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Chemistry in Our Everyday Lives

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

Chapter 1 Discussion

Chemistry in Our Everyday Lives

 

In this discussion, you will give an example of an item used in our everyday world that was made with chemistry (hint: everything man-made was made using chemistry!). List the item first and then give a brief description of the chemistry behind the item.

 

You can come up with your own idea, but I highly recommend using an item from the following website: https://pubs.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/stuffABCText.html (Links to an external site.)

 

There, you can click an item, and use the corresponding article to come up with a description of the chemistry behind that item.

 

Your post must be at least 3-4 sentences in length.

 

Click “Reply ” below this box to post to the discussion.

 

To help, here is an example discussion post:

 

Dryer sheets

 

Dryer sheets are pieces of material covered with a special softening agent. The softening agent will melt off when heated and next stick to the fabrics as they are being dried. The softening agent not only makes fabric feel softer, it also helps to dissipate static charge. A heat-resistant fragrance is often added to dryer sheets, which will transfer to fabrics as well.

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 2 Discussion

 

Metric or English System?

 

In this discussion, you will give your opinion about which system of measurements you prefer. In the United States, the English system is used (units of length are inches, feet, yards, miles; units of mass are ounces and pounds; units of volume are quarts, pints, gallons; units of temperature are degrees Fahrenheit). In the rest of the world, the Metric system is used (units of length are centimeters, meters, kilometers; units of mass are grams and kilograms; units of volume are milliliters and liters; units of temperature are degrees Celsius).You should first state either “English” or “Metric” to say which you prefer. And next add 1-2 sentences to explain why.

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 3 Discussion

 

Classification of Matter

 

Think of a substance that you may see everyday. State whether it is an element, a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture and use 1-2 sentences to describe why. I recommend a web search to help you (example search: “is salad dressing an element, compound, homogeneous mixture, or heterogeneous mixture”).

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 4 Discussion

 

Building Isotopes

 

This discussion is more of an activity. Please click on the following link (Links to an external site.) to visit the Isotopes and Atomic Mass simulator.

 

Click on the simulator, and choose the ‘Isotopes’ option

 

Once there, choose one of the elements seen in the top right corner (only the first 10 elements are available)

 

Expand the ‘Abundance in Nature’ box on the right

 

Determine which isotopes of the element are stable by adding or taking away neutrons from the nucleus (a bucket of neutrons is to the left)

 

Report which isotopes are stable (using the correct isotope name) and what percent abundance of each isotope is found in nature

 

I have used hydrogen as an example to show how you should report your findings:

 

Hydrogen-1 has 99.9885% natural abundance

 

Hydrogen-2 has 0.0115% natural abundance

 

All other isotopes are NOT stable

 

I have included screenshots of the hydrogen example below. You DO NOT need to upload any screenshots, I have only put them here to help guide you.

 

H-1

 

H-2

 

H-3

 

If the images do not appear, see them in the .pdf file here

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 5 Discussion

 

What is Your Favorite Element?

 

In this discussion, you will tell us about the element that you find the most interesting.

 

You should visit the photographic periodic table (http://periodictable.com/ (Links to an external site.)), which has photographs of all the stable elements as well as facts and stories about each element. Choose the one that looks the most interesting to you and click on it to read about it. To contribute to this discussion, first name the element you chose and next copy one (or more!) of the facts or stories and post it here.

 

Here is an example:

 

Element: Radium

 

Radium was once widely used in self-luminous clock and watch hands, until too many watch factory workers had died. It had not been understood yet that exposure to radium leads to radiation poisoning and eventually death. Those antique watches are still quite radioactive, and will stay that way for thousands of years.

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 6 Discussion

 

Uses of Inorganic Compounds

 

1616 unread replies.3535 replies.

 

In this discussion, you will choose one of the inorganic compounds from the table below. First, state whether it is a binary ionic compound, ternary ionic compound, binary molecular compound, binary acid, or ternary oxyacid.

 

Next, do a web search to see what uses the compound has. Use the term “what are the uses of [compound]” and list at least two of the uses you find.

 

For example aluminum hydroxide is a ternary ionic compound. And a search of the term “what are the uses of aluminum hydroxide” shows that it is used both as an antacid and to reduce phosphate levels in people with certain kidney conditions.

 

Al(OH)3, aluminum hydroxide

 

BaSO4, barium sulfate

 

CaCO3 calcium carbonate

 

CCl4, carbon tetrachloride

 

CF4, carbon tetrafluoride

 

CO2, carbon dioxide

 

ClO2, chloride dioxide

 

HCl(aq), hydrochloric acid

 

HClO4(aq), perchloric acid

 

HF(aq), hydrofluoric acid

 

H2O, dihydrogen oxide

 

H2SO4(aq), sulfuric acid

 

KI, potassium iodide

 

K3PO4, potassium phosphate

 

Mg(OH)2, magnesium hydroxide

 

MgSO4, magnesium sulfate

 

Na2CO3, sodium carbonate

 

NaCl, sodium chloride

 

NaF, sodium fluoride

 

NaHCO3, sodium bicarbonate

 

Na2HPO4, sodium hydrogen phosphate

 

