Chat with us, powered by LiveChat As part of a large research study, you have been asked to conduct home visits?for infants and toddlers who may be at risk for insecure attachment. What clues would you loo | WriteDen

As part of a large research study, you have been asked to conduct home visits?for infants and toddlers who may be at risk for insecure attachment. What clues would you loo

Lessons 11 & 12 

1. As part of a large research study, you have been asked to conduct home visits for infants and toddlers who may be at risk for insecure attachment. What clues would you look for to distinguish among avoidant, resistant, and disorganized/disoriented attachment (Please remember what the rules are, for using any aspect of the strange situation, as this is a highly standardized method that can only be used in a clinical setting that is unfamiliar to the child)? What caregiving behaviors might signal a threat to attachment security? How about infant characteristics? What questions would you ask to identify important contextual influences on the infant–parent relationship (for example, recent divorce, financial difficulties)? (6 points)

2. List and describe at least three factors that could explain the stability in attachment pattern for some children and change for others? Are these factors also involved in the link between attachment in infancy and later development? (4 points)

3. What are the early signs in autism in a toddler? Please list and describe four specific behaviors that might give you reason to believe that a particular toddler might have autism. (6 points)

Lessons 11 & 12

1. As part of a large research study, you have been asked to conduct home visits for infants and toddlers who may be at risk for insecure attachment. What clues would you look for to distinguish among avoidant, resistant, and disorganized/disoriented attachment ( Please remember what the rules are, for using any aspect of the strange situation, as this is a highly standardized method that can only be used in a clinical setting that is unfamiliar to the child )? What caregiving behaviors might signal a threat to attachment security? How about infant characteristics? What questions would you ask to identify important contextual influences on the infant–parent relationship (for example, recent divorce, financial difficulties)? (6 points)

2. List and describe at least three factors that could explain the stability in attachment pattern for some children and change for others? Are these factors also involved in the link between attachment in infancy and later development? (4 points)

3. What are the early signs in autism in a toddler? Please list and describe four specific behaviors that might give you reason to believe that a particular toddler might have autism. (6 points)

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Lesson 11 Overview

A unique and universal characteristic of the human species is that human children have a lengthy period of dependence on adults. The theories and research related to early emotional and social development tend to focus on the relationship between young children and their primary caregivers as being critical for achieving optimal emotional and social development. In this lesson, you will review what is known about early emotional and social development in typical children. Throughout this lesson, you will be asked to move between Chapter 7 and Chapter 10 in your textbook, in order to cover the birth to six age span, for emotional and social development.

Learning Objectives

When you have completed this lesson, you will be able to:

· Describe Erikson's psychosocial theory and the possible related psychological conflicts that may influence young children's emotional and social development

· Describe changes in the understanding of emotions, both basic and self-conscious, during infancy and early childhood

· Describe the components of temperament and the genetic and environmental influences on it

· Discuss the theories and patterns of attachment and subsequent cognitive, emotional, and social development

· Trace the emergence of self-awareness, and explain how it influences early emotional and social development

· Describe advances in peer sociability over the preschool years, while noting how parents and siblings influence early peer relations

· Compare psychoanalytic, behaviorist and social learning, and cognitive-developmental perspectives of moral development

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages

Let's start by learning about Erik Erikson's theory, by watching this short Youtube video from Davidson Films. Erikson, who was one of Freud's many students, viewed the early relationship between the child and the primary caregiver(s) as crucial for all later development (Erikson, 1993). He also viewed play as an avenue for children to learn about themselves as well as about the world around them. In play activities, children can practice skills, such as cooperation, with little risk of criticism or failure and develop a confident self-image, more emotional self control, and the foundations of morality. Conversely, Erikson warned that an early childhood with too much criticism and punishment can lead to a child with maladjustment difficulties, and who is being driven by guilt rather than initiative (Erikson, 1993).

Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development in Infancy and Early Childhood

Emotional Development & The Development Of A Sense Of Self

Emotions play an important role in forming relationships with caregivers, exploring the environment, and discovering the self. The infant's ability to express basic emotions, such as happiness, anger, sadness, and fear, expands over the first year. Infants also learn to respond to the emotions of others. As toddlers become more self-aware, they begin to express self-conscious emotions, such as shame, embarrassment, and pride.

Emotional self-regulation and executive function skills improve with brain maturation, gains in cognition and language, and sensitive child rearing practices. In order to learn more about self-regulation ande executive function, please watch this informative video (Links to an external site.), from the Center on the Developing Child, from Harvard University.

