Chat with us, powered by LiveChat How can you apply classical conditioning to your everyday lives Give a few examples of operant conditioning that can apply to school, your home life, your children, etc., and explain | WriteDen

How can you apply classical conditioning to your everyday lives Give a few examples of operant conditioning that can apply to school, your home life, your children, etc., and explain


Here are a few questions to consider (and respond to) about the different learning theories from chapter 7.

[Note—Please remember to review the specifics-DEFINITIONS, TERMINOLOGY, ETC. related to each of the types of learning from the text. Some of this material is a bit tricky on the first round of learning about it.]

1. How can you apply classical conditioning to your everyday lives (this one is not short on examples you can provide!)?

2. Give a few examples of operant conditioning that can apply to school, your home life, your children, etc., and explain how this affects any behavior change in each of these settings.

[These cover a lot of territories, so I'll go easy on you here. Observational learning {Bandura} we covered in depth from chapter 1 although he is not emphasized in this text in the context of learning within this chapter. So, look back on your notes/earlier chapters and you'll be all set with him.]


3. What did Bandura's significant works in social learning in the 60s and beyond demonstrate regarding observing violent acts, and how can you apply that to what we see in the world today?


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Preface 1


Introduction to Psychology 7 Introduction 7 1.1 What Is Psychology? 8 1.2 History of Psychology 9 1.3 Contemporary Psychology 18 1.4 Careers in Psychology 26 Key Terms 30 Summary 30 Review Questions 32 Critical Thinking Questions 34 Personal Application Questions 34


Psychological Research 35 Introduction 35 2.1 Why Is Research Important? 36 2.2 Approaches to Research 41 2.3 Analyzing Findings 48 2.4 Ethics 59 Key Terms 63 Summary 64 Review Questions 66 Critical Thinking Questions 69 Personal Application Questions 70


Biopsychology 71 Introduction 71 3.1 Human Genetics 72 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System 78 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System 84 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord 86 3.5 The Endocrine System 97 Key Terms 100 Summary 102 Review Questions 103 Critical Thinking Questions 106 Personal Application Questions 106


States of Consciousness 109 Introduction 109 4.1 What Is Consciousness? 110

4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep 114 4.3 Stages of Sleep 117 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders 121 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse 126 4.6 Other States of Consciousness 134 Key Terms 137 Summary 139 Review Questions 140 Critical Thinking Questions 143 Personal Application Questions 143


Sensation and Perception 145 Introduction 145 5.1 Sensation versus Perception 146 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths 149 5.3 Vision 153 5.4 Hearing 161 5.5 The Other Senses 164 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception 168 Key Terms 172 Summary 174 Review Questions 175 Critical Thinking Questions 178 Personal Application Questions 179


Learning 181 Introduction 181 6.1 What Is Learning? 182 6.2 Classical Conditioning 183 6.3 Operant Conditioning 192 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling) 203 Key Terms 207 Summary 208 Review Questions 208 Critical Thinking Questions 210 Personal Application Questions 211


Thinking and Intelligence 213 Introduction 213 7.1 What Is Cognition? 214 7.2 Language 218 7.3 Problem Solving 222 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity? 228 7.5 Measures of Intelligence 231 7.6 The Source of Intelligence 237 Key Terms 241 Summary 242 Review Questions 243

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Critical Thinking Questions 246 Personal Application Questions 246


Memory 247 Introduction 247 8.1 How Memory Functions 248 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory 255 8.3 Problems with Memory 259 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory 269 Key Terms 273 Summary 274 Review Questions 275 Critical Thinking Questions 276 Personal Application Questions 277


Lifespan Development 279 Introduction 279 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development? 280 9.2 Lifespan Theories 284 9.3 Stages of Development 292 9.4 Death and Dying 313 Key Terms 315 Summary 316 Review Questions 317 Critical Thinking Questions 319 Personal Application Questions 320


Emotion and Motivation 321 Introduction 321 10.1 Motivation 322 10.2 Hunger and Eating 328 10.3 Sexual Behavior 334 10.4 Emotion 342 Key Terms 353 Summary 354 Review Questions 355 Critical Thinking Questions 357 Personal Application Questions 357


