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Does blood type influence COVID-19 symptoms? Research regarding variable presentations of COVID-19 continues rapidly.

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 Module 1 Discussion

Blood Type and COVID-19 Symptoms

Directions:

Does blood type influence COVID-19 symptoms? Research regarding variable presentations of COVID-19 continues rapidly. Some of this new research hypothesizes blood type influences.

 

Initial Post

 

Read ABO Blood Types and COVID-19: Spurious, Anecdotal, or Truly Important Relationships? A Reasoned Review of Available Data. Focus on the general concepts, as opposed to understanding every word.

 

After completing the reading, answer the following question for your initial post: “How does blood type influence symptom variations in people exposed to COVID-19?”

 

Use the assigned article, with appropriate APA citations, to support your position.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, share how your findings and conclusions related to a peer’s initial posting position. Focus on the similarities and differences in key findings. You may use the assigned article or other credible references of your own selection to support your follow-up post(s).

 

Additional Resources

 

FAQ: How can I write a really good discussion post?

 

Reference(s)

 

Pendu, J. L., Breiman, A., Rocher, J., Dion, M., & Ruvoën-Clouet, N. (2021). ABO Blood Types and COVID-19: Spurious, Anecdotal, or Truly Important Relationships? A Reasoned Review of Available Data. Viruses, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020160

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 2 Discussion

 

Cardiovascular Disease

 

Directions:

 

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of deaths in the United States, equating to about 1 in every 4 deaths. In 2018, the CDC published updated best practice strategies to help decrease cardiovascular disease risks.

 

Initial Post

 

View Best Practices for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programs. On this website, select one of the best practice strategies. Within each practice strategy, you will find three tabs: evidence of effectiveness, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations. In your initial post, use these key categories to address the following question:

 

How effective is this practice?

 

What kind of impact does this practice have?

 

What are the top considerations in implementing this strategy in your community?

 

Be sure to support your positions with APA formatted in-text citations and references from the assigned resource.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, share whether the practice you researched is more or less effective, impactful, and implementable than the one your peer shared. Support your position with the assigned resource, as well as your observations in your community.

 

Reference(s)

 

CDC. (2018). Best Practices for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programs. https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/pubs/guides/best-practices/index.htm

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 3 Discussion

 

Hypercholesterolemia

 

Hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol levels in the blood) is associated with various cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Research how hypercholesterolemia develops, as well as its complications.

 

Initial Post

 

A common treatment for hypercholesterolemia is a class of drugs called statins. In your post, address the following questions:

 

Are statins the best course of treatment for hypercholesterolemia in adults? Why or why not?

 

Should they be prescribed to adults with hypercholesterolemia with no evidence of heart disease?

 

Should teenagers be prescribed statins if they are diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia? Why or why not?

 

Is there a better solution for these situations?

 

Be sure to support your positions with APA formatted in-text citations and references from a credible resource.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, consider a peer’s perspective, and share how your research and experiences either further support your peer’s perspective, or offer alternatives to your peer’s perspective. Support your position with at least one credible resource, as well as your own experiences. You may use the same resource as you used to support your initial post.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 4 Discussion

 

COVID-19 Vaccine Immunity

 

Directions:

 

Ways to build immunity have come to the news forefront during the COVID-19 pandemic. While vaccines to build immunity are not new concepts, variations in mechanism of action vary based on the target pathogen.

 

Initial Post

 

View Understanding how COVID-19 vaccines work.

 

After reading your assigned textbook reading for this  and the assigned article, describe what kind of immunity COVID-19 vaccines provide, and how this is different than a flu vaccine.

 

Be sure to support your positions with APA formatted in-text citations and references from the assigned resource.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, share how your understanding of COVID-19 and flu vaccine-induced immunity are similar or different than a peer’s post. Support your position with the assigned resource, as well as any other credible resources of your own selection.

