Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Look at prompt first, add: 1 page introduction 1 page injustice (please look at highlighted comments at the end in injustice portion and make cha | WriteDen

Look at prompt first, add: 1 page introduction 1 page injustice (please look at highlighted comments at the end in injustice portion and make cha

Look at prompt first, add:

1 page introduction

1 page injustice (please look at highlighted comments at the end in injustice portion and make changes)

2 page previous interventions

1 page proposed interventions (already written most of it in intervention portion just add 1 more page and editing based on feedback form)

1 page conclusion

LING 472: Social Justice Final Paper

Due Thursday, May 10, 12:30pm, Dropbox,

Now that you have developed an understanding on the injustice you researched about, and have proposed some interventions, it is time to take ACTION. For this portion of the project, asks you to present a FULL REPORT where you explain the injustice you researched about, and exercise your own agency to enact linguistic justice. In doing so, you will combine material from the Injustice Write-up, Intervention paper and your reflection/understanding of social justice and its relationship to language.

Your final paper should be around 4,500-5,000 words (you may extend, inf necessary). You should include ALL the feedback you obtained (both from me and your peers) . Your final report should include the following sections and labeled as such.


Prelude (5 points)

· A personal short definition of social justice and its relation to language

· Feel free to also add a couple of inspirational quotes from activists or community members that have and continue to work towards a just world.

Injustice (30 points)

· Describe (in detail) the injustice that you investigated about in your injustice write up and explain why it is important to address it.

· Remember that this section should at least address 3 major points (e.g., history, people, power structures, ideologies, etc.)

· Use subsections addressing the different major points (you can divide this as you please)

Previous Interventions (10 points)

· This section should describe interventions that have been proposed or executed. Explain which of these interventions have worked, and what aspects of the intervention have still fallen short. What else is there to do?

· You researched some of this for your Injustice Section as well as your Intervention Draft.

The goal here is to have a short separate section that will make your paper more coherent.

Proposed Interventions (40 points)

· Provide a detailed account of the proposed interventions. If you chose option 1, please, divide them into 3 subsections

1. Awareness-raising / educational projects

2. Policy change (organization policy and/or law)

3. Mutual aid and/or direct action

· Explain the goals and methodologies of your proposed intervention(s):

· What specific aspect of the injustice is this intervention designed to target? o Why this intervention in particular? (Why do you believe it will be effective?) o What kinds of resources would be needed for this intervention?

· Who is the target audience? Whose support will it be necessary to ensure?

· If relevant, you may also want to describe a specific group or organization you want to work with for one or all of your proposed interventions.

· Although these are individually-authored papers, justice is rarely accomplished alone. Most lasting social change is accomplished in community settings. If your proposal involves working with a community, make sure to do some research on existing linguistic interventions in that community before you start designing your own. Instead of trying to reinvent the wheel, thing about how you could best plug into or support existing projects – including selecting particular organizations or individuals with whom you might work – and make sure to include this information in your proposal.

· Optional

· Any reach out material you created (TikTok videos, Instagram slide deck, Twitter posts, Flyers)

· Additionally, you could also include a lesson plan (if working within education). o This optional material may replace a full page of the proposal itself and you can send it to me as “mock-up draft” for me to give you feedback on. Please note that this mock-up should actually include a meaningful amount of content – i.e., it shouldn’t just be an illustration or logo without any words.

Conclusion (10 points)

· In 1 paragraph o Briefly mention the injustice being addressed (1-2 sentences) o Briefly summarize the proposed interventions

· Briefly summarize which of the three proposals you plan or are likely to take on in the reasonable short future and why

· In another 1 paragraph, acknowledge the ways in which your peers have influenced your thinking on this project.

· The most helpful suggestions you received during class brainstorming session as well as peer feedback sessions, and who those reviewers were

· What changes you made to your initial drafts and in what capacity has your paper improved.

References (5 points)

 Provide a list of cited sources using APA.



