Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Initial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method( | WriteDen

Initial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(

 Initial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.

Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.

Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. You are working as a manager of a financial planning office where you require your employees to have a presence on social media. One of your financial advisors posts to his Twitter account that he needs $500 to pay his rent for the month. Would you punish him? Why or why not? 

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student's own words – do not provide quotes!]

 [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). 

Book:  

Title: Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Student Value Edition

ISBN: ISBN:13: 9780135468890

Authors: Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge

Publisher: Pearson

Edition: 15TH

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 1

What Is Organizational Behavior?

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Learning Objectives

1.1 Define organizational behavior (OB).

1.2 Show the value of systematic study to OB.

1.3 Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB.

1.4 Demonstrate why few absolutes apply to OB.

1.5 Identify managers’ challenges and opportunities in applying OB concepts.

1.6 Compare the three levels of analysis in this text’s OB model.

1.7 Describe the key employability skills gained from studying OB that are applicable to other majors or future careers.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2

Management and Organizational Behavior Learning Objective 1.1

Good people skills are important

Good places to work have superior financial performance

Developing managers’ interpersonal skills helps attract and keep high-performing employees

There is a strong association between the quality of workplace relationships and employee job satisfaction, stress, and turnover

Increasing OB principles can foster social responsibility awareness

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Since the late 1980s, business schools have recognized the link between understanding human behavior and managerial effectiveness. Managers cannot succeed on technical skills alone. They also need good people skills.

The more you can learn about people and how to manage them, the better prepared you will be to be a good manager.

3

Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities

Traditional management

Decision making, planning, controlling

Communication

Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork

Human resources management

Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training

Networking

Socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Why are some managers more effective than others? Research shows that there is a link between communication and effective management. Those managers who explain their decisions and seek information from colleagues and employees are the most effective.

4

The Field of Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior studies the influence that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations

Its chief goal is to apply that knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Organizational behavior looks at how individuals, groups, and structure can influence the behavior within an organization. This study is done so that we can use the knowledge to improve organizational outcomes and thereby their effectiveness.

5

Focal Points of OB

Motivation

Leader behavior and power

Interpersonal communication

Group structures and processes

Attitude development and perception

Change processes

Conflict and negotiation

Work design

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Some core topics that are included in the study of OB and employment situations are motivation, leader behavior and power, and interpersonal communication. OB also includes the study of group structures and processes, attitudes development and perception, as well as change processes, conflict and negotiation, and work design. In sum, OB is the study of what people do in an organization and the way their behavior affects the organization’s performance.

6

Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Learning Objective 1.2

Intuition: your “gut feeling” explanation of behavior

Systematic study improves ability to accurately predict behavior

Assumes behavior is not random

Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior

These can be identified and modified to reflect individual differences

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Often our intuition leads us in the decision-making process. Our intuition relies on gut feelings, individual observation, and common sense. Although our intuition is extremely useful in the decision-making process, it does not give us the complete picture. By engaging in a systematic study of behavior we can enhance our effectiveness.

It is not an either/or relationship. Rather, intuition and systematic study can work effectively together to predict behavior.

7

Systematic Study

Examines relationships

Attempts to attribute causes and effects

Bases conclusions on scientific evidence:

Data is gathered under controlled conditions

Data is measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

When we talk about engaging in a systematic study, we are talking about looking at relationships. By doing so, we can better determine cause and effect, and then, by applying scientific evidence to our conclusions, we are better able to predict behavior.

8

Evidence-Based Management

Evidence-based management: bases decisions on the best available scientific evidence

Complements systematic study

Forces managers to become more scientific in their thinking

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Evidence-based management (EBM) complements systematic study by applying scientific evidence to managerial decisions.

9

Big Data

Big data: the extensive use of statistical compilation and analysis

Identify persistent and predictive statistics

Current usage: predicting events, detecting risk, and preventing catastrophes

New trends: understanding, helping, and managing people

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Big data can be used together with intuition to help make decisions.

