Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Difficult Volunteers and Resolution Techniques You are a new Volunteer Manager, managing a group of volunteers. You are having a very difficult ti | WriteDen

Difficult Volunteers and Resolution Techniques You are a new Volunteer Manager, managing a group of volunteers. You are having a very difficult ti

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Difficult Volunteers and Resolution Techniques

You are a new Volunteer Manager, managing a group of volunteers. You are having a very difficult time with Sally, a longtime volunteer with the organization. Unexpectedly, Sally explodes, becomes furious, and throws an embarrassing tantrum. You have received numerous complaints about Sally from other volunteers, staff, and clients. Your director asked you to handle the situation.

· Describe the techniques that you think would be most useful to come to a resolution that will be best for everyone involved.

· Explain how you might use coaching to improve the performance of your volunteers.

· Describe the value of a rewards and recognition program.

· How could you apply a rewards and recognition program to help you avoid problems like Sally’s in the future?

· Resources

· Required References

· Connors, T. D. (2011). Wiley nonprofit law, finance and management series: volunteer management handbook: leadership strategies for success (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN-13: 9780470604533. Chapter 11: Volunteer and Staff Relations

· Lee, Y., Won, D., & Bang, H. (2014). Why do event volunteers return? Theory of planned behavior. International Review on Public and Non-Profit Marketing, 11(3), 229-241. doi:10.1007/s12208-014-0117-0

· Rosenthal, R. J., & Baldwin, G. (2015). Volunteer engagement 2.0: Ideas and insights changing the world. Somerset, NJ: Wiley & Sons. ISBN-13: 9781118931882. Chapter 7: Keeping the Volunteers You Have

· Recommended References

· Alfes, K., Shantz, A., & Saksida, T. (2015). Committed to whom? Unraveling how relational job design influences volunteers' turnover intentions and time spent volunteering. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, 26(6), 2479-2499. doi:10.1007/s11266-014-9526-2

· Connors, T. D. (2012). The volunteer management handbook (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.  Chapter 12: Communicating with Volunteers and Staff

· Manetti, G., Bellucci, M., Como, E., & Bagnoli, L. (2015). Investing in volunteering: Measuring social returns of volunteer recruitment, training, and management. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 26(5), 2104-2129. doi:10.1007/s11266-014-9497-3

· Sellon, A. (2014). Recruiting and retaining older adults in volunteer programs: Best practices and next steps. Ageing International, 39(4), 421-437.

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CHAPTER 11

Volunteer and Staff Relations Nancy Macduff, MACE

Macduff/Bunt Associates

In Volunteers: The Organizational Behavior of Unpaid Workers (Pearce, 1993,p. 177), the author devotes a section of her book to the research data on the rela- tionship between volunteers and staff. In an early version of the book she refers to that relationship as “the dirty little secret of volunteerism.” The author of the chapter had the opportunity to read and comment on the draft of the book’s manuscript. I applauded her bravery in dramatically underscoring the seriousness of the issue of volunteer and staff relations. Regrettably, the editors of her book sanitized it to read: “The tension that can exist between volunteers and employee co-workers remains one of the unpleasant secrets of nonprofit organizations” (Pearce, 1993, p. 142). It is unfortunate that her original statement did not survive the editor’s pencil. It is likely that the relationship between volunteers and staff is more complex and critical than one might assume (Netting, O’Connor, Thomas, & Yancey, 2005).

The relationship between volunteers and staff has had the attention of both schol- ars and those who manage volunteer programs for many years. In 1988, Mausner reviewed practitioner literature reporting on the views of Marlene Wilson and Ivan Scheier, two noted practitioner writers, among others. Wilson and Scheier stated that ignoring the relationship of volunteers and staff would impact future volunteer engagement. Ignore the relationship and the organization runs the risk of dissatisfied volunteers abandoning traditional organizations forming new nonprofits or self-help groups and neighborhood associations (Wilson, 1981). Another study reported that more than 65% of staff reported conflicts with volunteers of a minor nature. They in- cluded such things as personality conflicts, volunteers not pulling their weight, a lack of communication, disagreement over how to handle situations, and negative atti- tudes toward volunteers by staff (Wandersman & Alderman, 1993, cited in Rogelberg et al., 2010).

Converse to such negative reports, a more recent study reported that 80% of em- ployees described volunteers as knowing what they are doing, being hard-working, open-minded, well-trained, friendly, and independent (Rogelberg et al., 2010).

255 The Volunteer Management Handbook : Leadership Strategies for Success, edited by Tracy D. Connors, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ashford-ebooks/detail.action?docID=697552. Created from ashford-ebooks on 2022-05-04 10:35:37.

