Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Describe the ways culture influences aggressive behavior. Sandys college friend, Matt, is a biology major. Hes convinced that human aggression is | WriteDen

Describe the ways culture influences aggressive behavior. Sandys college friend, Matt, is a biology major. Hes convinced that human aggression is

 

Objective: Describe the ways culture influences aggressive behavior. 

Sandy’s college friend, Matt, is a biology major. He’s convinced that human aggression is innate. It’s woven into our DNA. Sandy, who’s majoring in sociology, is absorbed in completing a course in social psychology. If you’re Sandy, how might you rebut Matt’s position if you’re aware that aggression is greatly influenced by culture? Provide evidence for your understandings based on Chapter 12 in your textbook. 

Objective: Explain the concept of social identity and describe its components. 

Karen, a student of social psychology, wants to explain social identity theory to Molly, a fellow student majoring in math. Karen realizes she’ll need to enumerate the pros and cons of (1) social identity, (2) ethnocentrism, (3) in-group bias, and (4) out-group homogeneity. Imagine you’re Karen, and based on what you’ve learned from Chapter 13, 

Objective: Briefly describe five aspects and components of prejudice using examples. 

 (1) The definition of prejudice; (2) the affect component of prejudice; (3) the cognitive component of prejudice; (4) the nature of stereotypes, and (5) the behavioral component of prejudice. You should provide examples of each concept based on your text and/or on your personal experience.

Chapter 13

Prejudice:

Causes, Consequences, and Cures

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Discussion Question

In the past week, have you had an interaction with others in which you wondered whether they were viewing you a certain way because of a stereotype of some sort?

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Learning Objectives

13.1 What are the three components of prejudice?

13.2 How can we measure prejudices that people don’t want to reveal—or that they don’t know they hold?

13.3 What are some ways that prejudice harms its targets?

13.4 What are three aspects of social life that can cause prejudice?

13.5 What are the six conditions that can reduce prejudice?

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Defining Prejudice

13.1 What are the three components of prejudice?

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Prejudice—A Ubiquitous Social Phenomenon (1 of 2)

Prejudice

A hostile or negative attitude toward people in a distinguishable group based solely on their membership in that group

Any group can be a target of prejudice.

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Prejudice—A Ubiquitous Social Phenomenon (2 of 2)

Can be discriminated against based on:

Nationality

Racial and ethnic identity

Gender

Sexual orientation

Religion

Appearance

Physical state

Weight

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Cartoon: Dogs versus Cats “It’s a cat calendar, so it may not be all that accurate.”

Source: Jack Ziegler/The New Yorker Collection/The Cartoon Bank

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Three Components of Prejudice

Cognitive: Stereotypes

Affective: Emotions

Behavioral: Discrimination

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The Cognitive Component: Stereotypes (1 of 5)

Stereotype

A generalization about a group of people

Certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.

Make sense of our social world by grouping people together

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The Cognitive Component: Stereotypes (2 of 5)

From categories to stereotypes

“the little pictures we carry around inside our heads”

Think about the following:

High school cheerleader

Compassionate nurse

Jewish computer scientist

Black musician

What did you come up with?

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The Cognitive Component: Stereotypes (3 of 5)

What is this woman’s occupation? Most Western non-Muslims hold the stereotype that Muslim women who wear the full-length black niqab must be repressed sexually as well as politically. But Wedad Lootah, a Muslim living in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is a marriage counselor and sexual activist, and the author of a best-selling Arabic sex manual.

Source: Bryan Denton/Corbis

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Cognitive Component: Stereotypes (4 of 5)

Stereotyping:

a cognitive process

can be positive or negative

technique we use to simplify our world

“Cognitive misers” take shortcuts and adopt rules of thumb to understand people

Better memory for information consistent with stereotypes

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The Cognitive Component: Stereotypes (5 of 5)

Stereotypes

Adaptive: when accurately identifies attributes of a group well

Maladaptive: blinds us to individual differences

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What’s Wrong with Positive Stereotypes? (1 of 2)

Example

Sports, race, and attribution

What’s wrong with the implication that black men can jump?

“Mark Flick” study (Stone et al., 1997)

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What’s Wrong with Positive Stereotypes? (2 of 2)

Denies individuality of person

Ignore the fact that plenty of African American kids are not adept at basketball and plenty of white kids are

If we meet a young African American man and feel astonished at his ineptitude on the basketball court, we are denying him his individuality.