NaOCl, sodium hypochlorite

 

NaOH, sodium hydroxide

 

Na2SO3, sodium sulfite

 

NH3, nitrogen trihydride

 

(NH4)2CO3, ammonium carbonate

 

NH4NO3, ammonium nitrate

 

NO, nitrogen monoxide

 

NO2, nitrogen dioxide

 

P4S2, tetraphosphorus disulfide

 

SF6, sulfur hexafluoride

 

SO2, sulfur dioxide

 

SiH4, silicon tetrahydride

 

TiO2, titanium(II) oxide

 

ZnO, zinc oxide

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 7 Discussion

 

Chemical Reactions in Daily Life

 

In this discussion, you will do a web search to find an example of a chemical reaction which may be encountered in daily life. Describe a little about the chemical changes that occur. If possible, classify the chemical reaction and write out the chemical equation.

 

See each of these websites for some ideas:

 

https://sciencestruck.com/chemical-reactions-in-everyday-life (Links to an external site.)

 

https://www.thoughtco.com/chemical-change-examples-608334 (Links to an external site.)

 

For example, baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate) is used in baking. When the baking soda heats up, carbon dioxide and water vapor gases are released, leading to the cookie dough or cake batter rising. This is a decomposition reaction, and the chemical equation is:  2 NaHCO3(s) heatrxn Na2CO3(s)  +  H2O(g)  +  CO2(g)

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 8 Discussion

 

How Big is Avogadro’s Number?

 

In this discussion, you will do a calculation using Avogadro’s number, 6.02 × 1023, or 1 mole. Think of an everyday item and either do a google search to see what it’s mass is or else measure it’s mass yourself. Next, multiply that mass by Avogadro’s number to determine how much 1 mole of that item would weigh. Report your result in both scientific notation and as an ordinary number.

 

For example, 1 m&m candy weighs about 0.88 g

 

0.88 g × 6.02 × 1023 = 5.3 × 1023 g = 530,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 g

 

 1 m&m = 0.88 g

 

1 mole m&m = 5.3 × 1023 g    or    530,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 g

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 9 Discussion

 

Limiting Reactants

 

This discussion is an activity. Please click on the following link (Links to an external site.) to visit the Reactants, Products and Leftovers simulator.

 

Click on the simulator, and take some time to practice the limiting reactant concept first with the ‘Sandwiches’ option and next the ‘Molecules’ option

 

When you feel you have had enough practice, choose the ‘Game’ option

 

Practice with the ‘Level 1’ game (you will see in each game, you have a few attempts to get the right answer)

 

Next, choose the ‘Level 2’ game

 

Once there, you will choose one of the 5 challenges within the game to report on

 

For the challenge you pick, you must report:

 

the balanced chemical equation

 

number of molecules of the reactants for your example

 

number of molecules of the products for your example

 

number of molecules of the leftovers for your example

 

 Here is an example to show how you should report your findings:

 

1 H2  +  1 F2  →  2 HF

 

5 H2  and  4 F2

 

8 HF

 

1 H2  and  0 F2

 

 I have included screenshots of the example below. You DO NOT need to upload any screenshots, I have only put them here to help guide you.

 

10_1.png

 

10_2.png

 

10_3.png

 

10_5.png

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 10 Discussion

 

Scuba Diving

 

A scuba diver is at an underwater depth where the surrounding pressure is 3 atm. The diver must be very careful when coming up to sea level, where surrounding pressure becomes 1 atm. The reason has to do with the volume of gas in the diver’s lungs and gas bubbles that exist in the blood vessels and other tissues.

 

Using Boyle’s Law, discuss why this is.

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 11 Discussion

 

Properties of Liquids and Solids

 

For this discussion, you will choose one liquid AND one solid from the table below. For the liquid, you must state what type(s) of intermolecular forces exist between molecules of that liquid. For the solid, you must state what type of solid it is (either ionic, metallic, covalent network, or molecular).

 

Liquids                                                  Solids

 

water, H2O                                         sodium chloride, NaCl

 

ethanol, C2H5OH                             diamond, C

 

bromine, Br2                                      copper, Cu

 

ether, C2H5OC2H5                          sulfur, S8

 

chloroform, CHCl3                           aluminum, Al

 

acetone, CH3COCH3                       calcium carbonate, CaCO3

 

pentane, C5H12                                                iron, Fe

 

butanol, C4H9OH                             zinc oxide, ZnO

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 12 Discussion

 

Molecule Shapes

 

Visit the following website: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/molecule-shapes (Links to an external site.)

 

Click on the “Molecule Shapes” simulation, and next choose the “Real Molecules” option.

 

Choose a molecule from the top right corner. Please choose either CO2, SO2, BF3, NH3, or CH4, as the other options involve geometries that will not be discussed in this course. Try clicking on the molecule and dragging it around to get a feeling for the 3-dimensional structure.

 

Once you have made your final selection, click the boxes at the bottom to name the ‘Molecule Geometry’ and ‘Electron Geometry’ and report your findings. The molecule H2O is used below as an example.