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This was in organizations using standard volunteer management processes and with a designated manager of volunteers.

No matter the study, writer, or results, there was the admonition to guard against poor volunteer-staff relations, with attendant advice to help everyone work happily together. There was even some discussion describing the character- istics of an effective volunteer-staff partnership, the symptoms of poor rela- tions, how to survey the relationship, or what to do to improve the situation (Mausner, 1988).

It is the relationship between volunteers and staff that can influence the success or failure of a program, fundraising event, changes in leadership, and the ability to make positive organizational changes. When people work together as teams, at all levels of an organization, agency, or program, efficient and effective services are delivered to clients, patrons, or members. Harmony is achieved not by accident but by attention to the needs of both sides of this vital equation. Nonprofit leaders can- not take for granted such harmony. The experience of both staff and volunteer im- pacts stress and morale, both of which impact the organization’s ability to deliver services (Rogelsberg et al., 2010).

Defining the Volunteers and Staff Team

A set or group of people who work together for a common goal is a team. Another type of team is those players forming one side in certain games and sports. In this context the team is a thing—a group, an association, an entity. Change the grammati- cal usage, however, and team becomes people’s willingness to act for the good of the group rather than their own self-interests.

In selecting members for a board of directors or advisory board, one issue consid- ered by nominating committees is a candidate’s ability to rise above the single issue to look at the big picture and thus the welfare of the entire organization. Sometimes vol- unteers are asked to set aside ways in which they have operated for years and move into a new mode. Those who do have subordinated what is good for them personally and put the organization’s needs first. The good of the team takes precedence. This same philosophy applies to the direct service volunteer who works with clients, mem- bers, patrons, or leads an event or function. Working with the paid staff in an equal partnership is essential. Volunteers and staff share involvement on an equal footing (Mausner, 1988).

The team is also used to describe transport or conveyance. The joint working rela- tionship between volunteers and paid staff in the Boy Scouts allows children to build their citizenship skills; in orchestras it brings music to the community; in hospice it provides skilled and sensitive support to the dying and their families; in libraries it fights censorship; and in humane societies it supports the work of caring for a com- munity’s unwanted and unloved animals. Volunteers and staff have the capacity to transport and carry over the cares and concerns of other people into creative solu- tions. “A team’s performance includes both individual results and what we call collec- tive work-products” (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993, p. 114). Those work products reflect the joint contributions of the members. The effective volunteer-staff team is greater than the participation of any one member.

256 Volunteer and Staff Relations

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Characteristics of the Effective Volunteer-Staff Team

The literature on volunteer and staff relations stresses the importance of two elements: the use of standard volunteer management resources and the presence of a desig- nated individual to manage the volunteer operation. One study showed overwhelm- ingly that when “volunteer management strategies” were employed, the better the relationship between paid staff and volunteers (Rogelberg et al., 2010). The greater the intentionality of managing the volunteer and staff team, the less intention to leave the organization, less stress, and more stability in the organization.

Utilizing practitioner literature and academic studies over time results in a consistent list of what constitutes the ideal volunteer and staff team. (Fisher & Cole, 1993; Macduff, 1996; Mausner, 1988; McCurley & Lynch, 2004; Rogelberg et al. 2010; Scheier, 2003; Wilson, 1976)

& Teams are a manageable size. “Virtually all effective teams we have met, read or heard about, or been mem-

bers of have ranged between 2 and 25 people. The majority of them have num- bered less than 10” (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993, p. 112). In most voluntary organizations, this means that the large group of 100C volunteers and 12 staff are in subgroups or teams. Those serving on the advisory board or board of directors are one team, the people who work every other Thursday in the organization’s office are another team, the committee that plans the annual fun-run fundraiser is yet another.

& People are appropriately selected to serve on a team. Putting together the right combination of volunteers and staff in terms of per-

sonality, skills, influence, communication styles, and ability to perform is impor- tant. The more time and care spent in selecting the right combinations for the team, the greater the chances of success. It is wise to acknowledge that the “shared vision” for a project or endeavor can be different between volunteers and staff based on such things as values, age, educational level, or socioeconomic group (Mausner, 1988).

& Team leaders are trained. Whether team leaders are unpaid volunteers or paid staff members, they de-

serve and should be required to receive training. Leaders who think they must do all the jobs or have little capacity to delegate make poor team leaders. Find a Tom Sawyer, someone who knows not only how to paint the fence but also knows how to get others to do it. This is someone who has the makings of a team leader, who must plan, delegate, and motivate.

