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Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is caused by

Question 1Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is caused by

endometrial inflammation.

 

reproductive tract malignancies.

 

endometrial fibroid tumors.

 

absent or diminished levels of progesterone.

 

 Question 2Which group is at the highest risk for urinary tract infection?

 

Infants and children

 

Sexually active women

 

Adult males

 

Patients taking diuretics

 

Question 3The patient reports persistent pelvic pain and urinary frequency and urgency. She says the pain improves when she empties her bladder. She does not have a fever and her repeated urinalyses over the past months have been normal, although she has a history of frequent bladder infections. She also has a history of fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism. Based on her history and complaints, her symptoms are characteristic of

 

neuroses.

 

ureteral stone.

 

neurogenic bladder.

 

interstitial cystitis.

 

Question 4The greatest risk factor for bladder cancer is

 

smoking.

 

recurrent bladder infections.

 

low fluid intake.

 

family history of bladder cancer.

 

Question 5Infection can lead to bladder stone formation.

 

True

 

False

 

Question 6 Cryptorchidism is

 

associated with an increased incidence of testicular cancer.

 

an extremely uncommon disorder.

 

rarely treated.

 

a consequence of gonorrhea.

 

Question 7What reproductive tract disorder is most likely to be associated with urinary stress incontinence?

 

Rectocele

 

Menopause

 

Cystocele

 

Cervicitis

 

Question 8Treatment of a uterine prolapse may involve the insertion of a(n) ________ to hold the uterus in place.

 

catheter.

 

IUD.

 

pessary.

 

endopelvic mesh implant.

 

 Question 9The urinalysis finding most indicative of cystitis includes the presence of

 

WBCs and RBCs.

 

nitrites.

 

casts.

 

bacteria.

 

Question 10A patient, age 3, has vesicoureteral reflux. “Why does that make him have so many bladder infections?” asks his mother. The nurse’s best response is

 

“When he urinates, the urine makes a fluid trail to the bladder, and if he does not clean himself well, bacteria will enter and make a bladder infection.”

 

“When he urinates, urine runs back toward his kidneys and then into the bladder again, making it easy for bacteria to grow if they reach the bladder.”

 

“When he urinates, urine leaks into his bowel and bacteria from the bowel leak into the bladder, where they grow and make a bladder infection.”

 

“When he urinates, urine stays in his bladder and the normal bacteria that live in the bladder have a chance to grow and cause a bladder infection.”

 

Question 11Urinary retention with consistent or intermittent dribbling of urine is called

 

mixed incontinence.

 

enuresis.

 

stress incontinence.

 

overflow incontinence.

 

 Question 12Detrusor muscle overactivity can be improved by administration of

 

alpha-receptor agonists.

 

botulinum toxin.

 

cholinergic agents.

 

nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents.

 

 Question 13Sudden, severe testicular pain is indicative of

 

prostatitis.

 

testicular cancer.

 

testicular torsion.

 

epididymitis.

 

 Question 14A patient diagnosed with a micropenis must be evaluated for

 

endocrine disorders.

 

vascular abnormalities.

 

female sex assignment.

 

epispadias.

 

 Question 15In addition to renal colic pain, signs or symptoms of ureteral stones may frequently include

 

hematuria.

 

postrenal renal failure.

 

urinary urgency.

 

proteinuria.

 

Question 16The defining characteristic of severe acute kidney injury is

 

proteinuria.

 

oliguria.

 

hematuria.

 

diuresis.

 

 Question 17The normal post-void residual urine in the bladder is

 

less than 100 mL.

 

150 to 200 mL.

 

250 to 300 mL.

 

none of these; no normal residual volume is identified.

 

Question 18A patient injured severely in a motor vehicle accident is hospitalized with acute kidney injury as well as multiple broken bones and lacerations. When family members ask what is meant by the term ‘prerenal,’ the nurse responds

 

“The doctors are not sure what caused your husband’s acute kidney injury, but they are working to help him recover.”

 

“Your husband’s kidney injury did not start in the kidney itself, but rather in the blood flow to the kidney.”