 

Molecule: H2O

 

Molecule Geometry: Bent

 

Electron Geometry: Tetrahedral

 

(a screenshot of the simulation is given below, you do not need to include the screenshot in your answer)

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 1 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Which of the following items was made using chemistry?

 

  a computer

 

  a firework

 

  a loaf of bread

 

  all of the above

 

 Question 2What is the definition of chemistry?

 

  the study of living organisms

 

  the scientific study of the human mind

 

  the study of the composition, properties, and interactions of matter

 

  the study of earth’s physical structure and substance

 

 Question 3Chemistry is sometimes referred to as “the central science”.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 4Which field of science can be connected to chemistry?

 

  biology

 

  physics

 

  medicine

 

  all of the above

 

 Question 5Which  branch of chemistry deals with the study of chemicals that contain carbon?

 

  inorganic chemistry

 

  organic chemistry

 

  physical chemistry

 

  analytical chemistry

 

 Question 6Attempts to understand the behavior of matter extend back for more than 2500 years.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 7Which of the following is NOT a step in the scientific method?

 

  make up some fake data

 

  formulate a hypothesis

 

  design and perform experiments

 

  accept or modify the hypothesis

 

 Question 8Is the following statement an example of a scientific theory or law?

 

If the temperature of a gas in a closed system is increased, the pressure will increase.

 

  theory

 

  law

 

 Question 9Is the following statement an example of a scientific theory or law?

 

An element is composed of tiny particles called atoms.

 

  theory

 

  law

 

 Question 10One of the best ways to succeed in a chemistry course is to do ALL of the given practice problems.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 2 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Which of the following is a proper measurement?

 

  12

 

  yard stick

 

  50 meters

 

  dozen

 

 Question 2Give the number of significant figures in each:

 

a) 6000 mL

 

1

 

 b) 0.02508 cm

 

4

 

 c) 94.2 g

 

3

 

d) 1,001 in

 

Question 3What is the number 0.000583 in scientific notation format?

 

  5.83 × 10-4

 

  5.83 × 104

 

  5.83 × 10-3

 

  5.83

 

 Question 4What is the number 7.9 × 108 written as an ordinary number?

 

  790,000

 

  0.000000079

 

  790,000,000

 

  7,900,000,000

 

 Question 5Complete the calculation and choose the answer using the correct number of significant figures:

 

5.007 m × 6 m

 

  30.042 m2

 

  30.04 m2

 

  30 m2

 

  30 m

 

 Question 6Complete the calculation and choose the answer using the correct number of significant figures:

 

17.75 g + 21 g

 

  39 g

 

  38.8 g

 

  38.75 g

 

  38.75 g2

 

 Question 7Choose the correct abbreviation for the unit “milliliter” and define in terms of the base unit.

 

  mil; 100 mil = 1 l

 

  ML; 1 ML = 1,000,000 L

 

  mL; 1000 mL = 1 L

 

  μL; 1,000,000 μL = 1 L

 

 Question 8Convert 651,000 m to km, given 1000 m = 1 km

 

  65.1 km

 

  6.51 km

 

  651,000,000 km

 

  651 km

 

 Question 9Convert 135 lb to kg, given 1 lb = 454 g; 1000 g = 1 kg

 

  3.36 kg

 

  61.3 kg

 

  0.000297 kg

 

  297 kg

 

 Question 10What is the density of oxygen, given that a 2.00 L sample of oxygen has a mass of 2.86 g?

 

  5.72 g/L

 

  1.43 g/mL

 

  0.699 g/L

 

  1.43 g/L

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 3 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Which of the following is NOT an example of matter?

 

  a cup of water

 

  a helium balloon

 

  light

 

  a pillow

 

 Question 2How many carbon atoms are there in the chemical formula for iron(III) carbonate, Fe2(CO3)3?

 

  1

 

  2

 

  3

 

  4

 

 Question 3Which phase of matter has a definite volume but an indefinite (variable) shape?

 

  solid

 

  liquid

 

  gas

 

  plasma

 

 Question 4Classify each type of matter as either an element, a compound, a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture.

 

a) a bowl of cereal with milk heterogeneous mixture

 

b) sodium element

 

c) carbon dioxide compound

 

d) apple juice homogeneous mixture

 

Question 5Classify each property as physical or chemical.

 

a) silver is a silver-colored metal physical property

 

b) propane gas readily burns in air chemical property

 

c) pure sodium will explode if dropped in water chemical property

 

d) copper conducts electricity physical property

 

Question 6Classify each change as physical or chemical.

 

a) a match is ignited physical change

 

b) a drop of alcohol evaporates

 

c) two colorless solutions are combined and form a yellow color

 

d) a tablet of aspirin is ground to a powder physical change

 

Question 7In a reaction, 1.000 g copper metal is heated with yellow sulfur to form copper sulfide as a product. 1.252 g of copper sulfide is made. What is the mass of sulfur that had reacted with the copper metal?

 

  0.252 g

 

  1.000 g

 

  1.252 g

 

  2.252 g

 

 Question 8Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 9Substances at higher temperatures have a higher kinetic energy (atoms are moving faster) than substances at lower temperatures (atoms are moving slower).