 

Reference(s)

 

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (2021, March 9). Understanding how COVID-19 vaccines work. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/how-they-work.html

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 5 Discussion

 

Smoking Cessation

 

Directions:

 

Smoking cessation continues to be a leading modifiable risk factor for cardiorespiratory and total body wellness. Many options, such as e-cigarettes and vaping, have come to the forefront as cessation alternatives, but studies on safety are lacking. As a healthcare provider, you are likely to encounter questions on strategies for smoking cessation and alternatives.

 

Initial Post

 

View Smoking cessation: The role of healthcare professionals and health systems.

 

After consulting your assigned textbook reading for this  and the article cited here, answer each of the following questions:

 

What is the role of healthcare providers and healthcare systems in smoking cessation?

 

Are e-cigarettes and vaping safer than traditional cigarette smoking? Explain.

 

What is one physiological reason that smoking increases cardiorespiratory or other health risks?

 

Be sure to support your positions with APA formatted in-text citations and references from the assigned resource. You may also use other scholarly resources to support your opinions.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, share how your understanding of how healthcare provider roles in counseling smoking cessation are similar or different than a peer’s post. Support your position with the assigned resource, as well as any other credible resources of your own selection, and/or personal experiences.

 

Reference(s)

 

Smoking Cessation – the Role of Healthcare Professionals and Health Systems retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2020-smoking-cessation/fact-sheets/healthcare-professionals-health-systems/index.html

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 6 Discussion

 

Digestion and Psychology

 

Directions:

 

How do anatomical and physiological changes impact digestive pathology presentation? What is the link between digestion and psychology? In this discussion we will explore both concepts, as interest in both managing digestive disorders and psychological presentations represent growing fields.

 

Initial Post

 

Read the introduction, conclusion, and one section regarding a condition that piques your interest in Intestinal epithelial barrier and neuromuscular compartment in health and disease.

 

Focus on the general concepts, as opposed to understanding every word. After completing the reading, answer the following question for your initial post: “How does digestive physiology lead to a specific pathological presentation?” You may choose which digestive pathology you’d like to focus on.

 

Use the assigned article, with appropriate APA citations, to support your position with at least 5-6 sentences to support your case.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, share what factors you find most surprising, as well as any experiences and questions you have about digestive system physiology and pathology presentation. You may use the assigned article, or other credible references of your own selection to support your follow-up post(s).

 

Reference(s)

 

D’Antongiovanni, V., Pellegrini, C., Fornai, M., Colucci, R., Blandizzi, C., Antonioli, L., & Bernardini, N. (2020). Intestinal epithelial barrier and neuromuscular compartment in health and disease. World journal of gastroenterology, 26(14), 1564–1579. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i14.1564

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 7 Discussion

 

Differentiating Nutrition Science from Media

 

Directions:

 

More people are becoming interested in detox diets and organ health. As a health educator, one of your roles is differentiating evidence versus popular media and marketing. In this discussion, we will explore evidence that supports the role of nutrition in liver health to add to your ability to differentiate nutrition science from media.

 

Initial post: 

 

Start by reading the article titled, Impact of nutritional changes on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

 

Focus on the general concepts, as opposed to understanding every word. After completing the reading, answer the following question for your initial post: “What evidence-based general nutrition recommendations would you share with patients interested in liver health?”

 

Use the assigned article, with appropriate APA citations, to support your position with at least 5-6 sentences to support your case.

 

Reply post: 

 

In your reply post, share what factors you find most surprising, as well as any experiences and questions you have about the relation of evidence-based nutrition to liver health. You may use the assigned article, or other credible references of your own selection to support your follow-up post(s).

 

Reference(s)

 

Perdomo, C. M., Frühbeck, G., & Escalada, J. (2019). Impact of nutritional changes on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrients, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030677

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 8 Discussion

 

Urinalysis

 

Directions:

 

Urinalysis is a common non-invasive component of primary care screening, pathology screening, and drug metabolite testing. Urine is often viewed as a waste product, but newer research suggests that urine can offer more insight into health.