& Teams are trained to carry out their tasks. The board of directors or advisory board is a team. They need training on

how to carry out their responsibilities and tasks. For example, they must under- stand the fundamental differences between governance and administration. Gov- ernance is the policy-making role of the board. Administration of the policy is the responsibility of the staff. Volunteers serving as school aides need to understand appropriate and inappropriate behavior in relationship to the children. The teacher (staff) and volunteer aide need to have an understanding of the same set of expected behaviors.

Characteristics of the Effective Volunteer-Staff Team 257

The Volunteer Management Handbook : Leadership Strategies for Success, edited by Tracy D. Connors, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ashford-ebooks/detail.action?docID=697552. Created from ashford-ebooks on 2022-05-04 10:35:37.

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& Teams are the foundation of the organization. Voluntary organizations, whether or not they are staffed by paid personnel,

are founded on the notion of people working together for a common good. Such a foundation means everyone affiliated with the organization is in some way con- nected to everyone else. Working together effectively and efficiently is the foun- dation that builds and strengthens the organization or agency.

& Volunteers and staff are supported by administration. Managers and administrators of organizations need to understand the impor-

tance of their commitment to the working team—both volunteers and staff. Any program is enhanced through a formal policy statement that outlines the role of volunteers and explains the nature of the volunteer-staff relationship. It is evident that presence of standard volunteer management strategies improves the chance for harmonious volunteer and staff relations, which in turn leads to positive employee perceptions of experiences with volunteers (Rogelberg et al., 2010).

& Teams have goals and objectives. Effective volunteer-staff teams create a shared vision for their work. Usually,

they develop a plan with purposes, goals, objectives, and work plans to guide their efforts. “Effective teams develop strong commitment to a common approach, that is, to how they will work together to accomplish their purpose” (Fisher & Cole, 1993, p. 26). Trust cannot be ordained. It develops when people work to- gether successfully. Having a plan helps to build the mutuality of experience that builds trust over time. Two primary elements are essential to effective volunteer and staff relationships: trust and shared power (Mausner, 1988).

& Volunteers and staff trust and support one another. People come to trust each other when they have shared positive experien-

ces. A lack of trust creates imbalance between volunteers and staff (Mausner, 1988). In a voluntary organization, this means that everyone knows the purpose of the organization and the tasks at hand. Goals are developed by members of the team working together. Some orchestra boards of directors, for example, de- cide how much money is to be raised by a guild or association during their bud- get building process and do not consult with the volunteers whose responsibility it is to raise the money. This undermines trust and support among governance volunteers, fundraising volunteers, and the staff who must work with both.

& Communication between volunteers and staff is both vertical and horizontal. The common notion about communication deals with the sending and

receiving of messages. Communication is really about sending “meanings” (Wil- son, 1976). It is less a language process and more a people process. It involves the active and continuous use of such things as active listening, providing feed- back, telephone trees, regular e-mails or texts. The messages aim at clarifying perceptions; reading body language; and noticing symbols that communicate meaning. It travels in all directions in the organizational structure—up, down and horizontally. Leadership volunteers communicate with direct-service volun- teers. Staff communicates with volunteers all the time. Hierarchical blocks to communication are bridged when volunteers and staff work together effec- tively. It is also true that working together is best facilitated by good communication.

258 Volunteer and Staff Relations

The Volunteer Management Handbook : Leadership Strategies for Success, edited by Tracy D. Connors, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ashford-ebooks/detail.action?docID=697552. Created from ashford-ebooks on 2022-05-04 10:35:37.

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& The organizational structure promotes communication between volunteers and staff.

Volunteers and staff need policies, procedures, and structures that permit and encourage them to communicate. A group of volunteers who raised a great deal of money for an organization and led educational programs had a small office (read closet) in the administrative offices of a large nonprofit group. In a manage- ment shuffle, the new executive director saw no reason why these women (the group was largely female) could not work out of their homes. The small office was then available for storage. Volunteers who could once walk down the hall and talk with paid staff colleagues about their plans and activities were now forced to deal with the voice and e-mail structure. Appointments were needed to share information. This is an example of the organization creating roadblocks to effective communication.

& The work of volunteers and staff has real responsibility. Millions of volunteers stuff envelopes each year for organizations, agencies,

and programs. Seems like an unimportant job except that it provides information, education, and news to constituents, clients, or members. Most volunteers know this and willingly fold and stuff for hours because it is a real job with real responsi- bility. All jobs need to be described clearly as to how it aids in accomplishing the mission of the organization.