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 10What is the boiling point of water according to the Kelvin scale?

 

  100 K

 

  212 K

 

  273 K

 

  373 K

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 4 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Which of the following scientists proposed the first Atomic Theory?

 

  J. J. Thomson

 

  Ernest Rutherford

 

  John Dalton

 

  James Chadwick

 

 Question 2Match the following information about the subatomic particles:

 

relative mass is 0.00055

 

electron

 

relative charge is +1

 

proton

 

location is inside nucleus

 

neutrons and protons

 

Other Incorrect Match Options:

 

neutrons and electrons

 

 Question 3Refer to the periodic table (https://ptable.com/ (Links to an external site.)) and type in the number of protons each of the following elements have in their nucleus:

 

silver, Ag  47

 

xenon, Xe  54

 

potassium, K  19

 

copper, Cu  29

 

nitrogen, N  7

 

Question 4Choose the correct atomic notation for an atom of cobalt with 32 neutrons in its nucleus.

 

  co3.png

 

  co2.png

 

  co1.png

 

  co4.png

 

 Question 5What is the term for atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.

 

  nucleotides

 

  atomic notation

 

  protons

 

  isotopes

 

 Question 6Type in the number of neutrons in each of the following isotopes of tungsten, W:

 

W-182 

 

108

 

W-186 

 

112

 

Question 7Fill in the following table (assume the atoms are neutral):

 

Isotope                Number of Protons         Number of Neutrons     Number of Electrons

 

Os-192 

 

76

 

116

 

76

 

Al-27

 

13           14          

 

13

 

Question 8Chlorine has two naturally occurring isotopes: Cl-35 with mass 34.969 amu and a natural abundance of 75.78%, and Cl-37 with mass 36.966 amu and a natural abundance of 24.22%. What is the calculated atomic mass of chlorine?

 

  36 amu

 

  3545 amu

 

  35.45

 

  35.45 amu

 

 Question 9Type in how many electrons can each of the following sublevels hold:

 

 

2

 

 

6

 

 

10

 

 

14

 

Question 10Electrons will occupy sublevels in order of increasing…

 

  energy

 

  mass

 

  time

 

  sound

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 5 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Using the periodic table, classify each of the following elements as a metal or a nonmetal, and then further classify each as a representative element, transition metal, or inner transition metal:

 

a. Se      nonmetal                    [“”, “”, “”]           

 

b. Yb                   [“”, “”]                                [“”, “”, “”]           

 

c. Mo                   [“”, “”]                                [“”, “”, “”]           

 

d. K                   [“”, “”]                   representative element

 

metal

 

 Question 2Give the group name for the following elements:

 

a. F      halogen

 

b. Xe      noble gas

 

c. Mg      alkaline earth metal

 

d. Rb      alkali metal

 

Question 3Identify each of the following elements (type in the chemical symbol for the element, not the name):

 

a. the halogen in the same period as potassium

 

 b. the Group 10 element in the same period as Ba

 

 c. the alkali metal in the same period as the element with 14 protons

 

 d. the noble gas in the same period as an isotope with 80 protons and 120 neutrons

 

 e. the alkaline earth metal in the fifth period

 

 Question 4Find the element that corresponds to the following electron configurations (type in the chemical symbol for the element, not the name):

 

a. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d3      

 

b. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p3      

 

c. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2      

 

d. (Kr) 5s2 4d1     

 

e. (Ar) 4s2 3d10 4p1      

 

Question 5State how many valence electrons each of the following elements has:

 

a. Cl      

 

b. Al      

 

c. P      

 

d. K      

 

e. O      

 

f. Si      

 

g. Mg      

 

h. Ar      

 

Question 6Predict the ionic charge for each of the following ions based on the group number of the element in the periodic table:

 

a. P ion      3-

 

b. Rb ion      1+

 

c. F ion      1-

 

d. Ba ion      2+

 

e. Al ion      3+

 

Question 7Give the noble gas that each of the following ions are isoelectronic with (type in the chemical symbol for the element, not the name):

 

a. Br –      

 

b. N3-      

 

c. Ca2+      

 

d. Li+      

 

e. Ba2+      

 

Question 8a. From the following list of elements, which one has the smallest atomic radius?

 

Fe, K, Br, Ca, Ge      Br

 

 b.From the following list of elements, which one has the largest atomic radius?

 

Ca, Be, Sr, Ba, Mg      Ba

 

Question 9a. From the following list of elements, which one has the most metallic character?

 

Ag, Sn, Zr, I, Rb      Rb

 

 b.From the following list of elements, which one has the least metallic character?

 

As, Bi, P, N, Sb      N

 

Question 10

 

a. From the following list of elements, which one has the highest ionization energy?

 

O, Ne, C, Li, F      Ne

 

 b.From the following list of elements, which one has the lowest ionization energy?