 

Initial Post

 

Read Urinology Think Tank Writing Group.

 

Focus on the general concepts, as opposed to understanding every word. After completing the reading, answer the following question for your initial post: “What future insights may urine be able to offer us in health and wellness?”

 

Use the assigned article, with appropriate APA citations, to support your position with at least 5-6 sentences to support your case.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, share what factors you find most surprising, as well as any experiences and questions you have about urinary system health. You may use the assigned article, or other credible references of your own selection to support your follow-up post(s).

 

Reference(s)

 

Urinology Think Tank Writing Group (2018). Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?. Neurourology and urodynamics, 37(3), 1162–1168. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.23414 Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897180/

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 9 Discussion

 

Benefits and Risks of Contraception

 

Directions:

 

You are attending a primary care visit with your teenage female relative. The primary care physician asks if she is taking birth control pills. She is not, but is considering it. You hear the primary care doctor share the benefits, but not the risks. You begin researching risks to help with a fully informed opinion.

 

Initial Post

 

Read Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

 

After reading the assigned article, answer the following question: “Would you recommend birth control pills to your teenage daughter or a best friend’s teenage daughter? Why or why not.

 

Be sure to support your positions with APA formatted in-text citations and references from the assigned resource.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, compare and contrast other forms of birth control. Which would be your top recommendation for a teenager? Why?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 10 Discussion

 

Nutrition for Maternal and Fetal Health

 

Directions:

 

Nutrition is a large component of maternal and fetal health, and some nutrition choices can have impacts that last a lifespan. With your studies in healthcare, patients, friends, and family members are likely to ask for your informed opinion regarding maternal nutrition choices.

 

Initial Post

 

View Eating Disorders During Gestation: Implications for Mother’s Health, Fetal Outcomes, and Epigenetic Changes.

 

Read the introduction, and at least one section of your own selection in the remainder of the article. Then, answer the following question: “How does maternal nutrition affect maternal and/or fetal health?” Provide specific examples.

 

Be sure to support your positions with APA formatted in-text citations and references from the assigned resource.

 

Reply Post

 

In your reply post, share how your understanding of nutrition-related maternal and fetal health are similar or different than a peer’s post. Support your position with the assigned resource, as well as any other credible resources you would like.

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 1 Reflection Assignment  

 

Hematology

 

After viewing this ’s content (including course readings, live classroom, lab, and other supporting material), answer each of the following questions. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with hematology. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with hematology. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about hematology in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 2 Reflection Assignment  

 

Heart

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the heart. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with the heart. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about the heart in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 3 Reflection Assignment  

 

Cardiovascular System

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the vascular system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with the vascular system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about the heart in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 4 Reflection Assignment  

 

Lymphatic & Immune Systems

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the lymphatic and immune systems. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with the lymphatic and immune systems. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about the lymphatic and immune systems in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 5 Reflection Assignment  

 

Respiratory Systems

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the respiratory system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with the respiratory system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about the respiratory system in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 6 Reflection Assignment  

 

Digestive System

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the digestive system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with the digestive system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about the digestive system in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 7 Reflection Assignment  

 

Nutrition and Metabolism

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with nutrition structural foundations. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with nutrition and metabolic functional foundations. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about basic nutrition and metabolism in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 8 Reflection Assignment  

 

Urinary System

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the urinary system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with the urinary system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about with the urinary system in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 9 Reflection Assignment  

 

Reproductive Systems

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the reproductive system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with the reproductive system. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about the reproductive system in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 10 Reflection Assignment  

 

Human Development

 

After reviewing and studying this ’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.

 

Explain the anatomical concepts associated with human development. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

Explain the physiological concepts associated with human development. Summarize this ’s key points in 5-6 sentences.

 

How will you apply the concepts you have learned about human development in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic within this  has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?

