Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Identify the level of education in which you wish to serve (early childhood, elementary, middle school, and high school, adult). ? Answer - Early childhood? ? | WriteDen

Identify the level of education in which you wish to serve (early childhood, elementary, middle school, and high school, adult). ? Answer – Early childhood? ?

 Use these answers to these questions to better help you.

Also, please use the week 3 example uploaded below/

  • Identify the level of education in which you wish to serve (early childhood, elementary, middle school, and high school, adult).  

Answer – Early childhood 

 

  • Elaborate on your feelings about how the discussions in this course thus far matches your qualities and characteristics to serve in the education field.

Answer – The discussions have somewhat helped me to better understand what areas of communication I need to work on.

 

  • Has your desire to become an educator increased or decreased since the beginning of this course and what has sparked that change?

Answer- I think they have increased some it has always been a passion to teach in early childhood.

Here are links to previous assignment for this class - 

https://www.sweetstudy.com/questions/social-media-20506839

https://www.sweetstudy.com/questions/i-will-be-a-great-educator

A large part of being a responsible and evolving educator is to become what is called a “reflective practitioner.” This means educators must always take time to stop and reflect upon what they have done so they can identify areas in which to improve.

Prior to writing your journal entry, read Chapter 6: History of Schools in Education and Chapter 16: Succeeding in Your Teacher Education Program, and Beyond in your Introduction to Teaching: Making a Difference in Student Learning textbook.

In this journal entry you will reflect upon what has been discussed thus far in this course.

· Identify the level of education in which you wish to serve (early childhood, elementary, middle school, and high school, adult).

· Elaborate on your feelings about how the discussions in this course thus far matches your qualities and characteristics to serve in the education field.

· Has your desire to become an educator increased or decreased since the beginning of this course and what has sparked that change?

Journal Guidelines

· Your journal must be 1 to 2 double-spaced pages in length. 

· This is a journal assignment so, APA formatting is not required. It is still suggested that you follow the APA guidelines set down in the APA paper template (Links to an external site.) provided by the UAGC Writing Center. The more you practice APA style the better you are at it.

,

CHAPTER  6

History of Schools in the United States

Teacher Interview: Marvin Kuhn

Photo of Marvin Kuhn

Meet Marvin Kuhn, a teacher of 43½ years who just retired. Over his career, Mr. Kuhn taught in three school systems in Indiana, spending the last 30 years in the rural schools of Rush County, southeast of Indianapolis, where he grew up. Rush County is a farming community where the population is overwhelmingly white; less than 2% of the PreK–12 students are African American or Mexican American. The percentage of students who are on free or reduced-price lunch in the schools in which Mr. Kuhn taught over his career has grown from 10% when he began teaching to 50% in the largest elementary school in the county. For the last 19 years, he has served as the science coordinator for the five elementary schools in the county. He continued to be classified as a teacher while he was the coordinator because he was always working with the elementary teachers in the schools as he modeled hands-on science teaching in their classrooms. In retirement he continues to teach classes for schools in Rush County and surrounding areas on the stars and planets using StarLab, which is a portable planetarium. He also maintains and teaches classes at a nature center that he created and uses as a lab for elementary students.

What can teachers learn from the history of education that will be helpful in their work?

Interestingly, I was not crazy about history when I was in school, but I now love teaching history and making it fun for students. Knowing where we have been can be very helpful in looking forward. You should not be afraid of trying something new, but I have learned over four decades of teaching that not everything is new. Many teaching strategies that we have been expected to implement are refinements of methods developed earlier in our profession.

What does excellence in teaching look like?

The more enthusiasm you show in what you do and the more excited you are, the more excited the kids become. From the beginning of schooling, students have been asked to read and then discuss what they read and answer questions. You need to be much more creative than that to engage students in the lesson. I also find that hands-on activities help students remember what is being taught because they are actually doing it. Years after students have left my classroom, they remind me of a hands-on activity they did when they were in my classroom.

What do you find joyful about teaching?

Seeing the kids succeed and seeing them go from not doing something to being able to do something and say “look what I did.” It is the kids that always kept me going each and every day. Just to see the smiles on their faces, to see their accomplishments. I would say, “This is what you need to do; I want to see you do it.” And when they did, I was proud of them, and they were proud of themselves.

Questions to Consider

1. What are some of the lessons from history that can help you reflect on your own work in schools?

2. What reforms are being discussed today that have been tried in one form or another in the past?

3. What are some creative and hands-on strategies that you can use to engage students in learning and being excited about learning? What do we know from history about this approach to learning?