Injustice: The Effect of Racial Profiling on Access to Affordable Housing




April 10, 2022


Racism, both systemic and institutionalized, is profoundly established in the culture of the United States and other parts of the world. Whereas racial profiling relies on visual signals to confirm or speculate on a person's ethnicity, linguistic profiling relies on aural leads that may comprise ethnic association. Still, it can be equally applied to pinpoint other linguistic smaller groups within a particular lexical group. Baugh's (1983) early studies on African American Vernacular English (AAVE) was heavily centered on "style-shifting" between African Americans. Baugh noted that most African American grown-ups would alter their talk to meet their current social surroundings during years of fieldwork. (1)

"Linguistic profiling," or determining an individual's ethnicity based on the tone of their articulation and using that knowledge to show prejudice based on ethnic background, has been reported in the house lease market. This paper looks at how this happens in the housing sector. According to an examination of matched-paired tests carried out by fair-housing corporations, home insurance brokers can nose out someone one`s race over phone, and this detail influences the services rendered to person who ask about buying a home coverage policy. While adopting "non-standard" or distinct from typical American English accents when enquiring about a property for rent, the property becomes unavailable for no apparent reason. This is due to property owners detecting characteristics of specific languages and linking them with unfavorable racial stereotypes.

Discriminatory Linguistic Profiling

Linguists have long researched linguistic stereotypes. Lippi-Green (1997) presents self-sufficient proof of dialect or accent bias against speakers of varying ethnic accents, racial, and regional in the U.S. During the O. J. Simpson trial, public attention was drawn to racial identification based on speech. Mr. Cochran, Simpson's African American counsel, vehemently denied that one could infer racial identification from words (California v Orenthal James Simpson, 1995). In the matter of Clifford v Kentucky (1999), the Kentucky Supreme Court used language profiling to condemn an appellant of African American origin who a white police officer overheard. So far, this matter has upheld the admissibility of ethnic profiling on the basis of the words of a lay attestor. The matter is obscure for apparent grounds in comparison to the Simpson trial's worldwide exposure, yet the practice of linguistic profiling was no less severe.

Baugh (2005) became aware of linguistic profiling when he relocated to Palo Alto in pursuit of housing that could accommodate his whole household. Throughout all phone calls to prospective landlords, he presented his situation as a visiting professor at CASBS, consistently using his "professional voice," which he is informed, "sounds white." Although no potential property owner ever inquired about his ethnicity, he was unexpectedly denied access to housing four times when he arrived for his arranged interview. Although he suspected that these refusals were directly related to his ethnic background, which was proven via visible ethnic profiling, his typical English eloquence was (and still is) sufficient that linguistic profiling was avoided since he sounded white.

Anita Henderson went to a major home unit to ask about flats while looking for an apartment in Philadelphia. She was shown to the costliest suite in the premises and informed that it was the only one accessible for the coming month and that no other flats would be obtainable. Nonetheless, the following day, when she was on the phone using her finest Standard American English and asking about flats in the same building, Henderson found out that numerous cheaper suites were suddenly accessible, and she was more than welcome to check them out (Henderson, 2001).

Discrimination in the Housing Market

When challenged with proof that indicates that linguistic profiling was applied to refuse housing, insurance, or leases to minority ethnic groups, litigants frequently fell back to Cochran's claim that one cannot draw any ethnic or racial inference on the basis of talk heard over the phone, or, in Mr. Cochran's matter, via an intercom network.

Discrimination in the housing market manifests itself in various ways and has a lengthy record in our nation and the Bay Area. As a result of this issue, the percentage of Black Americans who own their own home is frighteningly low. According to Redfin, only 44 percent of Black Americans would purchase a home in 2020, representing a nationwide lag. When compared to white Americans, this figure is 74%. Systemic racism has perpetuated disparities in homeownership rates throughout the Bay Area, and Black households who can buy a home frequently face discrimination (Glover, 2021). In accordance to the National Association of Realtors, only 34% of Black Californians own a property. These figures are even lower in the Bay Area. According to Redfin, only 33% of Black residents of San Francisco own a home in comparison to 61% of white San Franciscans. In San Jose, the black homeownership rate is 31 percent, while the white homeownership rate is 65 percent (Glover, 2021). And black applicants for mortgage loans are declined at three times the rate of white candidates (National Association of Realtors, 2021).