 

Which topic(s) within this  did you struggle to understand and why?

 

(Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 11 Reflection Assignment  

 

Topics in the Course

 

In reflection of this ’s overall content, answer the following 4 questions in a Word document:

 

Which topic within this course has been the most valuable to your learning experience?

 

How will you apply this topic in real life and in your future career?

 

Which topic would you like your instructor to cover in your final exam review? (If you are submitting after the final exam review session, is there a topic you’d like your instructor to share more information on in response to this assignment?)

 

Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help future students like you connect better with any specific difficult topics you’ve noted? 

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 1 Quiz    

 

Question 1Which of the following donor types would be compatible with an A+ recipient?

 

B+

 

AB+

 

A-

 

AB-

 

Question 2Which statement is true regarding blood typing?

 

An Rh+ mother pregnant with a child who is Rh+ poses a risk for blood incompatibility during this pregnancy.

 

Blood type O- is the universal donor.

 

When a B+ patient receives a blood transfusion from an O- donor, agglutination occurs.

 

Type AB blood will have both Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies found within its plasma.

 

Question 3Which statement is true regarding blood cells?

 

Blood cells are typically broken down in the kidney.

 

Hemoglobin is structure that binds oxygen molecules to erythrocytes.

 

Leukocytes can transport carbon dioxide as well as oxygen throughout the body.

 

Dying red blood cells are called reticulocytes.

 

Question 4Which statement is true regarding the blood plasma protein albumin?

 

It represents only 4% of all plasma proteins.

 

It is synthesized by the spleen.

 

It is involved in transport of materials within the blood.

 

It is involved in the hemostasis process.

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 2 Quiz    

 

Question 1What is true of the chordae tendineae?

 

Prevent the aortic cusps from closing improperly

 

Prevent the AV cusps from closing improperly

 

Provide structural support to the ventricle walls

 

Assist in the contraction in the papillary muscles

 

Question 2The contraction of the heart follows which sequence?

 

The right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, then left ventricle

 

The right side of the heart contracts, then the left side contracts

 

The atria contract together, then the ventricles contract together

 

All four chambers contract at the same time.

 

Question 3Which statement is true regarding cardiac tissue?

 

Like smooth tissue, it has a striated appearance under microscopic observation

 

It is found in endocardium of the heart

 

It contains intercalated discs that assist in structural support of heart muscle cell

 

It contains thick and thin filaments that are involved in the contraction process

 

Question 4The pericardium of the heart provides an ability of the heart to contract in a frictionless surface and consists of one thick connective tissue layer.

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 3 Quiz    

 

Question 1In the cardiac cycle, the right atrium fills first, then the left atrium.

 

True

 

False

 

Question 2Which statement is true?

 

Tachycardia will decrease cardiac output

 

Hypoxia can decrease cardiac output

 

The right atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs

 

Blood pressure is a measurement of systolic pressure/diastolic pressure

 

Question 3A consistent resting blood pressure of 120/88 would be considered:

 

Normal

 

Prehypertension

 

Stage 2 hypertension

 

Stage 1 hypertension

 

Question 4The “dub” sound (or S2) is created by:

 

The semilunar valves opening

 

The semilunar valves closing

 

The AV valves closing

 

The AV valves opening

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 4 Quiz    

 

Question 1Which type of immunity has an immediate response?

 

Adaptive immune system

 

Innate immune system

 

Question 2Which type of immunity is dependent upon antigen exposure?

 

Innate immune system

 

Adaptive immune system

 

Question 3The lymphatic system has a function/role in recovering fluid that is lost from the capillaries.

 

True

 

False

 

Question 4Which of the following statements is true regarding humoral immunity?

 

Antigens are generated by plasma cells

 

Antibodies destroy the antigens they attach to

 

A T-Helper cell can activate the B-Lymphocyte

 

Humoral immunity depends solely on phagocytes

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 5 Quiz    

 

•  Question 1 The visceral pleura is found attached to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity.

