Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Mass Customization and Service As Daft (2021) tells us mass customization refers to using mass-production technology to quickly and cost-effectively assemble goo | WriteDen

Mass Customization and Service As Daft (2021) tells us mass customization refers to using mass-production technology to quickly and cost-effectively assemble goo

 Post a reply to each of the post attached of  at least 400 words . For each thread, students must support their assertions with scholarly citations in APA format. Each reply must incorporate scholarly citations in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years.  

Mass Customization and Service

As Daft (2021) tells us mass customization “refers to using mass-production technology to quickly and cost-effectively assemble goods that are uniquely designed to fit the demands of individual customers” (pg. 323). This has been applied to several different types of production environments, which leads to the assumption that the same application can be made to the service industry (Daft, 2021). Mass customization provides more value to customers within the relevant industry where it is utilized (Pallant, J. L., Sands, S., & Karpen, I. O., 2020). There are also varying levels of customer involvement when it comes to mass customization as described by Pallant et al. (2020). Mass customization is already being applied in service industries such as “restaurants and airlines” (Pallant et al., 2020, pg. 509). As Pallant et al. (2020) tell us “Some operators already deconstruct service offerings and allow consumers to co-configure the optimal level of service” (pg. 509). This can be seen by picking your seat on a plane whether you prefer a window seat or aisle (Pallant et al., 2020). Furthermore, airlines are allowing travelers the options of buying their entertainment, Wi-Fi, bags, and online check-in before they ever arrive at the airport (Pallant et al., 2020).

What Makes Superior Management?

Daft (2020) tells us that “craft technologies are characterized by a fairly stable stream of activities, but the conversion process is not analyzable or well understood” (pg. 339). In other words, the tasks involved in craft technologies are difficult and hard to learn without the proper preparation or knowledge (Daft, 2020). If superior management is truly a craft technology, then it makes sense why many go to school for training in business administration. Superior management is in the eye of the beholder as there are many ways that a manager can be successful and therefore superior to lesser managers. However, Friedland, J., & Jain, T. (2022) tell us that “Leading Fortune 500 companies have started skipping degree requirements for certain jobs (pg. 16). With the rise of available free courses online from top colleges, there is a real threat to secondary education for business managers and their businesses (Friedland, J. & Jain, T., 2022). Management is analyzable to a degree, so it is hard to say that it is completely a craft technology (Daft, 2020). There has been a fall in enrollments as “the top 10 U.S. MBA programs have experienced significant declines in applicants” (Friedland, J. & Jain, T., 2022, pg. 16). Business education is still useful for building superior management just as much as formal training and experience. All three of these factors can be a significant contributor to creating a superior manager.

Technology and Face-To-Face Communication in Management

            As a result of the global lockdowns that followed the Coronavirus Pandemic, videoconferencing technologies and remote work replaced most face-to-face interactions between employees and their managers (Riedl, R., 2021). At the height of the lockdowns, new “systems such as Zoom” became household names overnight while Skype was unused for years (Riedl, R., 2021, pg. 153). It is a matter of opinion on whether videoconferencing can effectively replace face-to-face communication when it comes to managing employees. This is obviously what happened at the beginning of the Coronavirus pandemic out of the necessity of lockdowns (Riedl, R., 2021). However, some would argue that “zoom fatigue” has overwhelmed the sudden utility of videoconferencing tools (Riedl, R., 2021). Zoom fatigue is explained as “this stress-related depletion of physiological and cognitive resources” due to the “prolonged and inappropriate use of videoconferencing tools” (Riedl, R., 2021, pg. 154). While this may be a major problem for some, videoconferencing technology can replace face-to-face interaction between employees and managers even if zoom fatigue does exist (Riedl, R., 2021). Having the right employees within a virtual structure eliminates the need for face-to-face interaction between managers and employees as they do not require micromanagement (Daft, 2021). Videoconferencing technologies are the gateway to the future of work being able to be done at any place and any time (Riedl, R., 2021). Technology should be embraced as the future of any business whilst being mindful of its’ potential pitfalls. If virtual learning can be successful through the implementation of these new videoconferencing technologies, then virtual business management can see the same success (Katz, A., & Sagit, K-Y., 2021).

Busting Bureaucracy

            Pfizer slashed through bureaucracy by avoiding government funding and all its’ inherent requirements when making their Covid 19 Vaccine (Fortune, 2021). Another example of companies cutting through bureaucracy is when “PepsiCo, Sony, Novartis, and GE that used temporary teams to carry out time-sensitive strategic projects quickly” (Edmonson, A., & Gulati, R., 2021, pg. 47). The deployment of temporary teams is a technique described to bust bureaucracy by Daft (2021). PepsiCo UK employed their “SLAM Team” as a temporary team to accomplish goals without the hindrance of bureaucracy and red tape (Edmonson, A., & Gulati, R., 2021, pg. 47).