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Stereotypes of Gender (1 of 2)

Traditional stereotypes

Women

More socially sensitive, friendlier, and more concerned with the welfare of others

Men

More dominant, controlling, and independent

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Stereotypes of Gender (2 of 2)

Hostile sexism

Stereotypical views of women that suggest that women are inferior to men

E.g., that they are less intelligent, less competent, and so on

Benevolent sexism

Stereotypical, positive views of women

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Cartoon: Who’s the Boss? “No, this is not Mel’s secretary. This is Mel.”

Source: Bacall Aaron/CartoonStock

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Hurricane Mark versus Hurricane Maxine

Gender stereotypes are so influential that people even tend to take less seriously the risks posed by hurricanes given female names.

Source: Jeff Schmaltz/NASA Images

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Affective Component: Emotions

Negative emotions about groups are often ingrained.

This makes such attitudes difficult to dispel.

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The Behavioral Component: Discrimination

Discrimination

An unjustified negative or harmful action toward the members of a group simply because of their membership in that group

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Racial Discrimination (1 of 2)

Example: Blacks and whites not treated equally in the “war against drugs”

African Americans disproportionately arrested, convicted, and incarcerated for drug charges

Microaggressions

“slights,” indignities, and put-downs

Example: White professor compliments Asian student for his “excellent English”

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Racial Discrimination (2 of 2)

Social Distance

A person’s reluctance to get “too close” to another group

Unwilling to work with, marry, or live next to members of a particular group

Example: Straight student not wanting to sit next to gay student

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Gender Discrimination

Occupations segregated by gender

People form stereotypes about the requirements of such careers

“Female” jobs: require kindness and nurturance

“Male” jobs: require strength and smarts

As gender ratios in occupations change, so do prejudice and discrimination

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The Activation of Prejudice (1 of 2)

Behave more aggressively toward stereotyped target when:

Stressed

Angry

Suffered blow to self-esteem

Not in control of conscious intentions

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The Activation of Prejudice (2 of 2)

Prejudices lurk just beneath the surface

Once activated, it affects how we perceive and treat out-group members

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Cartoon: Police Prejudice

Source: Roy Delgado/Cartoon Stock

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Implicit Bias and the Activation of Prejudice The fatal shootings of Trayvon Martin (left) in Florida in 2012 and Michael Brown (right) in Missouri in 2014 continued a tragic pattern of unarmed African American males being killed because their shooters claimed to have perceived them as dangerous. Research on implicit bias and the activation of prejudice is relevant to the effort to understand and prevent such tragedies.

Source: (Right) Splash News/Corbis; (Left) BRIAN BLANCO/EPA/Newscom

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Figure 13.1 Errors Made in “Shooting” People in a Video Game

Participants played a video game in which they were supposed to “shoot” a man if he was holding a gun and withhold fire if he was holding a harmless object, such as a cell phone. As the graph shows, players’ most common error was to “shoot” an unarmed black man, like the individual pictured above.

(Adapted from Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2002)

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Figure 13.2 The Unleashing of Prejudice Against African Americans

Prejudices can be activated when people feel angry or insulted. In this experiment, white participants gave less shock to a black “learner” than to a white learner when they were feeling fine. But once insulted, the white students gave higher levels to the black learner. (Adapted from Rogers & Prentice-Dunn, 1981)

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Detecting Hidden Prejudices

13.2 How can we measure prejudices that people don’t want to reveal—or that they don’t know they hold?

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A Milestone That Didn’t End Prejudice The election of America’s first African American president was an exhilarating milestone for many Americans, but it awakened implicit prejudices in others.

Source: 2009 Owen DB/Black Star/Newscom

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Suppressing Prejudices

People hide prejudice.

When situation becomes “safe,” their prejudice will be revealed.

Example

Questioning President Obama’s Americanism, not his race per se

Suppress prejudices for two reasons:

Sincere motivation to become less prejudiced

Avoid being labeled a sexist, racist, etc.

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Ways of Identifying Suppressed Prejudices

Most people don’t want to admit their prejudices, so unobtrusive measures are necessary.

Bogus pipeline

Participants believed a “lie detector” could detect true attitudes

More likely to express racist attitudes

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Ways of Identifying Implicit Prejudices (1 of 2)

Implicit biases: biases hidden from oneself

Implicit Association Test (IAT)

Measures speed of positive and negative reactions to target groups

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Ways of Identifying Implicit Prejudices (2 of 2)

IAT may be measuring bias OR…

It measures a cultural bias or stereotype, not a personally held bias

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The Face of Prejudice

Typical stimuli used in the IAT to measure implicit racism.