 

True

 

False

 

•  Question 2 Which of the following is a role of the nasal cavity?

 

1.            Concentrate the oxygen of incoming air

 

2.            Dry and warm incoming air

 

3.            Gas exchange

 

4.            Filter and clean incoming air

 

•  Question 3 For inspiration to occur, intrapulmonary pressure must be higher than atmospheric pressure?

 

True

 

False

 

•  Question 4 For expiration to occur, the intrapulmonary pressure has to:

 

1.            Increase compared to atmospheric air pressure

 

2.            Decrease compared to atmospheric air pressure

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 6 Quiz    

 

•  Question 1 Which part of the stomach leads to the small intestine?

 

1.            Body

 

2.            Lower esophageal sphincter

 

3.            Fundus

 

4.            Pyloric sphincter

 

•  Question 2 Which of the following statements is true of gastric secretion?

 

1.            The cephalic phase is triggered by the sight or smell of food

 

2.            The gastric phase begins when food leaves the stomach

 

3.            The intestinal phase stimulates the production of gastric juices for hours after the food leaves the stomach.

 

4.            The cephalic phase activates the sympathetic nervous system

 

•  Question 3 Which of the following is true regarding the bile?

 

1.            The liver produces and concentrates bile

 

2.            Gallstones can develop within the gallbladder due to increased levels of cholesterol or bile salts in the bile

 

3.            Bile is concentrated by the pancreas

 

4.            Bile is needed to assist in the chemically digestion of fiber

 

•  Question 4 Which of the following is true regarding the digestive system?

 

1.            Most of the nutrient absorption occurs in the large intestine

 

2.            Mechanical digestion occurs only in the small intestine

 

3.            Mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the stomach

 

4.            Mechanical digestion occurs only in the mouth

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 7 Quiz    

 

•  Question 1 The gallbladder is involved in fat metabolism.

 

True

 

 False

 

•  Question 2 The conversion of carbohydrate to ATP is an anabolic process.

 

True

 

False

 

•  Question 3 Protein is made of amino acids.

 

True

 

False

 

•  Question 4 HDL is considered “good cholesterol.”

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 8 Quiz    

 

•  Question 1 The glomerular filtration rate is about 120-125 mL/min in a healthy adult and increases drastically during kidney failure.

 

True

 

False

 

•  Question 2 In healthy kidneys, which of these substances is NOT a common substance filtered out of the glomerulus?

 

1.            Vitamin C

 

2.            Glucose

 

3.            Sodium ions

 

4.            Erythrocytes

 

•  Question 3 Which of the following statements is true about urine?

 

1.            It is mainly composed of glucose

 

2.            WBCs are commonly found in microscopic examination of normal urine sediment

 

3.            Urea is the highest solute concentration in urine

 

4.            Red blood cells and proteins are normally found in urine

 

•  Question 4 Aldosterone’s main effect is to the raise the blood pressure by increasing sodium ion absorption in the nephrons leading to increased water absorption and increased water volume.

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 9 Quiz    

 

•  Question 1

 

Which of the following structures undergoes the most physiological changes during a menstrual cycle?

 

1.            Endometrium

 

2.            Myometrium

 

3.            Vagina

 

4.            Mons pubis

 

•  Question 2 Female sex hormones are produced in the uterus and ovary.

 

True

 

False

 

•  Question 3 Which of the following statements is true of the female reproductive system?

 

1.            The clitoris is the erectile tissue of the female reproductive system

 

2.            The uterus is located anterior to the bladder

 

3.            rogesterone is produced endometrium

 

4.            Ovulation occurs twice a during the ovarian cycle

 

•  Question 4 Which of the following statements is true of ovulation?