INTRODUCTION

Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

 

1. Identify reasons that the states established free and universal education.

2. Describe the practical and pedagogical reasons for the establishment of schools by the age of children.

3. List some of the people and events that have been influential in determining school curriculum in the nation’s schools.

4. Analyze some of the historical events that have resulted in different educational experiences among students from diverse racial and ethnic groups.

5. Identify changes in the professional lives of teachers between the 19th century and now.

Knowing the past helps us plan the future. Since the Boston Latin School was established in 1635, the nation has adopted universal schooling for all children, established a public education system, desegregated schools, and opened post-secondary education to almost any student who desires it. In studying the history of education, we find that some educational practices appear cyclical, reappearing in a different form every few generations. Movements such as progressivism have had a lasting effect in some aspects of schooling even though it fell out of favor as a movement by the 1950s. Reforms of schools come and go as school administrators and policymakers strive to find the magic curriculum, teaching strategies, and system that will ensure that students learn at high levels.

HOW DID PUBLIC SCHOOLS COME TO BE?

The United States has had a long history of providing a  free and universal education  for its children. Many hard-fought political and legal battles over the past four centuries have led to universal education for all students regardless of their race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or native language. However, this has not always been the case. In colonial times access to schooling in basic literacy and numeracy was available only to the affluent. Critical themes in these early debates were around the rights of individuals to decide for themselves whether to attend school and the basic requirements necessary for all citizens in a democracy.

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Audio Link Listen to the ways teaching has changed over the years.

As with many other aspects of early society in the Colonies, the Puritans transferred their views and expectations for education from England to the United States. Who should be educated and the purposes of education were hot topics across Europe in the 1600s. Citizens were asking whether all children should attend school and whether girls as well as boys should attend. They were also asking what students should learn, how long they should attend school, who should pay, and whether school attendance should be compulsory.

Schools in the Colonies

Before communities built schools, children were often taught by women in their neighborhoods who established “dame schools” in their homes. Most schools were established and controlled by churches, where religion was taught along with reading, writing, and arithmetic. Locally controlled schools were first established in the New England colonies where the New England Primer was the first widely used textbook. It included the Lord’s Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and a list of the books of the bible. Students were asked to memorize the primer’s  catechism , which was a series of questions and correct answers that taught the Protestant faith (Spring, 2011).

The Massachusetts Bay Colony is credited with first requiring all children to receive formal education. The Massachusetts Law of 1642 called for children to learn to read so they could understand the bible and the country’s laws. A 1647 statute, the Old Deluder Satan Law, established schools by requiring towns with 50 or more families to appoint a teacher and collect taxes to support schools. In 1650, Connecticut established its own school statutes. Other colonies were slower to engage with these core issues, and the South continued to resist the establishment of schools for anyone other than aristocrats.

Although the early Massachusetts and Connecticut statutes made reference to the importance of reading the Scriptures, they also implied that the state would be better off with educated citizens. This view had been championed by leading philosophers, scientists, and politicians in Europe for several centuries. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, René Descartes, and John Locke argued in the 18th century that there was a public interest in having all citizens educated. They believed that citizens had to have skills in literacy and numeracy for a democracy to thrive and that education should be available to all children and youth (Urban & Wagoner, 2009). Most leaders in the United States agreed that a free and universal education was a cornerstone of democracy.

Around the time of the Revolutionary War, the concept of secular schools emerged. Some leaders were concerned that religious control of schools could limit political freedom and the scientific revolution. Thomas Jefferson, for one, believed that freedom of thought and beliefs was key to a republican society. This concern led to the adoption of the First Amendment to the Constitution, which prevents the establishment of a state religion. The focus on freedom of ideas during this period opened the door to teaching more than religion,  morals , and civil obedience. Education began to be seen as providing intellectual tools based on science that would help create a better society (Spring, 2011).

Creating a System of Public Education

That the states should be responsible for education was seen as important even before the Constitution was written. During the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress passed several ordinances related to the opening up of lands in the West. The Land Ordinance of 1785 required each new state to form a central government and address education as a component of its founding laws. It also required each township in the new territories north and west of the Ohio River to designate one section (one square mile) of its 36 allocated township sections for public schools. Two years later the Northwest Ordinance encouraged the establishment of schools because religion, morality, and knowledge were critical for a good government (Urban & Wagoner, 2009).

When the U.S. Constitution was adopted in 1789, it made no reference to education. Even though some of the founders wanted education to be a federal responsibility, the responsibility for education was clarified in the Tenth Amendment, which states that “(t)he powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people.” State legislatures became responsible for establishing education policies and financing a public education system.

