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As a population increases its consumption of whole-grain and minimally-processed foods, the number of people in that population who have bowel movements every day increases.

BIOL1322 Nutrition & Diet Therapy

Chapter 2 Quiz

As a population increases its consumption of whole-grain and minimally-processed foods, the number of people in that population who have bowel movements every day increases. This situation is an example of a(an) _______ relationship.

 

Multiple Choice

 

cause and effect In

 

prospective

 

direct (positive)

 

inverse (negative)

 

 

 

A researcher wants to identify lifestyle factors that increase the risk of stomach cancer in men. His study design involves enrolling 250 men who have stomach cancer and 250 men who are cancer-free but have similar characteristics and backgrounds as the men who have stomach cancer. The researcher collects and analyzes information about each participant’s lifestyle. Based on this information, what kind of study is the researcher conducting?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Experimental

 

Cohort

 

Case-control

 

In-vivo

 

 

 

A group of registered dietitian nutritionists is planning to conduct a scientific study to investigate the effects of eating honey on school-age children’s behavior. At first, the researchers will ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

analyze the hypothesis

 

identify relationships between variables

 

make observations

 

gather data

 

 

 

A group of nutrition researchers interviews 100 adults who have chronic high blood pressure to determine whether there is an association between consuming diets low in calcium during adolescence and developing high blood pressure in adulthood. This study is an example of a ________ study.

 

Multiple Choice

 

case-control

 

prospective In

 

macrosomatic

 

retrospective

 

 

 

According to the observations of a nutrition scientist, laboratory mice are healthier when their diet contains physiological levels of vitamin D than when their diet lacks the micronutrient. The scientist hypothesizes that mice will be less likely to develop cancer when they consume a diet that supplies megadoses of vitamin D. Based on this information, the scientist is ready to ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

conduct a controlled laboratory experiment to test the vitamin D and cancer hypothesis in mice

 

plan a retrospective study involving at least 5,000 laboratory mice to test the vitamin D and cancer hypothesis in mice

 

design a double-blind study to test the vitamin D and cancer hypothesis in mice

 

set up an experimental epidemiological study to test the vitamin D and cancer hypothesis in mice

 

 

 

A group of researchers wants to determine whether certain dietary factors are associated with the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The scientists follow a group of 500 healthy newborn babies for 10 years and collect health information as well as dietary practices for each child. At the end of the study period, the scientists analyze the data for correlations between the children’s dietary practices and their likelihood of being diagnosed with ADHD. This is an example of a ________ study.

 

Multiple Choice

 

factorial

 

hypothetical

 

prospective

 

retrospective

 

 

 

Researchers are conducting a study to determine the effects of vitamin C on the human immune system. The study involves providing pills that contain vitamin C to one group of human subjects and pills that do not contain vitamin C or other active ingredients to another group of people. The pills that do not contain the vitamin are _______.

 

Multiple Choice

 

Placebos

 

nocebos

 

probiotics

 

supplements

 

 

 

Which of the following observations is an example of an inverse correlation?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Children who consume 3 cups of vitamin D milk daily develop stronger bones than children who drink fewer than 3 cups of vitamin D milk each day.

 

Women who smoke 5 or more cigarettes each day during pregnancy are more likely to give birth to underweight babies than women who smoke fewer than 5 cigarettes a day during pregnancy.

 

When a population increases its daily consumption of foods that supply empty calories, the population’s average belt size increases.

 

As a population’s intake of foods that contain beta-carotene increases, the population’s tissue levels of vitamin A increase.

 

 

 

Over a 4-year period, a team of scientists records the eating behaviors and physical activity patterns of a group of healthy 8-year-old children to determine whether these factors are associated with excessive weight gain. This study is an example of a(an) ________ study.

 

Multiple Choice

 

case-control

 

prospective

 

retrospective

 

in-vitro

 

 

 

William takes garlic pills to lower his blood cholesterol level, and he recommends the pills to his friends, because he thinks the supplement is helpful. William’s nutrition-related advice to his friends is an example of a(an) ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

peer review

 

introspection

 

subjective bias

 

anecdote

 

 

 

Scientists in a Central American country are studying factors that may be associated with delayed physical growth among a group of low-income children. The children live in a region of the nation that has high levels of lead in drinking water. This study is an example of a(an) ________ study.

 

Multiple Choice

 

Epidemiological

 

introspective

 

conventional

 

uncontrollable

 

 

 

Zack takes 500 mg of vitamin C daily. He advises his friends to take vitamin C supplements because, he claims, the vitamin protects him from cold viruses. His claim about the usefulness of the vitamin is an ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

in-vitro assumption

 

anecdote

 

introspection

 

in-vivo report

 

 

 

Which of the following statements is true?

 

Multiple Choice

 

The RDN credential is legally protected.

 

Disclaimers are clues that a product will meet your expectations or the manufacturer’s claims.

 

A person with a PhD who promotes drinking vinegar as the cure for lung cancer is practicing conventional medicine.

 

Scientific evidence supports the effectiveness of most forms of alternative health care.

 

 

 

A popular women’s magazine has an article about the health benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods. If the article’s author has the credentials ________ after his or her name, the article is likely to be a reliable source of nutrition information.

 

Multiple Choice

 

MD

 

DRN

 

RDN

 

PhD

 

 

 

The host of a radio program makes a “red flag” claim about a nutrition-related product, because the claim is generally an indication that the information about the product is unreliable. The radio program host said, ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

“This product contains sugar and certain artificial color and flavor additives”

 

“All ingredients in this product have been scientifically tested and clinically proven”

 

“The ingredients in this product are listed on the label”

 

“According to the FDA, this product is classified a dietary supplement, because it contains vitamins”

 

 

 

Which of the following statements is true?

 

Multiple Choice

 

A person with a PhD who promotes drinking vinegar as the cure for lung cancer is practicing conventional medicine.

 

Anyone who earns a nutrition degree from a 4-year college can refer to himself or herself as an RDN.

 

Disclaimers are clues that a product may not meet your expectations or the manufacturer’s claims.

 

Scientific evidence supports the effectiveness of most forms of alternative health care.

 

 

 

A popular fitness magazine has an article about the health benefits of high-fiber diets. If the article’s author has the credentials ________ after his or her name, the article is likely to be a reliable source of nutrition information.

 

Multiple Choice

 

MS

 

DNutr

 

RDN

 

MD

 

 

 

________ can be classified as a dietary supplement.

 

Multiple Choice

 

Cherry jelly

 

Ginkgo biloba

 

Orange drink

 

Chewing tobacco

 

 

 

A scientist discovers a chemical in certain rocks that kills bacteria when it is mixed with sterile water in a test tube. She cannot market extracts that contain this chemical as a dietary supplement, because it ________.

 

Multiple Choice

 

has to receive a U.S. patent before the FDA will approve its use

 

contains more than one kind of natural material

 

does not contain dietary ingredients

 

must first undergo scientific testing to determine its effectiveness

 

 

 

Which of the following practices is an example of integrative health care?

 

Multiple Choice

 

A surgeon who removes a cancerous tumor from a patient’s stomach.

 

A physician who has a patient take prescription medications to reduce chronic heartburn.

 

A physician who treats a patient’s back pain with cortisone injections and massage therapy.

 

A physician who applies evening primrose oil to the skin of a person to treat a rash.

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