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An) ________ is an atom or a group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.

BIOL1322 Nutrition & Diet Therapy

Chapter 4 Quiz

Chapter 4 Quiz

A (An) ________ is an atom or a group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.

Multiple Choice

 

solvent

 

enzyme

 

diatom

 

ion

 

 

 

Iron, calcium, and carbon are ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

solvents

 

elements

 

compounds

 

bases

 

 

 

A liquid has a pH that is higher than the pH of pure water but lower than the pH of household ammonia. Based on this information, the liquid is a ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

baking soda solution

 

tablespoon of fat-free milk

 

fluid ounce of black coffee

 

cup of lemon juice

 

 

 

A molecule forms when two or more atoms are attracted to each other and held together by ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

salts

 

bonds

 

solvents

 

bases

 

 

 

Which of the following physiological changes is a result of anabolic chemical reactions?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Loss of body fat during a week of starvation

 

Enlargement of muscle tissue after 3 weeks of regular exercise

 

Breakdown of large food molecules within the lumen of the small intestine

 

The liver’s conversion of a large carbohydrate molecule into its component parts

 

 

 

Devon adds a little salt to a pot of water before he boils the water to cook pasta. When added to the water, the salt is a ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

Solvent

 

buffer

 

solute

 

diffuser

 

 

 

A primary function of the digestive system is the ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

breakdown of food into nutrients

 

production of red blood cells

 

destruction of toxic metabolic by-products

 

transmission of nervous impulses

 

 

 

An ________ is a body structure composed of tissues that have related functions.

 

Multiple Choice

 

electrolyte

 

organelle

 

organ

 

anion

 

 

 

Which of the following foods is considered to be a probiotic?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Fresh lean meat

 

Yogurt with live and active cultures of Lactobacillus

 

Eggs laid by hens that consume organic feed

 

Breads and cereals made from refined enriched wheat flour

 

 

 

Which of the following compounds is not secreted by the human stomach?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Mucus

 

Gastric juice

 

Bile

 

Hydrochloric acid

 

 

 

The process of digesting food begins in the ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

esophagus

 

mouth

 

colon

 

liver

 

 

 

Which of the following statements is true?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Prebiotics are immature probiotics.

 

Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that live in the human large intestine.

 

Prebiotics are harmful to gut microbiota.

 

Diets that contain a lot of probiotics have been clinically proven to cure colon cancer.

 

 

 

The ________ of a food describes the extent to which the body is able to absorb the nutrients from the food and use them.

 

Multiple Choice

 

digestibility

 

bioavailability

 

essentiality

 

homeostasis

 

 

 

Which of the following structures normally prevents swallowed food from entering the larynx and trachea?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Voice box

 

Tongue

 

Pharynx

 

Epiglottis

 

 

 

Marcus has an infection that causes a temporary loss of villi. Based on this information, you would expect Marcus to ________ while he has this illness.

 

Multiple Choice

 

digest proteins more efficiently

 

develop gallstones.

 

lose weight rapidly

 

absorb vitamins more rapidly

 

 

 

Which of the following statements is true?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Foods that taste bitter are generally good energy sources because of their high carbohydrate contents.

 

Older adults generally have fewer taste buds than children.

 

The gallbladder makes bile and stores the compound in the liver.

 

Segmentation enables chyme to move through the esophagus.

 

 

 

The ________ is the third segment of the small intestine.

 

Multiple Choice

 

duodenum

 

ileum

 

colon

 

jejunum

 

 

 

Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome usually includes making dietary changes and ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

reducing physical activity

 

learning ways to manage stress effectively

 

moving to a drier climate

 

having the lower third of the colon removed

 

 

 

Coretta has severe chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). To reduce her likelihood of developing heartburn, her physician recommended that she ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

drink chocolate milk shakes with meals

 

have a glass of wine with dinner

 

eat peppermint candy after meals

 

lose excess body fat

 

 

 

Tyler smokes cigarettes, drinks excess alcohol, and takes aspirins regularly to treat his headaches. Based on this information, Tyler has a high risk of developing ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

irritable bowel syndrome

 

cystic fibrosis

 

peptic ulcers

 

chronic constipation

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