Carefully read the attached mosquito speciation study.
1.) Provide a summary of the article in easy-to-understand terms. Include a short background, aim of the study, discuss the main points, methods and the results of the study as it relates to evolution.
2.) Please indicate whether the prediction/hypothesis was confirmed.
3.) Elaborate upon strengths or weaknesses of the study.
4.) Answer the following questions:
A .) The subterranean and surface populations of C. Pipiens in Britain are more distinct in terms of ecology and behavior The subterranean and surface populations of C. pipiens in Britain are more distinct in terms of ecology and behaviour than equivalent populations in the south of the range. Is this associated with reduced gene flow and/or reproductive isolation between the molestus and pipiens forms?
B.) Has there been one or several independent colonizations of the London Underground system, either through selection of molestus traits or by environmental changes triggering the expression of pre-existing characters?
C.) Have molestus populations originated from longdistance migrants of surface-living molestus-type individuals from the south of the range? This idea arises from two sources. First, that C. pipiens in the Middle East are more similar to the European molestus form than pipiens (Villani et al., 1986), and, secondly, that long-distance migration on this geographical scale appears to have been demonstrated by the spread of insecticide-resistance alleles (Raymond et al., 1991).