 

1.            It is caused by the surge of the hormone follicle stimulating hormone

 

2.            The corpus luteum surrounds the ovulated oocyte and accompanies it through the uterine tube

 

3.            The primary oocyte is released from the ovary

 

4.            It happens on day 14 of a 28-day cycle

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 10 Quiz    

 

•  Question 1 Extraembryonic membranes, such as the amnion and chorion, develop during the:

 

1.            Third trimester

 

2.            Second trimester

 

3.            Last 2-3 weeks of the first trimester

 

4.            First 2-3 weeks of development

 

•  Question 2 What is NOT a change to a mother’s organ systems during pregnancy?

 

1.            Decreased gastrointestinal motility leading to constipation

 

2.            Increased urination and urgency

 

3.            Increase in tidal volume

 

4.            Decreased cardiac output

 

•  Question 3

 

The process of capacitation within fertilization involves:

 

1.            The sperm adjusting the vagina’s pH

 

2.            Enzymes digesting holes through the zona pellucida

 

3.            Reactions that occur that allows only one sperm to penetrate the egg

 

4.            A period of time that allows the sperm’s motility is enhanced and their membranes become fragile

 

•  Question 4 During the process of fertilization, roughly 1 million sperm reach the fallopian tubes.

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 11 Final Quiz    

 

•  Question 1

 

Phagocytes are cells that have the capability of engulfing other cells, including human and bacterial cells, along with cellular debris to digest and break down.

 

True

 

False

 

•  Question 2

 

Semen contains all of the following substances, EXCEPT:

 

1.            Testosterone

 

2.            Sperm

 

3.            Prostate fluid

 

4.            Seminal vesicle fluid

 

•  Question 3 Which type of white blood cell is most numerous and typically increased with bacterial infections?

 

1.Lymphocyte

 

2.            Basophil

 

3.            Monocyte

 

4.            Neutrophil

 

•  Question 4 What type of cell produces the digestive enzyme pepsinogen?

 

1.            Chief cells

 

2.            Enteroendocrine cells

 

3.            Parietal cells

 

4.            Mucous cells

 

 

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 1 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which of the following is produced in the liver?

 

Plasma protein and erythropoietin

 

Erythrocytes

 

Neutrophils

 

Basophils

 

Question 2Which of the following cells is responsible for producing antibodies?

 

T cells

 

B cells

 

Neutrophils

 

Eosinophils

 

Question 3Which cell is indicated by the yellow arrow?

 

DiagramDescription automatically generated

 

Macrophage

 

Eosinophil

 

Neutrophil

 

Basophil

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 2 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which structure is highlighted in blue and indicated by the yellow arrow in this image?

 

Hint: this is an inferior view of the thorax.

 

A picture containing plasticDescription automatically generated

 

Right ventricle

 

Left atrium

 

Left ventricle

 

Right atrium

 

Question 2What does the circled structure do?

 

Signal ventricular contraction

 

Serve as the heart’s pacemaker

 

Signal SA node contraction

 

Ensure blood doesn’t flow backwards through the heart

 

Question 3Which part of the EKG is emphasized in yellow below?Shape, arrowDescription automatically generated

 

QRS complex

 

T wave

 

P wave

 

U wave

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 3 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which vessel is highlighted in aqua below?

 

A picture containing outdoor objectDescription automatically generated

 

Pulmonary trunk

 

Vena cava

 

Aortic arch

 

Abdominal aorta

 

Question 2Which vein is highlighted in aqua below?

 

Brachial

 

Thoracodorsal

 

Subclavian

 

Axillary

 

Question 3Which structure is indicated by the label “A”?

 

Valve

 

Endothelium (Tunica intima)

 

Tunica externa

 

Smooth muscle (tunica media)

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

 Module 4 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which structure is NOT part of the physical immune system defense?

 

Digestive tract

 

Salivary glands

 

Skin

 

Hyaline cartilage

 

Question 2Which lymphatic structure is impossible to palpate?