& Volunteers and staff have fun while accomplishing their tasks. Harmonious relationships between volunteers and staff are readily apparent

in the amount of fun exhibited during planning meetings, at activities, or during evaluation sessions. A group of volunteers and staff recruiting parents to serve as leaders of youth clubs heard many people say no before someone would agree to serve. A volunteer came to a meeting and said, “I think I have heard the worst excuse yet for not volunteering. A woman told me yesterday she couldn’t be a leader of her son’s club because she ironed.” This brought laughter all around and generated other “best excuse” stories. Someone produced a notebook and the “funny excuses” were recorded. The recording of best excuses was institution- alized by the group and it went on for years. New members, volunteers, and staff were indoctrinated with readings from the book by returning members. The hu- mor and affection exhibited by the group built a sense of fun and reinforced the concept of mutual responsibility. Never underestimate the impact of fun on vol- unteers and/or staff.

& There is recognition for the contributions of volunteers and staff. Volunteers publicly recognize the work of staff. Staff publicly acknowledges

the efforts of volunteers. There are both formal and informal expressions of appreciation for the work accomplished by groups. Management or administra- tion encourages this and organizes ways to make it easy for the recognition to occur. This effort at recognition is consistent, public, and visible.

& Volunteers and staff celebrate their successes. Celebrations with food, frivolity, and friendship are a hallmark of effective

volunteer and staff relationships. These activities are often spontaneous and in- expensive. It can be as simple as a visit to a local coffee shop or pizza parlor. They are encouraged by the leadership of the organization and might often be led by them. Budgets in nonprofit organizations are planned to pay for

Characteristics of the Effective Volunteer-Staff Team 259

The Volunteer Management Handbook : Leadership Strategies for Success, edited by Tracy D. Connors, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ashford-ebooks/detail.action?docID=697552. Created from ashford-ebooks on 2022-05-04 10:35:37.

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celebratory events to herald the effectiveness of the volunteers and staff who work together to achieve the mission of the organization.

& The entire organization sees itself as portioning and encouraging the health of volunteer and staff relationships.

Building effective volunteer and staff relationships works only when every- one in the organization sees him or herself as part of a volunteer-staff partnership and actively promotes such relationships.

Managing Different Types of Volunteer-Staff Teams

There are three different types of teams: volunteer-staff teams that make or do things, teams that run things, and teams that recommend things. The next descriptions give some idea of how they might be managed effectively.

Volunteer-Staff Teams that Make or Do Things

These groups provide the most direct service—stuff envelopes, visit shut-ins, deliver library books, walk dogs, take blood pressure, lead Girl Scout or 4-H clubs, teach nu- trition, weigh rice into one-pound sacks, and make soup for the homeless. The work these teams do has no end date because their activities are ongoing. Managers need to observe and assess these types of teams on a continuing basis. By measuring produc- tivity and performance on a regular basis, alterations are made in how work groups are organized; the training they receive; and client, member, or patron responses. Feedback must be quick, clear, concise, and continual.

Volunteer-Staff Teams that Run Things

The board of directors, an advisory committee, or a group overseeing some functional activity of the organization or agency is a team that is in effect governing. The key here is to help the team avoid being like the make- or do-things groups described above. If the volunteers and staff want to organize as a team, they must have goals and objectives separate from those encompassed in the mission of the organization.

Boards of directors, for example, often focus their planning on accomplishing the mission of the organization, to the exclusion of the development of their own skills as governance volunteers. The board needs separate and distinct goals and objectives, apart from the organizational goals and objectives. These might include such things as communication skill training, risk management presentations, or skills to manage conflict.

Governance groups, boards of directors, or advisory groups frequently have teams within the larger group. Standing or ad hoc committees make up smaller teams, but they are in no way the only small team within the larger group. As executive direc- tor of a nonprofit organization for almost 15 years, the author developed a team rela- tionship with five succeeding presidents of the board, and in several cases the team was enlarged to include other officers. The volunteer and staff pairing allowed for creativity in problem solving, leadership development of others, program innovation, policy direction, and organizational change. These small teams did not operate to

260 Volunteer and Staff Relations

The Volunteer Management Handbook : Leadership Strategies for Success, edited by Tracy D. Connors, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ashford-ebooks/detail.action?docID=697552. Created from ashford-ebooks on 2022-05-04 10:35:37.

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exclude others; rather they operated to develop the plans and strategies to enable other volunteers and staff to perform as effectively as possible.