Personality 359 Introduction 359 11.1 What Is Personality? 360 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective 362 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney 368 11.4 Learning Approaches 373 11.5 Humanistic Approaches 377 11.6 Biological Approaches 378

11.7 Trait Theorists 379 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality 384 11.9 Personality Assessment 386 Key Terms 391 Summary 392 Review Questions 394 Critical Thinking Questions 397 Personal Application Questions 397


Social Psychology 399 Introduction 399 12.1 What Is Social Psychology? 400 12.2 Self-presentation 406 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion 409 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience 415 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination 422 12.6 Aggression 429 12.7 Prosocial Behavior 432 Key Terms 437 Summary 439 Review Questions 440 Critical Thinking Questions 444 Personal Application Questions 444


Industrial-Organizational Psychology 447 Introduction 447 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? 448 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees 456 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work 467 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design 477 Key Terms 480 Summary 481 Review Questions 481 Critical Thinking Questions 483 Personal Application Questions 484


Stress, Lifestyle, and Health 485 Introduction 485 14.1 What Is Stress? 486 14.2 Stressors 496 14.3 Stress and Illness 502 14.4 Regulation of Stress 514 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness 521 Key Terms 529 Summary 530 Review Questions 531 Critical Thinking Questions 534 Personal Application Questions 535

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Psychological Disorders 537 Introduction 537 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders? 538 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders 542 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 545 15.4 Anxiety Disorders 548 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 554 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 558 15.7 Mood and Related Disorders 560 15.8 Schizophrenia 570 15.9 Dissociative Disorders 574 15.10 Disorders in Childhood 576 15.11 Personality Disorders 582 Key Terms 589 Summary 591 Review Questions 594 Critical Thinking Questions 597 Personal Application Questions 598


Therapy and Treatment 599 Introduction 599 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present 600 16.2 Types of Treatment 605 16.3 Treatment Modalities 617 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case 621 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization 623 Key Terms 627 Summary 628 Review Questions 630 Critical Thinking Questions 632 Personal Application Questions 632

References 633 Index 733

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Preface Welcome to Psychology 2e, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

About OpenStax

OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012, and our library has since scaled to over 35 books for college and AP® courses used by hundreds of thousands of students. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being piloted in college courses throughout the country. Through our partnerships with philanthropic foundations and our alliance with other educational resource organizations, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed.

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You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through, and for a low cost in print.

About Psychology 2e

Psychology 2e is designed to meet scope and sequence requirements for the single-semester introduction to psychology course. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of core concepts, grounded in both classic

Preface 1

studies and current and emerging research. The text also includes coverage of the DSM-5 in examinations of psychological disorders. Psychology 2e incorporates discussions that reflect the diversity within the discipline, as well as the diversity of cultures and communities across the globe.

Coverage and scope

The first edition of Psychology has been used by thousands of faculty and hundreds of thousands of students since its publication in 2015. OpenStax mined our adopters’ extensive and helpful feedback to identify the most significant revision needs while maintaining the organization that many instructors had incorporated into their courses. Specific surveys, pre-revision reviews, and customization analysis, as well as analytical data from OpenStax partners and online learning environments, all aided in planning the revision.

The result is a book that thoroughly treats psychology’s foundational concepts while adding current and meaningful coverage in specific areas. Psychology 2e retains its manageable scope and contains ample features to draw learners into the discipline.

Structurally, the textbook remains similar to the first edition, with no chapter reorganization and very targeted changes at the section level.

• Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology • Chapter 2: Psychological Research • Chapter 3: Biopsychology • Chapter 4: States of Consciousness • Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception • Chapter 6: Learning • Chapter 7: Thinking and Intelligence • Chapter 8: Memory • Chapter 9: Lifespan Development • Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion • Chapter 11: Personality • Chapter 12: Social Psychology • Chapter 13: Industrial-Organizational Psychology • Chapter 14: Stress, Lifestyle, and Health • Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders • Chapter 16: Therapy and Treatment

Changes to the Second Edition

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Content revisions for clarity, accuracy, and currency

The revision plan varied by chapter based on need. Some chapters were significantly updated for conceptual coverage, research-informed data, and clearer language. In other chapters, the revisions focused mostly on currency of examples and updates to statistics.