During the preschool years, children's self-concepts begin to take shape. For example, if their self-esteem is high, their enthusiasm for mastering new skills will also be high. Preschoolers' emotional self-regulation, the capacity to experience self-conscious emotions, and the ability to show empathy and sympathy also improve. Cognition, language, and warm, sensitive parenting support these developments.

Now, read about Emotional Development and the Development of a Sense of Self in your text. The infant and toddler section can be found on pages 249-255 in the 2012 edition, pages 247-253 in the 2016 edition, and pages 241-248 in the 2020 edition. The early childhood section can be found on pages 364-371 in the 2012 edition, pages 358-365 in the 2016 edition, and pages 355-362 in the 2020 edition.

Next, and in order to fully appreciate the importance of emotional, social, executive function and self-regulation skills, to the overall development of the child, and in order to understand the relationship between these important skills and being ready for school (when the time comes), please go to the Library Course Reserves section of the course and read the journal article entitled "Social-emotional School Readiness". Please pay special attention to Table 1, on page 7 of the article. This article will give a solid understanding of why these skills are important, in their own right, and as they relate to almost all other developmental areas.

And to learn more about emotional and social development milestones in the early years, please visit the social and emotional development (Links to an external site.) section of the PBS "whole child" website. Also, please take a moment to visit the website of the Center for the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (Links to an external site.), at Vanderbilt University. There you will find a wealth of information on emotional and social development, as well as information about topics that fall under the emotional and social "umbrella" of behaviors (e.g. learning about feelings, biting, learning to get along with peers…).

Finally, please watch this lovely section of the Baby Human documentary, which discusses children's emerging sense of self.

Baby Human To Belong Sense of Self

Temperament & the Development of Attachment

Children's unique temperamental styles are apparent in early infancy. Heredity influences early temperament, but child-rearing experiences determine whether a child's temperament is sustained or modified over time. In some cases, severe emotional deprivation can have a profoundly negative impact on temperament. Environmental influences such as nutritional intake also have a significant impact on temperament.

Ethological theory is the most widely accepted method for theorizing the development of the infant-caregiver relationships. According to this information- gathering method, attachment evolved over the history of our species to promote survival (Bowlby, 1982). In Chapter 7, Berk (2020) reviews the concept of attachment and discusses John Bowlby's original ethological theory of attachment and the more recent studies that build upon his theoretical framework (pages 264-279 in the 2012 edition, pages 261-275 in the 2016 edition, and pages 256-270 in the 2020 edition). Clearly, the research indicates that when caregivers respond promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infant signals, infants are supported with secure attachment to their caregiver. the continuity of sensitive caregiving in early childhood appears to lead to greater self-esteem, social skills and empathy in later years. Further, some infants and parents who have a variety of challenging birthing and family circumstances to cope with may have difficulties with the quality of infant-caregiver attachment. Interestingly, infants form attachment bonds with a variety of people around them, including mothers, fathers, grandparents and siblings. To learn more about Attachment, please visit the Attachment (Links to an external site.) section of the Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development website.

Next, please visit the Temperament (Links to an external site.) section of the Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development website, where you can learn more about this very important topic. As you read, try to determine what is meant by temperament and how it is measured. Think about the roles that both heredity and the environment play, with regards to the stability of temperament. Also, please take a moment to think about the importance of the "Goodness of Fit" model.

And please make sure you understand the four attachment patterns, and the assessment methods of the "Strange Situation" (on pages 266-267 in the 2012 edition, pages 263-264 in the 2016 edition, and pages 258-259 in the 2020 edition). To learn more about the Strange Situation, please watch this short video, of mothers and their infants, in the Strange Situation.

The Strange Situation – Mary Ainsworth

Finally, and before moving on to the next section, you may wish to watch this section of the Baby Human documentary.

CDE Baby Human to Feel 3 Temperament

Peer Relations & the Foundations of Morality

Please start this section by reading the Peer Relations section of Chapter 10 (pages 372-377 in the 2012 edition, pages 365-371 in the 2016 edition, and pages 363-368 in the 2020 edition). There, you will learn about preschoolers and their peer relations. You will also learn about the foundations of morality. During the preschool years, peer interactions increase, cooperative play becomes common, and children form first friendships. Preschoolers learn to resolve conflicts with newly acquired social and problem-solving skills. As you read the Peer Relations section, determine how peer sociability, friendship, and social and problem-solving skills are influenced by parental encouragement and the quality of sibling ties.