No Growth Philosophy and Business Education

            All relevant styles of business management should be taught in business schools as business education must be undertaken without bias and from an objective point of view (Daft, 2021).

Biblical Worldview

            Technology has brought many great things into the world, and business management is at the forefront of its’ utilization. The advancement of civilization was foretold as Genesis 11:6 tells us, “And the Lord said, “Behold, they are one people, and they all have one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing they propose to do will now be impossible for them” (English Standard Version). As managers, we should all strive for superiority amongst our peers, as 1 Corinthians 9:24 tells us, “Do you not know that in a race all the runners run, but only one receives the prize? So run that you may obtain it” (English Standard Version). Managers should seek out the best avenue to attain this, whether that be education, formal training, or experience. As Proverbs 9:9 tells us, “Give instruction to a wise man, and he will still be wiser; teach a righteous man, and he will increase in learning” (English Standard Version).







Edmonson, A., & Gulati, R. (2021). Agility Hacks: How to Create Temporary Teams That

Can Bypass Bureaucracy and Get Crucial Work Done Quickly. Harvard Business Review, 99(6), 46-49. Retrieved from

 Friedland, J. & Jain, T. (2022). Reframing The Purpose of Business Education: Crowding-in A

Culture of Moral Self-Awareness. Journal of Management Inquiry, 31(1), 15-29. Retrieved from

Katz, A. & Sagit, K-Y. (2021). From Classrooms to Zoom Rooms: Preserving Effective

Communication In Distance Education. Journal Of Information Technology Case and Application Research, (23)3, 173-212. Retrieved from

Newcomb, A. (2021, November 16). How Pfizer’s CEO Ruthlessly Cut Bureaucracy to Deliver

A COVID Vaccine in Record Time. Fortune. Retrieved from

Pallant, J. L., Sands, S., & Karpen, I. O. (2020). The 4Cs Of Mass Customization in Service

Industries: A Customer Lens. Journal Of Services Marketing, (34)4, 499-511. Retrieved from

Riedl, R. (2021). On The Stress Potential of Videoconferencing: Definition and Root Causes Of

Zoom Fatigue. Electronic Markets, (32), 153-177. Retrieved from


Chapter 7: Mass customization of products has become a common approach in manufacturing organizations. Explain the ways in which mass customization can be applied to service firms as well.

Mass customization is the rapid, low-cost production of goods and services that fulfill increasingly unique customer desires. It brings us the variety of products traditionally provided by the process focus, with low costs associated with standardized high-volume production (Daft, 2021). Mass customization can be applied to service firms to provide better customer service and reduce operating costs.  It allows firms to produce a larger line of products with a shortened response time, ultimately leading to an increased number of satisfied customers (Pallant et al., 2020). Regarding service firms, mass customization can be key in reducing inefficient responses to customer requests, being cost-effective, driving quality standards, and eliminating piecemeal production. These types of issues will impact the level of service that customers receive at the firm.


Chapter 7: A top executive claimed that superior management is a craft technology because the work contains intangibles (such as handling personnel, interpreting the environment, and coping with unusual situations that have to be learned through experience). If this is true, is it appropriate to teach management in a business school? Does teaching management from a textbook assume that the manager's job is analyzable and, therefore, that formal training rather than experience is most important?.

It is appropriate to teach management in a business school.  The work of a manager is intangible, the way they handle it depends on numerous factors such as belief, culture, and education. A mix of formal training and experience works best. Experience gives the management better efficiency to manage risk, challenges, and various situations which are unpredictable and often sudden. Textbook teaching can be used to provide a foundation for business students. The experience will come from building on this base. Overall, it is appropriate to teach management in a business school, even employees can benefit from understanding the methodology of management. Cheung & Kwong (2016) states “ historical cases can be an effective tool to acquire management skills, with its main advantage being its ability to induce critical thinking which allows strategic decisions to be made in a variety of contexts. Of course, there is the question of relevancy of using past behavior to guide the future”(p. 2).

Chapter 8: Do you believe that technology will eventually enable high-level managers to do their job with little face-to-face communication?