 

K, Rb, Li, Cs, Na      Cs

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 6 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Classify each of the following as a binary ionic compound, ternary ionic compound, binary molecular compound, binary acid, or ternary oxyacid:

 

a. bleach, NaClO      ternary ionic compound

 

b. carbon monoxide, CO      binary molecular compound

 

c. phosphoric acid, H3PO4(aq)      ternary oxyacid

 

d. iodized salt, KI      binary ionic compound

 

e. hydrofluoric acid, HF(aq)      binary acid

 

Question 2Give the name for each of the following ions:

 

a. NO2-      nitrite ion

 

b. NH4+      ammonium ion

 

c. S2-      sulfide ion

 

d. Ag+      silver ion

 

e. Sn2+      tin ion

 

Question 3Give the formula for each of the following ions: (the superscript and subscript functions will not appear in the dropdown choices, but the correct answer should still be clear to you)

 

a. zinc ion      Zn2+

 

b. hydronium ion      H3O+

 

c. nitride ion      N3-

 

d. lead(II) ion      Pb2+

 

e. cyanide ion      CN-

 

Question 4Give the formula for the each of the following ionic compounds given their constituent ions: (the subscript function will not appear in the dropdown choices, all numbers seen should be thought of as subscripts)

 

a. sodium sulfide, Na+ and S2-      Na2S

 

b. lead(IV) sulfate, Pb4+ and SO42-      Pb(SO4)2

 

Question 5Give the name for each of the following ionic compounds:

 

a. SrI2      strontium iodide

 

b. Fe2(CrO4)3      iron(III) chromate

 

c. Na2O      sodium oxide

 

d. CrP      chromium(III) phosphide

 

e. BaCO3     barium carbonate

 

Question 6Give the formula for each of the following ionic compounds: (the subscript function will not appear in the dropdown choices, all numbers seen should be thought of as subscripts)

 

a. lead(II) sulfite      PbSO3

 

b. zinc bromide      ZnBr2

 

c. copper(II) phosphide      Cu3P2

 

d. magnesium nitrate      Mg(NO3)2

 

e. aluminum oxide      Al2O3

 

Question 7Give the name for each of the following binary molecular compounds:

 

a. Cl2O5      dichlorine pentaoxide

 

b. BrF      bromine monofluoride

 

c. I2O4      diiodine tetraoxide

 

d. SF4     sulfur tetrafluoride

 

e. CO      carbon monoxide

 

Question 8Give the formula for each of the following binary molecular compounds: (the subscript function will not appear in the dropdown choices, all numbers seen should be thought of as subscripts)

 

a. nitrogen monoxide      NO

 

b. carbon tetrachloride      CCl4

 

c. dihydrogen monoxide      H2O

 

d. dichlorine heptaoxide      Cl2O7

 

e. dinitrogen trioxide      N2O3

 

Question 9Give the name for each of the following acids:

 

a. HCl(aq)      hydrochloric acid

 

b. H2SO3(aq)      sulfurous acid

 

c. HClO3(aq)      chloric acid

 

d. HI(aq)      hydroiodic acid

 

e. H2CO3(aq)      carbonic acid

 

Question 10Give the formula for each of the following acids: (the subscript function will not appear in the dropdown choices, all numbers seen should be thought of as subscripts)

 

a. hypochlorous acid      HClO(aq)

 

b. hydrofluoric acid      HF

 

c. nitrous acid      HNO2(aq)

 

d. phosphoric acid      H3PO4(aq)

 

e. hydrobromic acid      HBr(aq)

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 7 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Choose the correct evidence of a chemical reaction for each of the following observations:

 

a) adding a piece of zinc metal to acid causes bubbles to form

 

a gas is produced

 

b) mixing two colorless solutions gives a pink solution

 

a gas is produced

 

c) adding potassium metal to water causes flames

 

an energy change is observed

 

d) adding sodium chloride to a silver nitrate solution causes a white powder to form in the solution

 

an insoluble solid is produced in a solution

 

Question 2Choose the most correct chemical equation (with all the appropriate symbols) for the following reaction:

 

nitric acid reacts with aqueous ammonium hydroxide to give aqueous ammonium nitrate plus water

 

  HNO3  +  NH4OH  →  NH4NO3  +  H2O

 

  HNO3  +  NH4OH  +  NH4NO3  +  H2O

 

  HNO3(aq)  +  NH4OH(aq)  →  NH4NO3(aq)  +  H2O(l)

 

  HNO3(s)  +  NH4OH(l)  →  NH4NO3(aq)  +  H2O(g)

 

 Question 3Balance the following chemical reactions (choose “1” if no coefficient is needed):

 

a) 1 Al2(CO3)3(s)  →  1 Al2O3(s)  +  3 CO2(g)

 

b) 1 Hg2(NO3)2(aq)  +  2 NaBr(aq)  →  1 Hg2Br2(s)  +  2 NaNO3(aq)

 

c) 2 (NH4)3PO4(aq)  +  3 Pb(NO3)2(aq)  →  1  Pb3(PO4)2(s)  +  6 NH4NO3(aq)

 

Question 4Classify each of the following chemical reactions:

 

a) 3 Sn(s)  +  2 P(s)  →  Sn3P2(s)

 

combination

 

b) 2 HClO4(aq)  +  Ba(OH)2(s)  →  Ba(ClO4)2(s)  +  2 H2O(l)