As the 1800s unfolded, school debates focused on whether attendance should be compulsory and how schools should be supported and managed. Gradually a consensus emerged that each state would set expectations for public schools, that towns were responsible for the operation of schools, and that schools would be financed through taxation. Concerns about the quality and rigor of education across the states led to a system of education that was somewhat uniform in the organization and operation of public schools. By the 1830s, children were attending public primary schools to learn reading, writing, and arithmetic in what were called  common schools . Important dates in the development of a system of education are outlined in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 Significant Events in the Development of the American System of Education

1635

Boston Latin Grammar School established.

1647

Massachusetts’s Old Deluder Satan Law required establishment of schools.

1785–1787

Northwest Ordinances passed to support schools in new territories.

1789

United States Constitution adopted without reference to education.

1821

The English Classical School, the first high school established in Boston. The Troy Female Seminary first prepared teachers for certification.

1825–1826

First known child care center opened in New Harmony, Indiana.

1827

Massachusetts law established high schools.

1837

Massachusetts established first state board of education; Horace Mann appointed the first secretary.

1839

First public normal school for preparing teachers opened in Lexington, Massachusetts.

1848

Quincy School, based on grades, was established in Boston.

1852

Massachusetts establishes first compulsory attendance law.

1872

Kalamazoo Decision made public high schools legal.

1873

St. Louis opened the first public kindergarten in the United States.

1918

Compulsory education required in all states.

1965

Elementary-Secondary Education Act (ESEA) passed.

1979

The U.S. Department of Education established by President Jimmy Carter.

2001

ESEA reauthorized as No Child Left Behind Act.

Although public schools have long been a reality in the United States, critics of today’s schools question their ability to prepare students for the global world in which we live. When asked how important public schools are today, retired teacher Marvin Kuhn replied,

It is just as important as back then. Everybody needs an education. If you don’t have the money, where else are you going to get your education but through public education? One of the things I’ve seen in the past few years is the creation of charter schools and vouchers. Even though they may be available to low-income students, charter and private schools pick who they want in their schools, and if those students do not perform at the expected level, the school does not have to let them come back.

HOW DID SCHOOLS BECOME DESIGNED BASED ON THE AGE OF STUDENTS?

Early in the 18th century educators and policymakers envisioned schools as a way to overcome poverty and crime by inculcating a good moral character into students who the reformers believed lacked appropriate parental guidance.  Charity schools , which were the forerunner of the common school, were developed for this purpose (Spring, 2011). Although some students from low-income families attended the schools that existed during this period, many, including African American students in the north, attended charity schools while more affluent children attended private or public schools (Spring, 2011).

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The elementary school curriculum in the first half of the 19th century was influenced greatly by the spellers and textbooks written by Noah Webster. His influence was not only on schools; he wrote an American dictionary with which many of you may be familiar. Webster was a schoolmaster who, in 1779, had an idea for a new way of teaching that included a spelling book, grammar book, and reader. When he finished writing the books five years later, he became an itinerant lecturer, riding through the country selling his books. He was a good salesman, selling 1.5 million copies by 1801 and 75 million by 1875. Webster’s books contained catechisms, but he did not limit the recitation to religion. He included a moral catechism and a federal one that stressed nationalism and patriotism (Spring, 2011).

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Teachers in the one-room schools of the past and today serve not only as the teachers, but also as the custodian, nurse, secretary, and principal.

The first schools built in many rural communities were one-room schools with a teacher who taught all subjects to students who sometimes ranged in age from five to 17. These schools generally had desks or long benches on which students sat together. A popular instructional method was recitation in which pupils stood and recited the assigned lesson. Values of punctuality, honesty, and hard work were stressed in these rural schools (Howey & Post, 2002).

In the 1830s and 1840s, the father of common schools, Horace Mann, was concerned with divisions between social classes and saw mixing the social classes in the common school as one way to reduce the tensions between groups. Mann applied his ideas to schools when he became the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837. His concept of the common school became the tax-supported, locally controlled elementary schools that dominated U.S. education in the industrial era.

The curriculum of the common school included the skills needed for everyday life, ethical behavior, and responsible citizenship, with standardized subject matter in reading, writing, arithmetic, spelling, history, and geography (Cremin, 1951). Common schools were also expected to create conformity in American life by imposing the language and ideological outlook of the dominant Anglo American Protestant group that governed the country. Education in common schools was seen as a venue for upward social and economic mobility for native whites and European immigrants in the United States. Both girls and boys attended the common schools, usually together.

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Video Link Watch a clip about Noah Webster.

Elementary Schools<

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