As communications avenues continue to develop and grow, the option for nonface-to-face communication grows. I have worked for a Fortune 500  organization for over twenty years with seventeen of those years having little face-to-face with coworkers and managers. My current manager is located in the United Kingdom and half of my co-workers are in India. Twice a week my team has a team meeting via Blue Jeans conference. My manager asks everyone to be on video for those meetings because so much of the communication is still nonverbal.  As business communication becomes more cloud and internet base this trend will continue. Technology has allowed managers to conduct meetings from across the world with more flexibility (Van Zoonen & Sivunen, 2021).  There is value in communicating with employees on a personal level even if it is via a video call as face-to-face communication allows managers to better analyze their coworkers. High-level managers are adapting to the newer models of communication and developing positive interactions with the team. These interactions can be nearly as impactful as face-to-face interactions when done remotely. However in conclusion face-to-face communication does foster higher-quality interactions than online communication. A healthy balance between both types of interaction would be better.



Chapter 9: Look through several recent issues of a business magazine (Fortune, BusinessWeek, Fast Company, etc.) and find examples of 2 companies that are using approaches to busting bureaucracy. Explain the techniques that these companies are applying.

Two examples of companies busting bureaucracy are Kaiser Permanente and Google.  Google has done this by focusing on the concept of engaging employees. This is done by a formula that measures are employees active and productive in their respective duties and company culture.  Through employee engagement, Google is keen on ensuring that employees are involved in all performance processes to ensure maximum productivity (Chandni & Rahman, 2020). Kaiser Permanente busts bureaucracy by providing employees opportunities to grow their skill set and keeps them engaged. With the move to a higher level of remote work caused by the Covid 19 pandemic, employee feedback and involvement were centralized to keep them motivated.  The CEO of Kaiser Permanente referenced his job is to maintain an environment that attracts and keeps people who fit the business model. Freedom of speech should apply in the work environment as it does in the personal environment (Michelman, P. 2017). Busting bureaucracy at Kaiser also meant dealing with low customer and stakeholder satisfaction. Kaiser aimed at eliminating bureaucracy and the reengagement of employees Focus shifted to the experience for all users, removing red tape, roadblocks, and whatever makes doing business hard. Building synergy across the business replaced the bureaucracy hierarchies.



Chapter 9: Do you believe that a no growth philosophy of management should be taught in business schools?

No growth philosophy of management focuses on the concept that the success of an organization does not essentially lay in the growth of the business but on its overall contribution towards the development of society and protection of the earth's natural resources. This should be taught in business schools as it can apply to a host of business types such as a non-profit focused on supporting a community that has constant density. In addition, the current working landscape has seen a shift towards the moral responsibilities of a business. Business students should be taught the importance of cultures, ethics, values, and social responsibilities of a business. Fellnhofer (2017) states “understanding the antecedents of innovation processes makes it easier for sustainable-oriented companies to consider all the important entrepreneurial factors necessary for promoting opportunity-based behavior, which inspires innovation creation and implementation p. (3). Some businesses have a model to concentrate on sustainability versus growth. Another factor is to remember growth does not equal profit. The primary mission of a business should be long-term profitability for stability.



How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?

Everyone has a lens through which they look at the world, even in business culture. However, the way we look at the world makes all the difference in the world. The word of God must determine how and the way we view the world, as well as how we relate to each other in business. Salvation is obtained solely by individual faith in Christ’s work on the Cross and cannot be earned through works (Ephesians 2:8–9). Like the Apostle Paul, we must be confident in our faith so we can take our biblical worldview and engage a society that is also very sincere in what it believes. Stewardship is based on knowing God created the world and its abundant resources were placed under our management by God. Everything should be used for the benefit of God  (Psalm 24:1). As well as developing benefits for others such as employees, customers, business partners, and shareholders. A biblical worldview can always be applied as God is the creator of everything.









Chandni, S., & Rahman, Z. (2020). Customer engagement and employee engagement: Systematic review and Future Directions. The Service Industries Journal, 40(13-14), 932–959.

Cheung, C. W., & Kwong, C. (2016). Constructing a historical case for the teaching of Business and Management subjects. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 8(3), 355–377.

Daft, R. L., (2019). Organization Theory & Design (13th Ed.) Cengage: Boston, MA

Fellnhofer, K. (2017). Drivers of innovation success in sustainable businesses. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 1534–1545.

 King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online.

Michelman, P. (2017). The Question Every Executive Should Ask. MIT Sloan Management Review, 58(4), 67-72.

Pallant, J. L., Sands, S., & Karpen, I. O. (2020). The 4cs of mass customization in service industries: A customer lens. Journal of Services Marketing, 34(4), 499–511.


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