 

Axillary nodes

 

Popliteal nodes

 

Thymus

 

Inguinal nodes

 

Question 3What does the highlighted structure do?

 

 A close-up of a fishDescription automatically generated with low confidence

 

Develop eosinophils

 

Develop B cells

 

Develop T cells

 

Create red blood cells

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 5 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which structure is highlighted in aqua below?

 

Trachea

 

Pharynx

 

Larynx

 

Epiglottis

 

Question 2Which structure is highlighted and indicated by the yellow arrow in this image?

 

Esophagus

 

Trachea

 

Oropharynx

 

Laryngopharynx

 

Question 3Which structure is indicated by the green arrow in this image?

 

DiagramDescription automatically generated

 

Cartilaginous rings

 

Larynx

 

Epiglottis

 

Vocal cords

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 6 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which is true of bile?

 

Comprised of 99% water

 

Produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder

 

Produced in the pancreas

 

Produced by gastric glands

 

Question 2Which tissue is depicted in the histological image belowA picture containing diagramDescription automatically generated

 

Large intestine

 

Stomach

 

Salivary gland

 

Small intestine

 

Question 3In this image, which structure is identified by the letter C?

 

Cardia

 

Body

 

Jejunum

 

Pyloris

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 7 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which amino acid fits this description: the body uses this amino acid for mineral absorption, metabolism, and detoxification

 

Threonine

 

Tryptophan

 

Lysine

 

Methionine

 

Question 2Vitamin _____ deficiency may cause anemia.

 

A

 

C

 

c. D

 

B12

 

Question 3Which macronutrient requires bile salts for normal catabolism?

 

Fat

 

Vitamins

 

Carbohydrate

 

Protein

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 8 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Which tissue does this histological image represent?

 

MapDescription automatically generated

 

Urethra

 

Ureter

 

Nephron

 

Bladder

 

Question 2Which of these statements best describes the external urethral sphincter?

 

It carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

 

It is activated by signals from the kidneys.

 

It is composed of involuntary muscle.

 

It is under conscious control.

 

Question 3What structure is highlighted in aqua in this image? 

 

A picture containing seatDescription automatically generated

 

Adrenal glands

 

Renal pelvises

 

Renal pyramids

 

Renal cortex

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 9 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1What does the highlighted structure do?

 

image005611d7637.gif

 

Produce the primary source of testosterone

 

Signal erection

 

Houses sperm during their maturation process

 

Ovulation

 

Question 2What structure is represented in this histological view?

 

image001611d7637611d7637.gif

 

Mammary gland

 

Uterus

 

Testis

 

Ovary

 

Question 3Which structure is highlighted in aqua in this image?

 

image004611d7637.gif

 

Bladder

 

Prostate

 

Vagina

 

Uterus

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 10 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1Sperm is a type of _____ .

 

Corona radiata

 

Embryo

 

Gamete

 

Acrosome

 

Question 2The XY chromosome pairing signals for male gentile development in the embryo.

 

True

 

False

 

Question 3Referencing this image, which hormone is represented by aqua blue, as it shows a steady continual rise throughout pregnancy?

 

image002611d7664.gif

 

Progesterone

 

hCG

 

Prolactin

 

Estrogen

 

 

 

 

 

BSC2089 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

 

Module 11 Lab Assessment   

 

Question 1 What does the depicted structure do?

 

1.            Vocalization

 

2.            Assist with inhalation

 

3.            Olfaction

 

4.            Primary role in exhalation

 

•  Question 2

 

Shane is concerned that he is not a good blood donor because his blood is AB+. You assure Shane that many people can benefit from his donation, as he wants his blood donation to help others. What blood type recipient is compatible with Shane’s donation?

 

1.O-

 

2.AB+

 

3. AB-

 

4. O+

 

•  Question 3 Which tissue does this histological image represent?

 

1.            Ureter

 

2.            Bladder

 

3.            Urethra

 

4.            Nephron

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