16 Nov For this assignment: ?You will use your research article from Week 4’s HW to write your first objective summary
For this assignment: You will use your research article from Week 4's HW to write your first objective summary.
- 15 pts, Cover/Title Page
- 70 pts, Objective Summary: W(5) H(1) — YOU MUST PUT THIS IN YOUR OWN WORDS
- 15 pts, References Page (you will only have one reference listed — the research article you are using.)
NOTES TO HELP YOU WITH YOUR HW 1
Notes to Help You with Your HW: Notice My Capitalization
Your Name Goes Here
Department of Name of Your Major, King Graduate School
KG 604: Research & Critical Analysis
Notes to Help You with Your HW: Notice My Capitalization
Are You Caught Up?
By Now, You Have…
1. Completed the Brainstorming assignment, where I approved your research problem related to the industry of your major WITH a news article featuring some type of problem.
2. Successfully created a research question starting with “What have researchers learned about” (also approved by me).
3. Found a research article through the Monroe College databases
4. Submitted the assignment, “HW: Is Your Article a Research Article? (with APA 7 Cover/Title Page & References Page)”
IF You Have Completed ALL of the Above…
Complete this note sheet (based on your one research article) and use it to help you with your homework:
1. Who conducted the research?
2. Why was the study completed (purpose)?
3. When was data collected (not the publication year)?
4. Where was data collected (physical location)?
5. How was data collected (methodology)?
6. What were the findings?
Globally, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer that contributes to most deaths. Sharma et al. (2018) reported that the disease led death of more than 1.7 million in 2015, particularly due to cigarette smoking. According to Villanti et al. (2013), use of tobacco leads in terms of contribution to lung cancer, with more than 70 percent of men and about 55 percent of women dying of lung cancer as a result of smoking. A news article by Grady (2015), points out that more than 42 million Americans smoke, which includes 21% of men and 15% of women. The article reveals that the rate of death among smokers is two or three times higher than non-smokers, and they are highly likely to die more than ten years before those who have never smoked. These statistics clearly indicate that smoking behavior significantly differs based on sex. In particular, men smoke more pipes and cigars compared to women, which explains why men are potentially predisposed to a greater risk of developing cancer due to smoking. Substantial physiological differences based on gender also lead to sex differences when it comes to the impact of smoking, especially for women. In particular, women have a different airway behavior and smaller lung size compared to men, which increases their vulnerability to lung cancer even when they smoke less than men do. Sharma et al. (2018) also noted that the rate of lung cancer mortality due to smoking is higher among men than women. Therefore, it is inevitable that cigarette-smoking related lung cancer is extremely common and a serious killer to the victims. The population that is most vulnerable includes men and women who smoke, including those exposed to second-hand smoking.
Medical research has been unable to establish a sure way that may be utilized in preventing and mitigating lung cancer. However, there are numerous ways that each individual may need to practice as a way of lowering the risk of developing lung cancer. For individuals who have never smoked, there is a need to ensure that they avoid starting, which helps in ensuring that they keep their lungs healthy, which lowers the risk of developing lung cancer (Villanti et al., 2013). For smokers, it is important to stop smoking. Smokers may need to consult a healthcare professional for stop-smoking aids and strategies that they leverage to quit smoking. Secondhand smoking is also a major cause of lung cancer. Therefore, individuals who work or live with a smoker should urge him/her to smoke outside or quit. It is essential to avoid areas where people usually smoke such as restaurants and bars. More importantly, non-smokers should avoid carcinogens at their places of work, which includes avoidance of exposure to toxic chemicals. Above all, people who seek to keep lung cancer at bay should ensure that they exercise regularly and eat a diet full of vegetables and fruits.
Lack of exercise, being overweight, and smoking are critical risk factors that increases the susceptibility of an individual to lung cancer. For those who have already developed smoking-related lung cancer, it is recommended that they quit smoking the soonest possible (Villanti et al., 2013). A study conducted by Sharma et al. (2018) revealed if a patient with lung cancer continues to smoke during radiotherapy or chemotherapy, their rate of survival is severely compromised compared to those who quit smoking. This is because continued smoking after an individual is diagnosed with lung cancer is associated with such effects as reduced cancer treatment efficacy, impaired healing, increased risk for cancer recurrence, diminished general quality of life, impaired healing, and decreased survival. According to O’Keeffe et al. (2018), after lung cancer is diagnosed early, quitting smoking can go a long way in helping victims survive longer as it serves to prevent the disease becoming worse or delays return of the cancer. In addition to quit smoking, smoking-related cancer patients should consider such treatment alternatives as targeted therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, or a combination of the alternatives. Surgery helps in the removal of the cancer tissue while chemotherapy leverages specific medicines aimed at killing or shrinking the cancer. Radiation therapy utilizes high-energy rays in killing the cancer, with targeted therapy involving use of drugs to hamper the spread or growth of cancer cells.