10

Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Learning Objective 1.3

Psychology

Social Psychology

Sociology

Anthropology

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Organizational behavior (OB) is interdisciplinary in nature as it is an applied behavioral science. The theory in OB relies on contributions from multiple behavioral disciplines. These disciplines include Psychology, Social Psychology, Sociology, and Anthropology.

11

Few Absolutes in OB Learning Objective 1.4

Impossible to make simple and accurate generalizations

Human beings are complex and diverse

OB concepts must reflect situational conditions: contingency variables

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

There are few absolutes in organizational behavior. When making decisions, you must always take into account situational factors that can change the relationship between two variables.

12

Employment Options (Exhibit 1-2)

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As shown in this exhibit, today’s employment options have adapted to include new opportunities for workers.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Categories of Employment: Employed, underemployed or underutilized, re-employed, unemployed/jobless, entrepreneur, retired, job seeking, furloughed, and laid off.

Types of Employment: Full-time, part-time, flex-time, job share, contingent, independent contractor, temporary, reduced hours, and intern.

Places of Employment: Anchored in an office or a cubicle, floating or shared space, virtual, flexible, and work from home.

Conditions of Employment: Local, expatriate, short-term assignee, flexpatriate, international business traveler, visa employee, and union or nonunion employee.

Compensation for Employment: Salary, hourly, overtime, bonus, contract, time off, and benefits.

13

Challenges and Opportunities for OB Learning Objective 1.5

Responding to continuing globalization

Understanding workforce demographics

Managing workforce diversity

Impact of social media

Employee well-being at work

Creating a positive work environment

Improving ethical behavior

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In the workplace today there are many challenges and opportunities in the area of organizational behavior. Understanding OB has never been more important for managers, as organizations are changing at a much more rapid pace than historically seen.

14

Responding to Globalization

Increasing connectedness and cooperation

Working with people from different cultures

Adapting to differing cultural and regulatory norms

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As a result of globalization, managers' jobs have changed. They need to have a broader perspective when making decisions and be able to anticipate and adapt their approaches accordingly.

You will likely have individuals coming to work in your own country that come from different cultures, and you will need to find ways to accommodate their needs and help them assimilate to your workplace culture.

You will need to be aware of, and appreciate, the cultural norms in each country in which you do business. In addition, it’s important to consider country and local regulations that could affect how you do business.

15

Managing Workforce Demographics

Longevity

Birth rates

Socioeconomic conditions

Other changes in the workforce

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

We can explore what factors encourage people to make certain choices regarding their employment and how those choices are reflected in their perceptions of the workplace.

16

Managing Workforce Diversity

Workforce diversity: organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and other characteristics

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As the borders are disappearing we are seeing more and more heterogeneity in the workplace. Managers today need to embrace diversity and find ways to manage it effectively. The changing demographics have shifted management philosophy in a way that recognizes and utilizes differences to create productivity, profitability, and welcoming cultures.

Diversity poses great opportunities and challenging questions for managers and employees in all countries. Managers must recognize differences and find ways to utilize those differences to improve organizational performance.

17

Social Media

Use of social media by employees

Using social media to learn about employees

Impact of social media on employee well-being

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Many organizations struggle with employees’ use of social media in the workplace. Evidence-based policies can protect employees and organizations.

18

Enhancing Employee Well-Being at Work

The line between work and non-work has blurred and managers are increasingly dealing with conflicts that arise between work and life away from work

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

As technology continues to become an integral part of organizational effectiveness, workers have been asked to work longer hours. They are also challenged by balancing heavy outside commitments with work. Managing stress and burnout is critical.

19

Creating a Positive Work Environment

Positive organizational scholarship: how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential

Focus on what’s good about an organization, not what’s bad

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Positive organizational behavior is a growing interest in organizational behavior. It promotes the idea of exploiting employee strengths rather than focusing on employee limitations or weaknesses.