Source: William Cunningham

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The Effects of Prejudice on the Victim

13.3 What are some ways that prejudice harms its targets?

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The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (1 of 3)

Example 1

White college students interviewed white and African American job candidates (Word, Zanna, & Cooper, 1974)

White students displayed discomfort and lack of interest when interviewing African American candidates, not white (e.g., sat farther away, ended interview sooner)

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The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (2 of 3)

Example 1

In a second experiment, used confederates for interviewers who acted as the white students did in the first experiment

All white interviewees rated as more nervous and less effective

Interviewees confirmed low expectations

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The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (3 of 3)

Example 2

If a society believes that a particular group is stupid, uneducable, it will act in accordance with beliefs.

Educational resources will not be provided to that group.

The consequence: The group will not attain adequate education.

The Result: The society’s original belief will be confirmed.

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Figure 13.3 An Experiment Demonstrating Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

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Stereotype Threat (1 of 2)

The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype

“If I perform poorly on this test, it will reflect badly on me and my race.”

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Stereotype Threat (2 of 2)

Participants played a game of miniature golf (Stone et al., 1999)

One half were told the game measured “sport strategic intelligence.”

Black athletes performed worse than white athletes.

One half were told the game measured “natural athletic ability.”

Black athletes better than white athletes.

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Stereotype Threat and Gender (1 of 4)

Stereotype: Men are better at math than women.

IV = Information given to women about a math test

Test showed gender difference in math abilities

Test had nothing to do with male-female differences

DV = women’s performance on the test

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Stereotype Threat and Gender (2 of 4)

When told the math test was designed to show gender differences in math abilities

Women did not perform as well as men

When told the math test did not detect male-female differences

Women and men performed equally well

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Stereotype Threat and Gender (3 of 4)

Whether or not you feel “stereotype threat” depends on what category you are identifying with at the time. Asian women do worse on math tests when they see themselves as “women” (stereotype = poor at math) rather than as “Asians” (stereotype = good at math) (Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady, 1999).

Source: Gary Conner/PhotoEdit

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Stereotype Threat and Gender (4 of 4)

Stereotype threat effects found with multiple groups:

Latinos

Low-income people

Elderly

More self-conscious about performance led to greater effect on performance

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Reversing the Effects of Stereotype Threat

How can the effects of stereotype threat be reversed?

Alternative mindset:

“I’m a good student”

Self-affirmation:

Practice of reminding yourself of your good qualities

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Causes of Prejudice

13.4 What are three aspects of social life that can cause prejudice?

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Passing on Prejudice to the Next Generation Children often learn prejudice from parents and grandparents.

Source: Ross Taylor/The Herald/AP Images

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Pressures to Conform: Normative Rules

Institutional discrimination

Practices that discriminate, legally or illegally, against a minority group by virtue of its ethnicity, gender, culture, age, sexual orientation, or other target of societal or company prejudice

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When Prejudice Is Institutionalized

Normative conformity

The strong tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group’s expectations and gain acceptance

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Confronting Anti-Gay Bias in South Carolina When the mayor of Latta, South Carolina, fired 20-year force veteran Crystal Moore (below) from her position as police chief in 2014, he made little secret of the fact that it was because of her sexual orientation. But the citizens of Latta were outraged, rallying behind Chief Moore and forcing a vote on a referendum that allowed the town council to reinstate her. By reacting vocally to examples of prejudice in our immediate environment, we have the potential to create norms that combat bias.

Source: Jeffrey Collins/AP Images

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Social Identity Theory: Us versus Them (1 of 2)

Social identity:

Part of our identity that stems from our membership in groups

Ethnocentrism:

The belief that your own culture, nation, or religion is superior to all others

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Social Identity Theory: Us versus Them (2 of 2)

In-group bias:

The tendency to favor members of one’s own group and give them special preference over people who belong to other groups; the group can be temporary and trivial as well as significant

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In-Group Bias (1 of 3)

The major underlying motive is self-esteem

Individuals enhance self-esteem by identifying with specific social groups.

Self-esteem is enhanced only if the individual sees these groups as superior to other groups.

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In-Group Bias (2 of 3)

Researchers have created entities that they refer to as minimal groups.