Over 210 new research references have been added or updated in order to improve the scholarly underpinnings of the material and broaden the perspective for students. Dozens of examples and feature boxes have been changed or added to better explain concepts and/or increase relevance for students.

Research replication and validity

To engage students in stronger critical analysis and inform them about research reproducibility, substantial coverage has been added to the research chapter and strategically throughout the textbook whenever key

2 Preface

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studies are discussed. This material is presented in a balanced way and provides instructors with ample opportunity to discuss the importance of replication in a manner that best suits their course.

Diversity, representation, and inclusion

With the help of researchers and teachers who focus on diversity- and identity-related issues, OpenStax has engaged in detailed diversity reviews to identify opportunities to improve the textbook. Reviewers were asked to follow a framework to evaluate the book’s terminology, research citations, key contributors to the field, photos and illustrations, and related aspects, commenting on the representation and consideration of diverse groups. Significant additions and revisions were made in this regard, and the review framework itself is available among the OpenStax Psychology 2e instructor resources.

Art and illustrations

Under the guidance of the authors and expert scientific illustrators, especially those well versed in creating accessible art, the OpenStax team made changes throughout the art program in Psychology 2e.

Accessibility improvements

As with all OpenStax books, the first edition of Psychology was created with a focus on accessibility. We have emphasized and improved that approach in the second edition. Our goal is to ensure that all OpenStax websites and the web view versions of our learning materials follow accessible web design best practices, so that they will meet the W3C-WAI Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 at Level AA and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. The WCAG 2.0 guidelines explain ways to make web content more accessible for people with disabilities and more user-friendly for everyone.

• To accommodate users of specific assistive technologies, all alternative text was reviewed and revised for comprehensiveness and clarity.

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• Overall, the OpenStax platform has been continually upgraded to improve accessibility.

To learn more about our commitment and progress, please view our accessibility statement (

A transition guide will be available on to highlight the specific chapter-level changes to the second edition.

Pedagogical foundation

Psychology 2e engages students through inquiry, self-reflection, and investigation. Features in the second edition have been carefully updated to remain topical and relevant while deepening students’ relationship to the material. They include the following:

• Everyday Connection features tie psychological topics to everyday issues and behaviors that students encounter in their lives and the world. Topics include the validity of scores on college entrance exams, the opioid crisis, the impact of social status on stress and healthcare, and cognitive mapping.

• What Do You Think? features provide research-based information and ask students their views on controversial issues. Topics include “Brain Dead and on Life Support,” “Violent Media and Aggression,” and “Capital Punishment and Criminals with Intellectual Disabilities.”

• Dig Deeper features discuss one specific aspect of a topic in greater depth so students can dig more deeply into the concept. Examples include discussions on the distinction between evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics, recent findings on neuroplasticity, the field of forensic psychology, and a presentation of research on strategies for coping with prejudice and discrimination.

• Connect the Concepts features revisit a concept learned in another chapter, expanding upon it within a different context. Features include “Emotional Expression and Emotional Regulation,” “Tweens, Teens,

Preface 3

and Social Norms,” and “Conditioning and OCD.”

Art, interactives, and assessments that engage

Our art program is designed to enhance students’ understanding of psychological concepts through simple, effective graphs, diagrams, and photographs. Psychology 2e also incorporates links to relevant interactive exercises and animations that help bring topics to life. Selected assessment items touch directly on students’ lives.

• Link to Learning features direct students to online interactive exercises and animations that add a fuller context to core content and provide an opportunity for application.

• Personal Application Questions engage students in topics at a personal level to encourage reflection and promote discussion.

Additional Resources

Student and Instructor Resources

We’ve compiled additional resources for both students and instructors, including Getting Started Guides, an instructor solution guide, a test bank, and PowerPoint slides. Instructor resources require a verified instructor account, which you can apply for when you log in or create your account on Take advantage of these resources to supplement your OpenStax book.

Community Hubs

OpenStax partners with the Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education (ISKME) to offer Community Hubs on OER Commons—a platform for instructors to share community-created resources that support OpenStax books, free of charge. Through our Community Hubs, instructors can upload their own materials or download resources to use in their own courses, including additional ancillaries, teaching material, multimedia, and relevant course content. We encourage instructors to join the hubs for the subjects most relevant to your teaching and research as an opportunity both to enrich your courses and to engage with other faculty.