Volunteer-Staff Teams that Recommend Things

Nonprofit and voluntary groups rely heavily on task forces, advisory panels, and proj- ect groups. These are groups with a short time period to accomplish their tasks or solve a problem. A special team dissolves after making recommendations for a pro- gram. Initially, this is a task force type of group—a group that must get off to a fast start and meet deadlines for recommendations or activities.

The key component of building teams that recommend is an early and clear role definition and the opportunity for volunteers and staff to create their own goals and objectives. The relationship between volunteers and staff can be enhanced if members are selected carefully. This is often the time to put together individuals, volunteers, and paid staff, and have a track record of working effectively in a group. It is also important to include people who will ensure that the recommendations are carried out.

Building effective volunteer-staff teams involves more than implementing training programs on communication. It includes knowing the types of teams that can be formed, what skills its members need, how to match tasks with skills and interpersonal style, and how to address the challenges faced by the teams.

A band that played an open-air concert at a county fair had several members who sang, played, and worked the front of the stage. Additional musicians behind them served in a more supportive role. The obvious harmony of this team came from their agreement about programming, their communication while on-stage, the fun they had with each other, and their willingness to listen to all members, those in front and those further back, in order to enhance the concert. This musical team was a delight to hear. “Usually when this occurs it is that the unique and separate talents of all those in- volved were somehow blended into a whole that was greater than all of its parts” (Wilson, 1976, p. 181). It is also the ideal to which all volunteer and staff teams should subscribe.

Recognizing the Symptoms of Poor Volunteer-Staff Relationships

In some organizations there is a lack of communication that influences the very sur- vival of the institution. Volunteers and staff are locked in adversarial roles detrimental to the health of the entire organization (Rogelberg et al., 2010). This usually begins gradually and at first is noticed by few staff or volunteers. Symptoms include the in- creasing use of “us and them” language. Volunteer managers hear things like, “They always do things like this to us.” “We would never do something like that to them.” There is uncertainty among volunteers and staff about roles and responsibilities. Indi- viduals are often uncooperative about working on joint projects. They do not commu- nicate directly, but go around each other to get questions answered and problems solved. There is a risk volunteers will leave and paid staff resign (McElroy, Morrow, & Rude, 2001, p. 424, cited in Rogelberg et al., 2010).

Volunteers and staff often carve out territory and guard it tenaciously (McNair, 1981, p. 3, cited in Mausner, 1988). For example, programs become the sole property

Recognizing the Symptoms of Poor Volunteer-Staff Relationships 261

The Volunteer Management Handbook : Leadership Strategies for Success, edited by Tracy D. Connors, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ashford-ebooks/detail.action?docID=697552. Created from ashford-ebooks on 2022-05-04 10:35:37.

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of staff, volunteers stake out a fundraising event and won’t entertain suggestions from staff, or board members go into secret meetings to establish budgets and do not con- sult direct service volunteers or paid staff.

When volunteers and staff have poor relations there is little information sharing. In territorial environments information is power. “Withhold information and you are in control” is the philosophy. A large city orchestra had to cancel its concert season due to a severe money shortage. Leaders asked season ticketholders to donate the pur- chased tickets and not to request refunds. Several months after this dramatic action the president of the volunteer association knew little about any plans to improve the financial situation, despite the fact that the association would be expected to raise sev- eral hundred thousands of dollars to help balance the budget.

Withholding of information is a way for the board and senior staff to demonstrate their ownership of the budget. It is also a flashing road sign warning that the relation- ship between volunteers and staff is not healthy. How can management and voluntary leaders determine the current state of volunteer-staff relations and then develop strat- egies to improve the staff-volunteer work environment to increase productivity? The first step is to conduct an audit of current volunteer-staff relations, and the second is to implement appropriate steps or strategies to improve the relationship between the two groups.

Volunteer-Staff Climate Audit

The volunteer-staff climate audit (see Exhibit 11.1) assesses the current state of volun- teer-staff relations and provides a way to monitor changes in the working environ- ment. It is distributed to randomly selected members of staff, volunteers, clients/ patrons/members, and perhaps people outside the organizational family who regu- larly interact with staff and/or volunteers (if an outsiders’ perspective is needed).

The process begins with the organization of an audit committee, which is led by a volunteer-staff team. Members include volunteers from all areas of the organization and representatives of staff (including people who do paid-staff support work). The person who coordinates or manages volunteers is a likely candidate to provide staff support to this committee. The audit committee needs the support of management and administration with a budget and the resources to carry out its assignment. The commitment of leaders in the organization to an assessment of volunteer-staff rela- tions will be judged not just by words but by the actions taken to support the efforts designed by the audit committee. The audit committee should follow all the recom- mendations for effective team

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