Strangers are formed into groups using the most trivial criteria

“overestimators” or “underestimators”

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In-Group Bias (3 of 3)

Even when reasons for differentiation are minimal:

Favor in-group over out-group

Allocate more rewards for in-group members

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Out-Group Homogeneity

In-group members perceive out-group members as being more similar (homogeneous) than they really are

Know one out-group member, you know something about all of them

“They” are all alike

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Figure 13.4 Judgments About In-Group and Out-Group Members

After watching the target person make a choice between two alternatives, Rutgers students and Princeton students had to estimate what percentage of students at their school (their in-group) versus their rival school (the out-group) would make the same choice. Students thought that out-group members were more alike, whereas they noticed variation within their own in-group. This “homogeneity bias” was especially pronounced among Rutgers students (blue line). (Adapted from Quattrone & Jones, 1980)

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Blaming the Victim (1 of 2)

When empathy is absent, it can be hard to avoid blaming the victim.

Blaming the Victim

The tendency to blame individuals (make dispositional attributions) for their victimization, is typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place

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Blaming the Victim (2 of 2)

Example: rape victims

Must have “deserved it”

Behaved inappropriately

Dressed provocatively

Blaming the victim serves a self-protective function

Can’t happen to me, wouldn’t behave that way

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Justifying Feelings of Entitlement and Superiority (1 of 2)

Crandall and Eshleman’s (2003) model

Struggle between urge to express prejudice and the need to maintain positive self-concept (as a nonbigot)

Requires energy to suppress prejudiced impulses

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Justifying Feelings of Entitlement and Superiority (2 of 2)

To conserve energy, seek valid justification for holding a negative attitude toward a particular out-group

Can then act against that group and still feel like a nonbigot

Avoids cognitive dissonance

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“Thank God for Maimed Soldiers” The Bible has been used to promote tolerance and compassion—as well as to justify and inflame many prejudices.

Source: Jim West/Alamy

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Realistic Conflict Theory

Prejudice increases when times are tense and conflict exists over mutually exclusive goals.

Example

Economic recession and violence against Latinos

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The Role of the Scapegoat

Scapegoating

When frustrated or unhappy, people tend to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless

Form of aggression dependent on what in-group approves of or allows

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Economic and Political Competition (1 of 2)

Realistic conflict theory

Limited resources leads to conflict among groups, which leads to prejudice and discrimination

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Economic and Political Competition (2 of 2)

When times are tough and resources are scarce:

In-group members will feel more threatened by the out-group.

Incidents of prejudice, discrimination, and violence toward out-group members will increase.

Example: Sherif’s classic study of Eagles versus Rattlers

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Blaming Immigrants for Taking Jobs

Economic competition drives a good deal of prejudice. When unemployment rises, so does resentment against minorities.

Source: Richard W. Rodriguez/MCT/Landov

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reducing Prejudice

13.5 What are the six conditions that can reduce prejudice?

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Post-9/11 Anti-Muslim Prejudice After the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on 9/11, scapegoating of Muslims increased.

Source: David Taylor Photography/Alamy

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Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

How Can Prejudice Be Reduced?

Presenting people with information counter to stereotypes does not change beliefs

Can actually strengthen stereotypical belief

Disconfirming evidence challenges them to come up with additional reasons for holding on to that belief

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The Contact Hypothesis

Mere contact between groups not sufficient to reduce prejudice

Can create opportunities for conflict that may increase it

Prejudice will decrease when two conditions are met:

Both groups are of equal status.

Both share a common goal.

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Figure 13.5 The Impact of Cross-Ethnic Friendships on Minority Students’ Well-Being

In a longitudinal study of minority black students at a predominantly white university, many black students at first felt dissatisfied and excluded from school life. But the more white friends they made, the higher their sense of belonging (orange bar) and satisfaction with the university (red bar). This finding was particularly significant for minority students who had been the most sensitive to rejection and who had felt the most anxious and insecure about being in a largely white school. The study was later replicated with minority Latino students.

(Based on Mendoza-Denton & Page-Gould, 2008)

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When Contact Reduces Prejudice (1 of 2)

Sherif and colleagues (1961) found:

Once hostility and distrust were established, simply removing a conflict and the competition did not restore harmony.

In fact, bringing two competing groups together in neutral situations actually increased their hostility and distrust.

Interdependence

The need to depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each group

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When Contact Re

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