To reach the Community Hubs, visit

Technology partners

As allies in making high-quality learning materials accessible, our technology partners offer optional low-cost tools that are integrated with OpenStax books. To access the technology options for your text, visit your book page on

About the authors

Senior contributing authors

Rose M. Spielman (Content Lead) Dr. Rose Spielman has been teaching psychology and working as a licensed clinical psychologist for 20 years. Her academic career has included positions at Quinnipiac University, Housatonic Community College, and Goodwin College. As a licensed clinical psychologist, educator, and volunteer director, Rose is able to connect with people from diverse backgrounds and facilitate treatment, advocacy, and education. In her years of work as a teacher, therapist, and administrator, she has helped thousands of students and clients and taught them to advocate for themselves and move their lives forward to become more productive citizens and family members.

William J. Jenkins, Mercer University Marilyn D. Lovett, Spelman College

4 Preface

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Contributing Authors

Mara Aruguete, Lincoln University Laura Bryant, Eastern Gateway Community College Barbara Chappell, Walden University Kathryn Dumper, Bainbridge State College Arlene Lacombe, Saint Joseph’s University Julie Lazzara, Paradise Valley Community College Tammy McClain, West Liberty University Barbara B. Oswald, Miami University Marion Perlmutter, University of Michigan Mark D. Thomas, Albany State University


Patricia G. Adams, Pitt Community College Daniel Bellack, Trident Technical College Christopher M. Bloom, Providence College Jerimy Blowers, Cayuga Community College Salena Brody, Collin College David A. Caicedo, Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY Bettina Casad, University of Missouri–St. Louis Sharon Chacon, Northeast Wisconsin Technical College James Corpening Frank Eyetsemitan, Roger Williams University Tamara Ferguson, Utah State University Kathleen Flannery, Saint Anselm College Johnathan Forbey, Ball State University Laura Gaudet, Chadron State College William Goggin, University of Southern Mississippi Jeffery K. Gray, Charleston Southern University Heather Griffiths, Fayetteville State University Mark Holder, University of British Columbia Rita Houge, Des Moines Area Community College Colette Jacquot, Strayer University John Johanson, Winona State University Andrew Johnson, Park University Shaila Khan, Tougaloo College Cynthia Kreutzer, Georgia State University Perimeter College at Clarkston Campus Carol Laman, Houston Community College Dana C. Leighton, Texas A&M University—Texarkana Thomas Malloy, Rhode Island College Jan Mendoza, Golden West College Christopher Miller, University of Minnesota Lisa Moeller, Beckfield College Amy T. Nusbaum, Heritage University Jody Resko, Queensborough Community College (CUNY) Hugh Riley, Baylor University Juan Salinas, University of Texas at Austin Brittney Schrick, Southern Arkansas University Phoebe Scotland, College of the Rockies

Preface 5

Christine Selby, Husson University Sally B. Seraphin, Centre College Brian Sexton, Kean University Nancy Simpson, Trident Technical College Jason M. Smith, Federal Bureau of Prisons – FCC Hazelton Robert Stennett, University of Georgia Jennifer Stevenson, Ursinus College Eric Weiser, Curry College Jay L. Wenger, Harrisburg Area Community College Alan Whitehead, Southern Virginia University Valjean Whitlow, American Public University Rachel Wu, University of California, Riverside Alexandra Zelin, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

6 Preface

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FIGURE 1.1 Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. (credit "background": modification of work by Nattachai Noogure; credit "top left": modification of work by Peter Shanks; credit "top middle": modification of work by "devinf"/Flickr; credit "top right": modification of work by Alejandra Quintero Sinisterra; credit "bottom left": modification of work by Gabriel Rocha; credit "bottom middle-left": modification of work by Caleb Roenigk; credit "bottom middle-right": modification of work by Staffan Scherz; credit "bottom right": modification of work by Czech Provincial Reconstruction Team)


CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 What Is Psychology? 1.2 History of Psychology 1.3 Contemporary Psychology 1.4 Careers in Psychology


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