 

neutralization

 

c) Cu(s)  +  2 AgC2H3O2(aq)  →  Cu(C2H3O2)2(aq)  +  2 Ag(s)

 

single-replacement

 

d) 2 LiClO3(s)  →  2 LiCl(s)  +  3 O2(g)

 

decomposition

 

e) Pb(NO3)2(aq)  +  2 LiCl(aq)  →  PbCl2(s)  +  2 LiNO3(aq)

 

double-replacement

 

Question 5Choose the correct, balanced chemical equation for the following combination reaction:

 

aluminum metal is heated with sulfur powder to form solid aluminum sulfide

 

  Al(s)  +  S(s) heatrxn AlS(s)

 

  Al(s)  +  S(s) heatrxn Al2S3(s)

 

  2 Al(s)  +  3 S(s) heatrxn Al2S3(s)

 

 Question 6Choose the correct, balanced chemical equation for the following decomposition reaction:

 

solid lithium carbonate decomposes with heat to form solid lithium oxide and carbon dioxide gas

 

  Li2CO3(s) heatrxn Li2O(s)  +  CO2(g)

 

  LiCO3(s) heatrxn 2 LiO(s)  +  CO2(g)

 

  LiCO2(s) heatrxn Li(s)  +  CO2(g)

 

 Question 7Using the activity series, predict whether a reaction occurs or no reaction occurs for each of the following single-replacement reactions:

 

a) Cu(NO3)2(aq)  +  Ni(s)  →Reaction Occurs

 

 b) Au(s)  +  H2SO4(aq)  →No Reaction

 

c) FeSO4(aq)  +  Ag(s)  →Reaction Occurs

 

Question 8Using the solubility table, determine whether each of the following compounds are soluble or insoluble in water:

 

a) calcium sulfide, CaSsoluble

 

b) lead(II) sulfate, PbSO4insoluble

 

c) barium chromate, BaCrO4insoluble

 

Question 9Using the solubility table, predict whether a reaction occurs or no reaction occurs for each of the following double-replacement reactions:

 

a) AgC2H3O2(aq)  +  SrI2(aq)  →No Reaction

 

b) FeSO4(aq)  +  CuCl2(aq)  →No Reaction

 

c) NaOH(aq)  +  Co(NO3)2(aq)  →No Reaction

 

Question 10Choose the correct, balanced chemical equation for the following neutralization reaction:

 

nitric acid reacts with aqueous barium hydroxide to form aqueous barium nitrate and water

 

  HNO3  +  BaOH  →  BaNO3  +  H2O

 

  2 HNO3(aq)  +  Ba(OH)2(aq)  →  Ba(NO3)2(aq)  +  2 H2O(l)

 

  HNO3(aq)  +  Ba(OH)2(aq)  →  Ba(NO3)2(aq)  +  H2O(l)

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 8 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1One half of a mole of atoms would contain how many atoms?

 

  6.02 × 1023 atoms

 

  6 atoms

 

  3.01 × 1023 atoms

 

  144 atoms

 

 Question 2Calculate the number of particles in 0.200 mol of chlorine molecules, Cl2.

 

  6.02 × 1023 molecules

 

  7.09 molecules

 

  35.45 molecules

 

  1.2 × 1023 molecules

 

 Question 3Calculate the number of moles in 3.00 × 1024 formula units of manganese(II) sulfate, MnSO4.

 

  151.00 moles

 

  4.98 moles

 

  6.02 × 1023 moles

 

  2.00 × 1023 moles

 

 Question 4Determine the molar mass for each of the following:

 

a) silicon, Si28.09 g/mol

 

b) ozone, O348.0 g/mol

 

c) iron(II) acetate, Fe(C2H3O2)2173.93 g/mol

 

d) nitroglycerin, C3H5O3(NO2)3227.09 g/mol

 

Question 5How many moles of dinitrogen oxide, N2O are in a 19.3 g sample of N2O?

 

  6.43 moles

 

  2.28 moles

 

  0.439 moles

 

  19.3 moles

 

 Question 6What is the mass of 61.5 moles of zinc, Zn?

 

  0.941 g

 

  1.06 g

 

  4021 g

 

  61.5 g

 

 Question 7Calculate the number of molecules in 5.68 g propane, C3H8.

 

  7.75 × 1022 molecules

 

  0.129 molecules

 

  2.33 × 1024 molecules

 

  5.68 molecules

 

 Question 8What is the mass percent of C in oxalic acid, H2C2O4?

 

  12.01 %

 

  26.7 %

 

  13.3 %

 

  33.3 %

 

 Question 9An iron phosphide compound contains 335 grams of iron and 124 grams of phosphorus. What is the empirical formula of this compound?

 

  Fe6P4

 

  FeP

 

  Fe3P2

 

 Question 10Hexamethylene diamine has a molar mass of 115 g/mol and an empirical formula of C3H8N. What is the molecular formula of the compound?

 

Correct!

 

  C6H16N2

 

  C9H24N3

 

  C3H8N

 

  C1.5H4N0.5

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 9 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Consider the general chemical equation:  A  +  2 B  →  3 C

 

How many moles of C are produced from 1 mol of A?