Grady, D. (2015). Smoking’s toll on health is even worse than previously thought, a study finds. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/12/health/smokings-health-toll-worse-than-previously-thought-study-says.html
O’Keeffe, L. M., Taylor, G., Huxley, R. R., Mitchell, P., Woodward, M., & Peters, S. A. (2018). Smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open, 8(10), e021611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021611
Sharma, A., Bansal-Travers, M., Celestino, P., Fine, J., Reid, M. E., Hyland, A., & O’Connor, R. (2018). Using a smoking cessation quitline to promote lung cancer screening. American journal of health behavior, 42(6), 85-100. https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.42.6.9
Villanti, A. C., Jiang, Y., Abrams, D. B., & Pyenson, B. S. (2013). A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions. PloS one, 8(8), e71379. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071379
NOTES FOR TWO MORE RESEARCH ARTICLES 1
The Effects of Smoking on Lung Cancer Rates among Adults in New York
Pulla Rao Uppatala
MSc in Computer Science, King Graduate School
KG 604: Graduate Research & Critical Analysis
Dr. Aditi Puri
New Research Article 1
Who: The assessment of cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the paybacks on integrating smoking cessation interventions was performed by Villanti et al.
Why: This study aimed to assess whether LDCT screening for lung cancer among commercially insured individuals between 50 and 64 years at high risk for this disorder is turning out to be cost-effective. The authors also strived to quantify the extra payback of integrating smoking cessation solutions within lung cancer screening programs.
When: The authors analyzed their study in 2012 assuming that all existing smokers and half of the prior smoker population aged between 50 and 64 years were eligible for screening, with the minimum being set at least thirty packs –years of smoking.
Where: The researchers used data from National Health Interview Survey on cigarette smoking conditions for individuals between 45 and 64 years who were making 30% of active smokers across the United States at the time. The cancer treatment costs were acquired from New York's taxpayer database, which provided information including physician, hospital, drug and ancillary costs eligible for insurer reimbursement.
How: The authors used qualitative research methods to build up on the prior simulation model to determine the utility cost of yearly, recurring LDCT screenings for the last 15 years within an assumed high-risk population of 18 million adults aged between 50 and 64 years. It specifically involved those who have consumed over 30 packs within their smoking history. The authors' findings indicate that the recurring yearly lung cancer screening within the high-risk population has been effective. Providing smoking cessation strategies within the yearly screening program has increased the cost-effectiveness of the disorder by between 40 and 45%.
New Research Article 2
Who: The study on Using a smoking cessation quitline to promote lung cancer screening was performed by Sharma et al.
Why: The goal of their study was to compare two alternatives to dispense information concerning lung cancer screening. This included a quitline, a mailed brochure pinned with in-depth messaging facilitated by a quitline coach. Therefore, the authors focused on assessing the strategy that will be effective and have a significant impact on the participants searching for information about lung cancer screening. The authors thus hypothesized that the individuals who received the brochure would report having spoken to their insurance company or physician and compare it to those who only received the brochure and made no contact.
When: The authors recruited their research participants in 2018
Where: The target population came from residents residing in New York State but outside Niagara and Erie counties.
How: The authors performed a randomized trial involving New York State Smokers Quitline respondents to determine the impact of disseminating a brochure comprising information on benefits, risks and costs related to lung cancer screening compared to a brochure supplemented with phone-based and in-depth messaging. The research findings identified that the educational brochure was an effective and affordable strategy for dispensing information regarding lung cancer screening.
Sharma, A., Bansal-Travers, M., Celestino, P., Fine, J., Reid, M. E., Hyland, A., & O’Connor, R. (2018). Using a smoking cessation quitline to promote lung cancer screening. American journal of health behavior, 42(6), 85-100.
Villanti, A. C., Jiang, Y., Abrams, D. B., & Pyenson, B. S. (2013). A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions. PloS one, 8(8), e71379.
1. For this assignment, I want you to create a single, APA 7-compliant, Word document. To earn full credit, you must do the following:
· Page 1 = 20 pts: Proper APA 7 Title Page (watch the video and see p. 31 in the Foundations text to help you create a perfect title page)
· Page 2 = 60 pts (breakdown below): Simply answer the following questions
· (1) What is your approved research question from the Brainstorming Research Question HW assignment? (5 pts)
· (2) What is the title of the research article you found? (5 pts)
· (3) Does the article contain the methodology the researchers used to conduct the study/research? To get full credit, you must (a) name the methodology, (b) cut and paste the paragraph from the article that details the methodology, AND (c) highlight indicator words . (30 pts)
· (4) Does the article contain findings or results of the research? To get full credit, you must (a) cut and paste excerpts from the article that detail the findings (go to Discussion section or at times Conclusion), AND (b) highlight specific words that detail the findings . (20 pts)
· Page 3 = 20 pts: Create a proper APA 7 References Page with your ONE research article (refer to the video and see pp. 33-34 for the FORMAT you must use to create your reference and p. 32 for a perfect sample of what a References Page looks like.)
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