Another factor restricting Black property ownership is a burdensome debt due to the wealth inequality perpetuated by systematic racism. Minority home seekers continue to face subtle discrimination, according to HUD User (2022). Researchers discovered that, when all three stages of the paired-testing procedure are included, the marginalised are at a drawback in comparison to whites, mainly in two of the three stages: Hispanic, Asian, and Black renters were just as possibly as white renters to have meetings with rental brokers during the rental inquiry process. During these encounters, renters of color took in about 11.4 percent fewer homes and were offered 4.2 percent negligible units than similarly competent white renters. Hispanic renters were informed of 12.5 percent negligible units and established 7.5 percent small number of units than white renters. Asians were shown 9.8 percent negligible accessible units and were informed about 9.8 percent negligible obtainable units than whites.

Hispanic and Asian homebuyers were equally likely to secure a meeting with a sales representative during the inquiry process; nevertheless, colored homebuyers were marginally less likely than white homebuyers to do so. Black purchasers learned approximately 17% fewer homes and were shown 17.7% negligible number of properties than similarly eligible white homebuyers. Asian purchasers were offered 18.8 percent fewer properties and knew about 15.5 percent fewer available homes than whites. Hispanics and whites did view or learn about remarkably contrasting units of residences (HUD User, 2022).

Minority home seekers with easily recognizable ethnicities faced higher prejudice than minorities who may be taken for white. Concerning guiding, most available homes for rent and buying presented to the testers were in majority-white districts; nevertheless, the distinction in the ethnic mix of the communities displayed to minority home seekers and white home seekers was not substantial. Likewise, there were no statistically outstanding contrasts in the occurrence and intensity of prejudice by urban region or area. Generally, having their searches constrained by discriminatory tactics of deals and rental brokers raises the expense and time the marginalised must expend on locating a decent house and limits the options accessible to them and their households (HUD User, 2022).

The NFHA realised that (2) numerous potential renters and home buyers were ignorant of the illegitimacy of linguistic profiling, so they created a string of adverts warning Latino and African American populace to be cautious of these subtle kinds of bias, as shown in Figures 8.1 and 8.2. (

Testers for the National Fair Housing Alliance (NFHA) typically strive to establish the reality of linguistic profiling related to varied kinds of housing prejudice without the assistance of linguistic studies. According to Horwitz (1999), the scenario is as follows: Testers for the non-profit organization (the Fair Housing Council of Greater Washington) reached out to more than 60 insurance companies to inquire about renters' cover. Feedback to Latino and Black caller-ups were contrasted to reactions to white callers in 150 cases, and 45 percent demonstrated bias.

There have been federal laws enacted by the Unite States Housing and Development (HUD) Department, such as The Fair Housing Act in 1968, that ban discrimination against home searchers. The act's success was that it reduced segregation to some measure. Despite this, underprivileged communities continue to face subtle racial bias and discrimination. One of the impediments is the regulatory changes implemented under Trump's presidency, one of which is a provision that makes it more difficult for anyone to submit a complaint against housing discrimination alleging "disparate impact" (McQueen, 2022).

In conclusion, I am of the opinion that linguistic profiling will continue as long as human language persists, owing to our superior aural abilities as a species. The task for Americans is to be wise, patient, and tolerant of individuals whose linguistic origin vary significantly from our own. This will emphasize the advantages of favorable language profiling while rejecting the practice of biased linguistic profiling, which stokes the smoldering remains of ethnic strife.


Baugh, J. (2005). Linguistic profiling. In Black linguistics (pp. 167-180). Routledge.

Baugh, J. (1983). Black Street Speech: Its History, Structure, and Survival, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

California v Orenthal James Simpson (1995). Los Angeles District Court.

Clifford v Kentucky (1999). 7 SW 3d 371, Supreme Court of Kentucky.

Glover J. (2021). Black California couple lowballed by $500K in-home appraisal, believe race was a factor. Retrieved from

Henderson, A. (2001). “Put your money where your mouth is: hiring managers` attitudes toward African American-Vernacular English, “Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Horowitz, S. (1999) “Minority renters face insurance bias, “ Washington Post. Retrieved from

HUD User (2022). Subtle Forms of Discrimination Still Exist for Minority Homeseekers. Retrieved from

Lippi-Green, R. (1997). English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States. London: Routledge.