20

Improving Ethical Behavior

Managers facing ethical dilemmas or ethical choices are required to identify right and wrong conduct

Companies promoting strong ethical missions:

Encourage employees to behave with integrity

Provide strong leadership that influences employee decisions to behave ethically

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Today’s highly competitive global economy has created a work environment in which employees may feel pressured to make poor decisions. Moreover, there is generally greater tolerance for unethical behavior. This has prompted many companies to try to help employees navigate ethical dilemmas using tools such as seminars and workshops, as well as formal codes of ethics.

21

Developing an OB Model

A model is an abstraction of reality – a simplified version of some real-world phenomenon

Three types of variables:

Inputs, processes, and outcomes

Three levels of analysis

Individual, group, and organizational

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

We can develop a model of OB that defines the field – its parameters, concepts, and relationships.

22

A Basic OB Model (Exhibit 1-3)

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The three types of variables to consider include inputs, or variables like personality, group structure, and organizational culture. These are the variables that set the stage for what occurs in an organization.

The second type of variable is processes, or the actions that individuals, groups, and leaders engage in as a result of inputs and that lead to certain outcomes. Think of communication, leadership, conflict and negotiation, and power and politics.

Outcomes are the key variables that you want to explain or predict. We’ll be looking at attitudes and stress, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and withdrawal behavior. We’ll also explore group cohesion, group functioning, productivity, and survival.

Long Description:

The details are as follows:

Inputs:

Individual Level: Diversity, personality, and values.

Group Level: Group structure, group roles, and team responsibilities.

Organizational Level: Structure and culture.

Processes:

Individual Level: Emotions and moods, motivation, perception, and decision making.

Group Level: Communication, leadership, power and politics, and conflict and negotiation.

Organizational Level: Human resource management and change practices.

Outcomes:

Individual Level: Attitudes and stress, task performance, citizenship behavior, and withdrawal behavior.

Group Level: Group cohesion and group functioning.

Organizational Level: Productivity and survival.

23

Three Levels of OB Analysis Learning Objective 1.6

The individual level

The group level

The organizational level

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

In organizational behavior (OB), we utilize the representation of the world as broken down into three levels. The first level of analysis we will look at is the individual level. At this level we look at individuals’ behavior. Next, recognizing that individuals make up groups, we analyze how group behavior occurs. Finally, organizations are made up of groups of individuals, so we analyze the organization at a systems level.

24

Employability Skills Learning Objective 1.7

Critical thinking

Communication

Collaboration

Knowledge application and analysis

Social responsibility

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

OB is important for all students. These career employability skills can be expanded in an OB course to prepare students for future careers.

Critical thinking involves purposeful and goal-directed thinking to define and solve problems and to make decisions or form judgments.

Communication is the effective use of oral, written, and nonverbal communication skills for multiple purposes; effective listening; the use of technology, and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of communication efforts.

Collaboration involves individuals actively working together on a task to achieve a final product reflective of joint, interdependent actions.

Knowledge application and analysis is the ability to learn a concept and then apply it in another setting.

Social responsibility includes skills related to both business ethics and corporate social responsibility.

25

Implications for Managers

Don’t rely on generalizations

Use metrics and situational variables rather than “hunches” to explain cause-and-effect relationships

Increase leadership potential by improving interpersonal skills

Improve technical and conceptual skills by staying current with trends like big data

Recognize the role of organizational behavior on employee work quality and productivity

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The OB Model is critical to your understanding of how organizations behave. In the remainder of this book, we will be utilizing that model to look at behavior on an individual, group, and organizational level.

26

Discussion Questions

What are some of the concerns you have with the use of artificial intelligence in organizations?

A recent study found that those people who woke up in a positive mood and then regularly accessed Facebook throughout the day generally experienced declining moods as the day progressed. Facebook time has also been found to be correlated with lower satisfaction levels. How can managers address this?

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

28

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