Next, please read the Foundations of Morality section of Chapter 10 (pages 378-390 in the 2012 edition, pages 372-384 in the 2016 edition, and pages 369-381 in the 2020 edition). In this section, Berk and Meyer (2016) review three approaches to understanding early childhood morality. These approaches (psychoanalytic, behavior/ social learning, and cognitive-developmental) emphasize different aspects of moral functioning. While most researchers now disagree with Freud's account of conscience development, the power of inductive discipline is recognized. Inductive discipline occurs when parents provide explanations that their child understands along with some insistence that their child complies. So, while the psychoanalytical and behaviorist approaches focus on helping children achieve adult standards of good behavior, the social learning theorists take another approach. They believe that children are active thinkers about social rules and that they can learn to act morally with some help through modeling, and the use of a third voice. As you read about these approaches, take note of the discussions on gender typing (pages 390-398 in the 2012 edition, pages 384-392 in the 2016 edition, and pages 382-391 in the 2020 edition). We will be re-visiting some of these concepts in Lesson 12.

Lesson 11 Summary, References

Summary

In this lesson, we have covered the theories and research that are related to early emotional and social development. The importance of relationships to early emotional and social development has been recognized by most, if not all. Relationships continually influence and are influenced by the individual participants and their personal, familial, cultural and environmental diversities.

The period between the ages of birth to age six is associated with major transitions in the child's socialization. As children learn the norms and rules of their society, they also develop a self-concept that will sustain them throughout life.

Children whose development has been impacted by prenatal and intra-uterine insults, birth trauma, chronic health conditions and other factors, will generally exhibit some difficulties in their emotional and social development.

In Lesson 12, you will be introduced to a population of young children with potential and sometimes very serious difficulties in their emotional and social development.

References

· Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.

· Erikson, E. H. (1993). Childhood and Society. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

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Lesson 12 Overview

The past decade has produced incredible advances in the understanding atypical emotional and social development in children. In a relatively short time, research in the field has moved well beyond the individual child to include the child's immediate and extended family, his/her community and culture (Brown, Odom, & McConnell, 2007). In this final lesson, we will learn about atypical emotional and social development and some of the social and emotional consequences of having autism.

Learning Objectives

When you have completed this lesson, you will be able to:

· Describe the warning signs of atypical emotional and social development in children

· Describe the atypical social development of children with autism

· Recognize some of the consequences of neglect and abuse on the developing child

· Understand significant and non-significant aggression in young children

Emotional & Social Development: The Red Flags

Our review of emotional and social development in Lesson 11 served to illustrate that knowledge in this field is steadily growing (Brown, Odom, McConnell, 2007, Landy, 2009). Clearly most children continually increase the sophistication of their emotional and social skills and consequently engage in more positive and productive social experiences as well as have a positive self-esteem. But that is not the case for all children. Some children do exhibit serious difficulties in the development of their emotional and social skills. Although some of these difficulties can be transient, others may not be, and will not go away without proper support and intervention. Such support and intervention will often include the child and his/her family (Landy, 2009). It is of utmost importance to learn about what constitutes typical, albeit disruptive behavior, in young children, and what constitutes a serious and clinically significant disruptive behavior. In order to do so, please read the Wakschlag et al. (2007) journal article that is available through the Library Course Reserves. Please read about the importance of identifying atypical disruptive behaviors in young children, while paying particular attention to Table 1, of page 978 of the article.

As it is clearly stated in the article, some behaviors can be incredibly annoying and very disruptive, but they may not be a cause for concern, especially when the child's age and circumstances surrounding these behaviors are taken into account. It is therefore very important to have a good understanding of emotional and social development in general, as well as a good knowledge of the individual child and his/her famliy circumstances, before we decide whether or not a particular behavior, or set of behaviors, are or should be a cause for concern. Here are a few websites that you can visit, and that can give you a better understanding of the incredible complexity of the emotional and social domains of development. These websites will also help you identify what might constitute typical and what might constitute atypical emotional and social development:

· The website of the Center for Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (Links to an external site.), at Georgetown University

· The website of the Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (Links to an external site.), at Vanderbilt University.

· The National Center for Pyramid Model Innovations (Links to an external site.).

In the next section of this lesson, we will learn about groups of children who have disorders and/or delays that have emotional and social development at their very core.

Social Understanding and Development of Children with Autism

Children with autism present a unique array of difficulties that are perplexing because they often seem inconsistent with what is understood about human learning and behaviour. It is generally assumed that all children follow a similar developmental path, although at various rates. Yet, children with autism display peculiar styles of social, communicative, and interpersonal relationships that seem to follow a different path. At the heart of these differences is a profound difficulty with social understanding.