McQueen, M. P. (2022). Housing discrimination: What is it, and what can you do about it? Retrieved from


(1) This idea is disconnected from the overall paragraph. Make the connection more explicit. -0.5

(2) This seems to be a different subsection – Current interventions



PART 1: Content on plan for intervention (2 points)

 Strengths:

· Drew on the some good statistics to support their claims (especially about social media)

· Policy Change is the strongest section since it references the most specifics

· Love the hashtag idea!

· Great introduction, but some more data on the issue would be helpful

· Very clear on the issue being addressed

· Love the pamphlet at the end.

 Areas for improvement

· Most of the section one content talks about why social media is useful. I would love to see more writing about the actual content of the social media campaign. This way the reader gets a better grasp of it

· The direct action section feels a bit bland. Find some organizations to partner with that will help do direct advocacy on this issue.

· All the sections need just a bit more detail in order to make them unique. What exact policies are being changed about the Fair Housing Act? What will the social media campaign say exactly? This will just make the content seem more sturdy and well thought out.

PART 2: Style / Writing (2 points)

 Strengths:

· Very clear and concise language.

· Good job with citing

· Not a lot of fluff. Good content

 Areas for improvement

· Some of the sections could have been a tad longer, this would have helped clarify some of the details that would make your paper and interventions stronger

PART 3: Overall assessment (1 point)

Overall, this is a good paper. Great ideas and the interventions are well throughout. It just requires a bit more fine turning to polish and make it perfect!

Suggested peer-review questions for discussing draft interventions

PART 1: Content on plan for intervention

 Is it obvious / clear / explicit what exactly the author is proposing to do in their intervention, or does the reader have to do the guesswork to figure the plan out?  Is the proposed intervention narrowly defined and specific, or is it broad, vague and or/missing key details?

o How can it be made more specific?

 Are there desired outcomes of the intervention clearly stated? Are they realistic? (e.g. not “this project will end anti-Black racism among all court transcribers in the USA”, but “this project would train LA County court transcribers to accurately identify these 10

linguistic features of AAL, differentiate from “Standard English” features, and transcribe them”

 Does the proposal discuss a timeframe for the intervention? Is it realistic?  What resources does the author identify as necessary for their proposal? o Can you think of any additional resources?

 What issues or roadblocks do you foresee possibly arising with this proposed intervention?

o How could the author revise their intervention to address these caveats?  If the author decided to work with a particular organization, does it make sense why they chose this group? How well does their proposed intervention build on that community’s existing work?

 If social media material is presented, are these appropriate? If not, what would you change?

PART 2: Style / Writing

 Are there any sections in which the ordering of paragraphs or arguments is awkward stilted, or the proposal jumps around from one idea to another without transitions? Are there sections in which are written in long paragraphs with not clear main idea? o If so, how can those be smoothed out?

 Are the connections between the writer’s points and their evidence clearly articulated? Is the information dropped in the paper without clear explanation or relevance?

PART 3: Overall assessment

 Do you, as a reader, feel convinced that this intervention is important and feasible after reading it?

If so, what is it persuasive? If not, how can it be made more convincing



Intervention (Justice) Paper Draft



LING 472



The impact of linguistic profiling in the housing industry is massive. Its impact on affordable housing shows adverse effects where some races are being denied access to affordable housing. African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics cannot fully access affordable housing due to problems like linguistic profiling. Several interventions can be used to help in fighting the impact of linguistic profiling on affordable housing. Raising awareness will increase enthusiasm and support while stimulating action. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 has not effectively banned discrimination against home searchers. There is a need for policy change as an intervention. Direct action may include nonviolent means like strikes and sit-ins. This paper looks at the three interventions to end the focal injustice.

Raising Awareness

Raising awareness is defined as the process of informing and educating the masses about a topic or issue to influence their attitude, behaviors, and beliefs (Ones, 2005). Raising awareness ensures that people can change their attitudes and start believing in the goal. The education is done to help change any misconception the public may have, which is why they believe in a certain way. Raising awareness can be successful when well planned as it will be an effective tool to gain the trust of the masses while also changing their behavior, attitude, and beliefs.