 

  1

 

  2

 

  3

 

  4

 

 Question 2Given the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, calculate the moles of oxygen gas produced from 5.00 mol of H2O2

 

2 H2O2(l)  →  2 H2O(l)  +  O2(g)

 

  1 mol

 

  2.5 mol

 

  5 mol

 

  10 mol

 

 Question 3How many moles of propane gas, C3H8, react with 1.29 mol of oxygen gas?

 

C3H8(g)  +  5 O2(g)  →  3 CO2(g)  +  4 H2O(g)

 

  6.45 mol

 

  0.258 mol

 

  1 mol

 

  5 mol

 

 Question 4Given the balanced equation, calculate the mass of H2 that can be prepared from 141 g Al.

 

2 Al(s)  +  6 HNO3(aq)  →  2 Al(NO3)3(aq)  +  3 H2(g)

 

  212 g

 

  1.50 g

 

  5.22 g

 

  15.8 g

 

 Question 5Given the balanced equation, calculate the mass of Cl2 required to produce 6.78 g of PCl3.

 

2 P(s)  +  3 Cl2(g)  → 2 PCl3(l)

 

  5.25 g

 

  137 g

 

  10.2 g

 

  70.9 g

 

 Question 6What mass of CO2 will react with 1.00 g LiOH?

 

2 LiOH(s)  +  CO2(g)  →  Li2CO3(s)  +  H2O(l)

 

  1.84 g

 

  0.500 g

 

  2.00 g

 

  0.920 g

 

 Question 7If 9.00 moles of hydrogen gas and 9.00 moles of oxygen gas are combined, what is the limiting reactant?

 

2 H2(g)   +   O2(g)  →   2 H2O(l)

 

  H2

 

  O2

 

  H2O

 

 Question 8If 50.0 g of Co react with 30.0 g of S, which compound is the limiting reactant?

 

Co(s)   +   S(s)  →   CoS(s)

 

  Co

 

  S

 

  CoS

 

 Question 9A manufacturer performs a chemical reaction to produce sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. After the reaction is complete, 480.2 kg is isolated. If the theoretical yield of SF6 was 546.7 kg, what was the percent yield of the reaction?

 

  113.8%

 

  87.84%

 

  26.25%

 

  48.02%

 

 Question 10A student dissolves 1.50 g of copper(II) nitrate in water. After adding aqueous sodium carbonate solution, the student obtains 0.875 g of CuCO3 First, calculate the theoretical yield of the CuCO3 and next use that to calculate the percent yield for this student’s experiment. What is the percent yield?

 

Cu(NO3)2(aq)   +   Na2CO3(aq)  →   CuCO3(s)   +   2 NaNO3(aq)

 

  58.3%

 

  88.6%

 

  113%

 

  100%

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 10 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Gases do not expand or compress.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 2A barometer reads 30.8 in. Hg. Express the pressure in each of the following units:

 

a) kPa104 kPa

 

b) torr782 torr

 

c) psi15.1 psi

 

d) atm1.03 atm

 

Question 3A container of gas at 7.00 atm and 212 K is cooled to 140 K. If volume is constant, what will the final pressure be?

 

  70.0 atm

 

  10.5 atm

 

  4.69 atm

 

  1.49 atm

 

 Question 4A 3.2 L balloon of helium gas at 260 K increases in volume to 8.5 L. To keep the pressure constant, what should the final temperature of the balloon be?

 

  690 K

 

  0.10 K

 

  130 K

 

  27.2 K

 

 Question 5A sample of air at 5.00 atm expands from 1.75 L to 2.50 L. If the temperature remains constant, what is the final pressure in atm?

 

  0.286 atm

 

  2.50 atm

 

  1.25 atm

 

  3.50 atm

 

 Question 6A balloon with a volume of 1.0 L is filled with 0.10 moles of argon. If another 0.10 moles of argon is added (for a total of 0.20 moles) (and pressure and temperature remain constant), what will the final volume of the balloon be?

 

  1.2 L

 

  2.0 L

 

  22 L

 

  0.8 L

 

 Question 7If 10.0 L of neon gas exerts a pressure of 8.5 atm at 373 K, what is the number of moles of gas?

 

  2.78 moles

 

  6.48 moles

 

  0.781 mole

 

  1.50 mole

 

 Question 8At STP conditions, what is the volume of 2.30 moles of oxygen gas?

 

  230 L

 

  22.4 L

 

  11.2 L

 

  51.5 L

 

 Question 9What is the density of neon gas at STP conditions?

 

  20.18 g/L

 

  0.90 g/L

 

  1.00 g/L

 

  22.4 g/L

 

 Question 10A sample of O2 gas is collected over water at 21 °C. If the total pressure of the gas was 758 mm Hg, what is the partial pressure of the O2 gas? (the partial pressure of the water vapor at 21 °C is 18.7 mm Hg)

 

  40.5 mm Hg

 

  777 mm Hg

 

  739 mm Hg

 

  760 mm Hg

 

 

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 11 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Liquids have a variable shape, but a fixed volume.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 2What type of intermolecular forces exist between molecules of Cl2?