In order to learn about autism, please visit the Autism (Links to an external site.) section of the website of the Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. There you can learn about this disorder, its history and its symptoms and characteristics. Next please visit the Autism Speaks (Links to an external site.) website, where you can learn about recent changes to the definition of autism, introduced by the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, in May of 2013.

Next, please watch this Autism (Links to an external site.) video, from the Kennedy Krieger Institute. If you wish to watch more videos about autism, its signs and symptoms, as well as videos about intervention strategies and techniques for children with autism, please visit the Autism Navigator (Links to an external site.) section of the Autism Speaks website. You will need to create an account in order to access the videos, but this account is free.

Now, please meet some very special people who have autism. The first person you will meet is Temple Grandin (Links to an external site.). She has autism and is a big advocate for children and grown-ups with autism. Here she is, in this video (Links to an external site.), describing autism and what it is like to have it.

Next, meet Jake Barnett (Links to an external site.) who has autism and is also extremely gifted.

As you can see, although some individuals with autism have profound, serious and life-long difficulties, others have less severe difficulties in some developmental areas (mainly language and socialization) that co-exist with great strengths in other areas.

You might be interested in to know that UBC's own Dr. Pat MirendaLinks to an external site. is part of a huge longitudinal study that tracks the development of children with autism. This is a one of its kind study that looks at the social/emotional, communication, cognitive and academic development of children with autism, across five provinces (B.C., Alberta, Quebec, Ontario and Nova Scotia). If you wish to learn more about this study, please visit its official website (Links to an external site.).

If you wish to introduce autism to young children, here are a few books you can use:

· Edwards, A. (2001). Taking Autism to School. Saint Louis, MO: JayJo Books.

· Lears, L. (1998). Ian's Walk: a Story About Autism. Chicago, IL: Albert Whitman & Company.

· Luchsinger, D. F. (2007). Playing by the Rules: a Story About Autism. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

· Thompson, M. (1996). Andy and His Yellow Frisbee. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Neglect & Abuse and Their Impact on Emotional & Social Development

Please start this section by watching this eye-opening short video, on child abuse.

Child Abuse- Cartoon

In order to learn more about child abuse and neglect, what it is, and how detrimental its effect can be, on the developing child, please visit the Child Maltreatment (Links to an external site.) section of the Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development website. A lot of important information can be found on this website, and this information can be downloaded as a PDF document, and saved for future reference. Next, please read the Emotional Trauma (Links to an external site.) document, which discusses the definition and implications of emotional trauma, on the developing child. Now, please read the Assessing Emotional Neglect in Infants (Links to an external site.) document, which discusses the emotional needs of infants and the importance of detecting emotional neglect, as soon as possible, in order to start helping infants who may be suffering from it, and their families, as early as possible.

If you wish to learn more about recognizing the signs and symptoms of child abuse and neglect, please take a look at the What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms (Links to an external site.) document. This document is published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Aggressive Behavior in Young Children

Please start this section by looking at the Aggression (Links to an external site.) section of the Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development website. There, you will learn about aggression and aggressive tendencies in young children, and what the causes of these behaviors/tendencies may be.

It is very important to take into account the child's age as well as the circumstances surrounding any act of aggression committed by a toddler or young child. As stated in the Wakschlag (2007) article that we read earlier in this lesson, it is not the aggressive act itself that is most indicative of a potentially serious social/emotional difficulty, but rather, it is the reason behind the act that matters the most.

The Invest in Kids Canada website has created a few really good videos that show parents and other adults the reasons behind some aggressive acts committed by toddlers and young children. Please take a moment to watch these informative Toddler Aggression (Links to an external site.) and Preschool Aggression (Links to an external site.) videos. Next, please read the "Helping Young Children Channel Their Aggression (Links to an external site.)" article, available from the Zero to Three (Links to an external site.) website.

Lesson 12 Summary, References

Summary

We have come to the end of this lesson, the final one in this course. Congratulations!

In this lesson, we have reviewed the signs of atypical emotional and social development, as well as the social and emotional characteristics of children who have been neglected, or who have behaviors-based disorders such as autism. Our review of this material indicates that the patterns of emotional and social development are influenced both by the individual differences of the children themselves and the social experiences to which these children are exposed.

References

· Brown, W., Odom, S., & McConnell, S. (2007). Social Competence of Young Children. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishers.

· Landy, S. (2009). Pathways to Competence. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishers.

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