0.881
Table 4: (e results of the validity analysis.
Item Estimate C.R. R2 1−R2 CR AVE MSQ2 0.732 — 0.536 0.464 MSQ3 0.844 15.381 0.712 0.288 MSQ4 0.868 15.023 0.753 0.247 MSQ5 0.816 14.997 0.666 0.334 MSQ 0.889 0.670 MSP1 0.797 — 0.635 0.365 MSP2 0.808 15.960 0.653 0.347 MSP3 0.799 15.782 0.638 0.362 MSP 0.843 0.642 CRED1 0.785 — 0.616 0.384 CRED2 0.816 19.966 0.666 0.334 CRED3 0.782 14.401 0.611 0.389 CRED4 0.811 15.057 0.658 0.342 CRED 0.876 0.638 PLE1 0.860 — 0.739 0.261 PLE2 0.932 30.057 0.869 0.131 PLE3 0.885 25.953 0.783 0.217 PLE4 0.772 18.313 0.596 0.404
Table 3 shows that Cronbach’s α of all scales was above the acceptable level of 0.7. (e reliability of the scales was better, and the internal consistency of the scales was relatively high.
(e validity of the scores was tested by AMOS software (see Table 4). (e study tested the validity of the scores through the first-order confirmatory factor analysis in
AMOS 20.0 software firstly. (e analysis showed that the correlation coefficient between three emotion factors reached a significant level, which could be carried out by a second-order confirmatory factor analysis. (rough the second-order confirmatory factor analysis, a high-order factor consumption emotion was extracted.
Table 4: Continued.
Item Estimate C.R. R2 1−R2 CR AVE PLE5 0.909 23.731 0.827 0.173 PLE 0.941 0.763 ARO2 0.957 — 0.915 0.085 ARO3 0.922 34.140 0.850 0.150 ARO4 0.933 31.317 0.871 0.129 ARO 0.956 0.879 DOM1 0.942 — 0.887 0.113 DOM2 0.943 36.215 0.890 0.110 DOM3 0.832 24.753 0.692 0.308 DOM4 0.680 16.534 0.462 0.538 DOM5 0.693 16.955 0.481 0.519 DOM 0.913 0.682 Pleasure 0.901 — 0.811 0.189 Arouse 0.955 21.187 0.912 0.088 Domination 0.959 19.997 0.919 0.081 Consumption emotion 0.957 0.881 BI1 0.834 14.808 0.696 0.304 BI2 0.854 17.446 0.730 0.270 BI3 0.779 17.819 0.606 0.394 BI4 0.848 17.466 0.720 0.280 BI5 0.799 — 0.638 0.362 Continual intention 0.913 0.678
Table 5: (e mediating effect of the consumption emotion between interface quality of mobile sales terminal and continual intention.
Mediator Effect Boot SE BootLLCI BootULCI CEM 0.4108 0.0504 0.3169 0.5179
Table 6: (e mediating effect of the consumption between integrity of mobile sales terminal and continual intention.
Mediator Effect Boot SE BootLLCI BootULCI CEM 0.3919 0.0571 0.2895 0.5187
Table 7: (e results of the hypothesis testing.
Hypothesis Results H1: interface quality of mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on consumption emotion Support
H2: sales promotion in mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on consumption emotion Not
support H3: integrity of mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on consumption emotion Support
H4: interface quality of mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on continual intention Not
support H5: sales promotion in mobile sales terminal has a significant positive impact on continual intention Support H6: consumption emotion has a significant positive impact on continual intention Support H7: consumption emotion plays a mediating role in the relationship between interface quality of mobile sales terminal and continual intention
H8: consumption emotion plays a mediating role in the relationship between sales promotion in mobile sales terminal and continual intention
H9: consumption emotion plays a mediating role in the relationship between integrity of mobile sales terminal and continual intention
Note. ∗∗∗ means P<0.001.
(e confirmatory factor analysis showed the model fit was good with CMIN/DF (1.040∼1.188), GFI (0.982∼0.998), AGFI (0.957∼0.983), and RMSEA (0.010∼0.022). (e stan- dardized estimates of all items were above 0.5 (minimum
0.68), T values reached a significant level, and the average variation extraction (AVE) of each latent variable was above 0.5 (minimum 0.638) (see Table 4). (is showed that scales had a higher convergence validity. (e square root of the
Interface quality of mobile sales
Sales promotion in mobile sales
Integrity of mobile sales
Figure 6: (e relationships between variables. RMSEA � 0.033; GFI � 0.957; AGFI � 0.930; CMIN/DF � 1.412. Note. ∗∗∗ represents P<0.001, and the path coefficients are standardized path coefficients.
49 14 33 9 8
26 30 0
50 100 150 200 250 300
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