 

  dipole-dipole attractions

 

  dispersion forces

 

  intramolecular bonding

 

  hydrogen bonding

 

 Question 3Which of the following liquids has the highest surface tension?

 

  CHCl3

 

  H2O

 

  C5H12

 

  CS2

 

 Question 4Which of the following liquids has the highest viscosity?

 

  C5H12

 

  C6H14

 

  C7H16

 

  C8H18

 

 Question 5What is the term for the change of physical state from liquid to solid?

 

  melting

 

  sublimation

 

  freezing

 

  condensation

 

 Question 6Heat energy is NOT required to turn liquid water into gaseous water vapor.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 7Use the phase diagram below to answer what physical state H2O is at 99 °C and 500 kPa.

 

A graph is shown where the x-axis is labeled “Temperature in degrees Celsius” and the y-axis is labeled “Pressure ( k P a ).” A line extends from the origin of the graph which is labeled “A” sharply upward to a point in the bottom third of the diagram labeled “B” where it branches into a line that slants slightly backward until it hits the highest point on the y-axis labeled “D” and a second line that extends to the upper right corner of the graph labeled “C”. C is labeled “Critical point, with a dotted line extending downward to the x-axis labeled 374 degrees Celsius, and another dotted line extending to the y-axis labeled 22,089 k P a. The two lines bisect the graph area to create three sections, labeled “Ice (solid)” near the middle left, “Water (liquid)” in the top middle and “Water vapor (gas)” near the bottom middle. Point B is labeled “Triple point” and has a dotted line extending downward to the x-axis labeled 0.01, and another dotted line extending to the y-axis labeled 0.6. Halfway between points B and C a dotted line extends from the originally discussed line downward to the point 100 degrees Celsius on the x-axis, and another dotted line extends to the y-axis at 101 k P a. Another dotted line extends from this dotted line downward at 0 degrees Celsius.

 

  solid

 

  liquid

 

  gas

 

 Question 8Solids can readily compress and expand.

 

  True

 

  False

 

 Question 9Identify the type of crystalline solid (metallic, network covalent, ionic, or molecular) formed by each of the following substances:

 

a. Timetallic

 

 

 

 b. S8molecular

 

c. KBrionic

 

d. SiO2network covalent

 

Question 10Classify each substance as either a metallic, ionic, or molecular solid:

 

a) a hard, brittle substance that has a very high melting point metallic

 

b) a dull substance that is not soluble in water and has a low melting point molecular

 

c) a shiny substance that is a very good conductor of electricity ionic

 

 

 

CHEM1305 Introductory Chemistry

 

Chapter 12 Homework Assignment  

 

Question 1Predict whether each of the following is held together by ionic or covalent bonds:

 

a. water, H2O          covalent

 

b. calcium chloride, CaCl2          ionic

 

c. potassium oxide, K2O          ionic

 

d. carbon disulfide, CS2          covalent

 

Question 2State whether the following is true or false about the following ionic compounds:

 

a. in a sodium bromide formula unit, NaBr, the sodium atom has lost electrons and the bromine atom has gained electrons

 

c. in a calcium oxide formula unit, CaO, the calcium and oxygen from a bond by sharing electrons

 

d. calcium and oxide ions form a bond by an attraction between the ions

 

Question 3State whether the following is true or false about the following molecular compounds:

 

a. in a molecule of sulfur dioixide, SO2, the valence electrons are transferred from oxygen to sulfur

 

b. the S-O bond length equals the sum of the two atomic radii

 

c. in a molecule of hydrogen bromide, HBr, the valence electrons are shared by the hydrogen and bromine atoms

 

d. the H-Br bond length is less than the sum of the two atomic radii

 

Question 4Predict which element in each of the following pairs is more electronegative according to the general electronegativity trends in the periodic table:

 

a. C or O          O

 

b. Cl or Br          Cl

 

c. F or N          F

 

d. Si or P          P

 

Question 5Calculate the electronegativity difference between each of the following:

 

a. the bond between P and S          0.4

 

b. the bond between H and Br          0.7

 

Question 6Classify each of the following as either a polar covalent bond or nonpolar covalent bond:

 

a. F-F          nonpolar covalent bond

 

b. H-O          polar covalent bond

 

c. H-P          polar covalent bond

 

d. C-F          polar covalent bond

 

Question 7Which of the following is the correct electron dot formula for a molecule of HOCl?

 

a. HOCl_1.png

 

b. HOCl_2.png

 

c. HOCl_3.png

 

d. HOCl_4.png

 

Question 8Which of the following is the correct structural formula for a molecule of CH2S?

 

a. CH2S_1.png

 

b. CH2S_2.png

 

c. CH2S_3.png

 

d. CH2S_4.png

 

Question 9Predict the electron geometry and molecular geometry for each of the following molecules:

 

a. NF3 electron geometry: tetrahedral

 

molecular geometry:

 

b. H2S electron geometry:

 

molecular geometry:

 

c. SiH4electron geometry:

 

molecular geometry:

 

 d. HCN electron geometry:

 

molecular geometry: linear

 

Question 10CH3F has a polar bond (between the C-F), is it also a polar molecule?

 

  yes

 

  no

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