 

“Your husband’s kidney injury is only the beginning of the problems that are expected, so they are being vigilant.”

 

“Acute kidney injury is a new term for what people used to call acute renal failure.”

 

 Question 19The HPV vaccine is recommended for 11- to 12-year-old girls, but can be administered to girls as young as _____ years of age.

 

7

 

8

 

9

 

10

 

Question 20Anemia in people who have end-stage chronic renal disease is caused by

 

chronic loss of blood in the urine.

 

poor appetite, with lack of iron intake.

 

decreased secretion of erythropoietin.

 

increased secretion of aldosterone.

 

 Question 21The pain that accompanies kidney disorders is called

 

nephritic.

 

nephralgia.

 

nephrotic.

 

nephronitis.

 

 Question 22Prerenal acute kidney injury may be caused by

 

severe hypotension.

 

glomerulonephritis.

 

bilateral kidney stones.

 

acute tubular necrosis.

 

 Question 23The most likely cause of anemia in a patient with end-stage renal disease is

 

insufficient erythropoietin.

 

blood loss secondary to hematuria.

 

vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to deficient intrinsic factor.

 

iron deficiency.

 

Question 24Appropriate management of end-stage renal disease includes

 

potassium supplementation.

 

a high-protein diet.

 

erythropoietin administration.

 

a high-phosphate diet.

 

Question 25A patient with gouty arthritis develops renal calculi. The composition of these calculi is most likely to be

 

potassium oxalate.

 

struvite.

 

cysteine.

 

uric acid crystals.

 

 Question 26The pathophysiologic basis of acute glomerulonephritis is

 

renal ischemia.

 

bacterial invasion of the glomerulus.

 

an anaphylactic reaction.

 

an immune complex reaction.

 

Question 27The major underlying factor leading to the edema associated with glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome is

 

hematuria.

 

bacteriuria.

 

glycosuria.

 

proteinuria.

 

 Question 28The most helpful laboratory value in monitoring the progression of declining renal function is

 

serum creatinine.

 

serum potassium.

 

blood urea nitrogen.

 

mental status changes.

 

 Question 29The most common sign/symptom of renal calculi is

 

pain.

 

vomiting.

 

hematuria.

 

oliguria.

 

 Question 30The patient most at risk for postrenal acute kidney injury is a(n)

 

elderly patient with hypertrophy of the prostate.

 

middle-aged woman with bladder infection.

 

young child with reflux at the ureterovesical junction.

 

patient who has both hypertension and diabetes.

 

 Question 31Postrenal acute kidney injury may be caused by

 

severe hypotension.

 

glomerulonephritis.

 

bilateral kidney stones.

 

acute tubular necrosis.

 

 Question 32The most common cause of intrinsic kidney injury is _____ injury.

 

glomerular

 

tubular

 

vascular

 

Question 33A common component of renal calculi is

 

calcium.

 

cholesterol.

 

creatinine.

 

urobilirubin.

 

Question 34Glomerular disorders include

 

pyelonephritis.

 

obstructive uropathy.

 

interstitial cystitis.

 

nephrotic syndrome.

 

Question 35The most common type of renal stone is

 

uric acid.

 

calcium.

 

struvite.

 

cysteine.

 

 Question 36Which condition is caused by a genetic defect?

 

Acute pyelonephritis

 

Hydroureter

 

Incontinence

 

Polycystic kidney disease

 

 Question 37The urea-splitting bacteria contribute to the formation of ________ kidney stones.

 

Struvite

 

calcium oxalate

 

uric acid

 

cystine

 

 Question 38It is true that polycystic kidney disease is

 

always rapidly fatal.

 

caused by a streptococcal infection.

 

associated with supernumerary kidney.

 

genetically transmitted.

 

 Question 39A person with acute pyelonephritis would most typically experience

 

fever.

 

oliguria.

 

edema.

 

hypertension.

 

 Question 40 Findings that should prompt an evaluation for renal cancer include

 

bacteria in the urine.

 

intermittent urinary colic.

 

hematuria.

 

red blood cell casts in the urine.

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