There are different ways that people can raise awareness. The most common way of raising awareness involves the use of the media. This has been done for decades, where letters are written to local, new agencies or published articles in the media. The use of radio stations to raise awareness has also been effective as people can debate on the issue being raised and engage others during the debates. Television can be used to raise awareness. The current age of information presents more options that can raise awareness. The advancements in technology over the past two decades have introduced other mediums that can effectively raise awareness. Social media offers a platform that one can use to raise awareness. According to Statista (2020), there were 3.6 billion active social media users globally. The number is likely to increase by over 25% by 2025. The global penetration rate of social media is 53.6%. Therefore, social media offers the best platform that can be used to raise awareness about the issue of linguistic profiling and to educate others on its impact on affordable housing.

Different social media platforms can be effectively used to raise awareness of linguistic profiling. Facebook has several social media users, with other platforms also attracting many people. A page can be created on Facebook highlighting the issue. The page members should be encouraged to invite more members to ensure the number of people increases. Brochures can be created to educate the public on the issue and posted on Facebook. Videos will be posted educating the members and others on the issue's impact. The members should be encouraged to shun the practice, as the more people who shun it, the easier it becomes for society to embrace everyone. The videos will also be posted on YouTube to increase the number of educated


Other social media platforms can be effectively used to raise awareness. The use of Twitter in raising awareness will require sponsoring a hashtag like #endlinguisticprofiling. The hashtag will keep running on most pages on Twitter. This attracts the attention of more people who become interested in knowing what linguistic profiling is and its impact on affordable housing. Those impacted by linguistic profiling in accessing affordable housing will post their videos. This is done to change the attitude of the masses and help in behavioral change.

Raising awareness as an intervention will target two generations; millennials and generation Z. The two generations are active on social media, which is the medium being used to raise awareness. Educating the two generations will help end an issue that has been around for decades and has mostly been used by the older generation. The brochure to be posted on Facebook contains information showing the issue's impact.

Policy Change

The Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination on the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, or sex. Linguistic profiling encourages racism and is against the Fair Housing Act of 1968. The legislation has been effective in reducing racism in rental and financing housing. One of the cornerstones has been the increase of minorities owning property (Massey, 2015). However, the number of minorities owning property is still low compared to whites. This shows the legislation has not been fully effective in reducing racism.

Policy change is required as an intervention to help in reducing the issue. There is a need for new legislation which will introduce more punitive measures to the perpetrators of linguistic profiling and those who discriminate against others due to their race or national origin. The punitive aspect of the legislation will discourage those who attempt to discriminate against others and impact their access to affordable housing. In general, policy change is effective in bettering community decisions on issues. Policy change is the best way to help change society (Lagarde, 2012). Some of the resources needed will include human, technical, financial, and material. Human resources are the people who include the politicians and other professionals who will help in driving the policy change. Nongovernmental organizations that deal with discrimination can be engaged to help in increasing the number of resources available. These organizations can also help in providing financial support for the initiative.

Direct Action

Direct action will involve peaceful protests on the issue. Protests have a long history of helping drive change in the United States. Some of the changes made in the 60s were products of protests used in driving change. Peaceful protests are disruptive ad tend to attract more people as they go on. This makes the protests more effective as they will focus on the issue (Chelsea, 2019). The protest aimed to get government attention and response. The protection will also help raise awareness of the issue and, therefore, educate others on the issue. The target audience during the protest will be the government and everybody else. The support of the public will help the protest to be more disruptive. Resources will include brochures and banners. The brochures will be handed out to everyone on the street. They are the same brochures to be posted on social media.


Chelsea Whyte. (2019). Do protests work? New Scientist, Volume 242, Issue 3235, Pages 20-21.

Lagarde, M. (2012). How to do (or not to do) Assessing the impact of a policy change with routine longitudinal data. Health policy and planning27(1), 76-83.

Massey, D. S. (2015, June). The legacy of the 1968 fair housing act. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 30, pp. 571-588).

Ones, D. S. (2005). Personality at work: Raising awareness and correcting misconceptions. Human Performance18(4), 389-404.


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