Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Module 14: Leadership and Ethics: Ethics is related to values and morals of individuals in a society (Northouse, 2022, p. 423). Being ethical mea | WriteDen

Module 14: Leadership and Ethics: Ethics is related to values and morals of individuals in a society (Northouse, 2022, p. 423). Being ethical mea

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1. One response to one pair that include one different reference of the actual paper and on the same subject (two up to three lines).

Module 14: Leadership and Ethics:


Ethics is related to values and morals of individuals in a society (Northouse, 2022, p. 423). Being ethical means doing the right thing. It is important to mention that values and morals are tied to culture, which can impact what one individual sees as ethical versus unethical. 

Ethical leadership is related to the expectations of leaders doing the right thing at the right moment. For this discussion board, please address the following requirements:

1. Define the term “ethics” in your own words.

2. Identify two ethical challenges that leaders often face in the workplace. 

3. Analyze how ethical leadership impacts organizational performance.

4. Evaluate the importance of having a “Code of Conduct” or a “Code of Ethics” in the organization.

Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (including supporting citations) along with at least two current, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. You may find that your discussion of leadership characteristics is easily supported with such current scholarly research, while the information about how your chosen leader exhibits those leadership characteristics is supported by popular research.

Keep in mind that current scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search. Current research means published in the last five years.

You are required to reply to at least two peer discussion question ‘’ Need to provide this Part from your Side through providing two to three lines of information of the subject with their reference of each peer respond’’. post answers to this weekly discussion question and/or your instructor’s response to your posting. These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post's answer. Normal course dialogue does not fulfill these two peer replies but is expected throughout the course. Answering all course questions is also required.

· The reference Should be in Apa7th and add in-citation Text. And up to 3 or more references.

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Chapter 15 in Leadership: Theory and Practice

Almarshoud, N. (2021). Implications of ethical leadership to the corporations of Saudi Arabia in terms of employee performance, trust, and commitment. PalArch’s Journal of Archeology of Egypt/ Egyptology, 18(14), 394-405.

Schwepker, C. H., & Dimitriou, C. K. (2021). Using ethical leadership to reduce stress and improve performance quality in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-11.


 Chapter 15 PowerPoint slides





Ninth Edition



DEDICATION To Madison, Isla, Sullivan, and Edison




Theory and Practice

Ninth Edition

Peter G. Northouse

Western Michigan University

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Washington DC





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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Northouse, Peter Guy, author.

Title: Leadership : theory and practice / Peter G. Northouse, Western Michigan University.

Description: Ninth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publishing, 2021. | Revised edition of the author’s Leadership, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2020045038 | ISBN 9781544397566 (paperback) | ISBN 9781071836149 | 9781071834466 (epub) | ISBN 9781071834473 (epub) | ISBN

9781071834480 (pdf)

Subjects: LCSH: Leadership. | Leadership—Case studies.

Classification: LCC HM1261 .N67 2021 | DDC 303.3/4—dc23 LC record available at

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Content Development Editor: Lauren Gobell

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Preface Acknowledgments About the Author About the Contributors Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Trait Approach Chapter 3 Skills Approach Chapter 4 Behavioral Approach Chapter 5 Situational Approach Chapter 6 Path–Goal Theory Chapter 7 Leader–Member Exchange Theory Chapter 8 Transformational Leadership Chapter 9 Authentic Leadership Chapter 10 Servant Leadership Chapter 11 Adaptive Leadership Chapter 12 Inclusive Leadership Chapter 13 Followership Chapter 14 Gender and Leadership Chapter 15 Leadership Ethics Chapter 16 Team Leadership References Author Index Subject Index




Preface Acknowledgments About the Author About the Contributors Chapter 1 Introduction

Leadership Defined Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership Definition and Components

Leadership Described Trait Versus Process Leadership Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership Leadership and Power Leadership and Coercion Leadership and Morality

Leadership Is a Neutral Process Leadership Is a Moral Process

Leadership and Management Plan of the Book Case Study Case 1.1 Open Mouth . . . Leadership Instrument Conceptualizing Leadership Questionnaire Summary

Chapter 2 Trait Approach Description

Intelligence Self-Confidence Determination Integrity Sociability Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership Strengths and Leadership Emotional Intelligence

How Does the Trait Approach Work? Strengths


Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research Case 2.2 Recruiting for the Bank Case 2.3 Elon Musk

Leadership Instrument Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)

Summary Chapter 3 Skills Approach

Description Three-Skill Approach

Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills Summary of the Three-Skill Approach

Skills Model Individual Attributes Competencies Influences on Skills Development Leadership Outcomes Summary of the Skills Model

How Does the Skills Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team Case 3.2 Andy’s Recipe Case 3.3 2019 Global Teacher of the Year: Peter Tabichi

Leadership Instrument Skills Inventory

Summary Chapter 4 Behavioral Approach

Description Task and Relationship Behaviors Task Orientation


Relationship Orientation Historical Background of the Behavioral Approach

The Ohio State Studies The University of Michigan Studies Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid Paternalism/Maternalism Opportunism

Recent Studies How Does the Behavioral Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First Case 4.2 We Are Family Case 4.3 Cheer Coach Monica Aldama

Leadership Instrument Leadership Behavior Questionnaire

Summary Chapter 5 Situational Approach

Description Leadership Style Development Level

How Does SLII® Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels Case 5.2 Getting the Message Across Case 5.3 Philosophies of Chinese Leadership

Leadership Instrument SLII® Questionnaire: Sample Items

Summary Chapter 6 Path–Goal Theory

Description Leader Behaviors


Directive Leadership Supportive Leadership Participative Leadership Achievement-Oriented Leadership

Follower Characteristics Task Characteristics

How Does Path–Goal Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors Case 6.2 Playing in the Orchestra Case 6.3 Row the Boat

Leadership Instrument Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire

Summary Chapter 7 Leader–Member Exchange Theory

Description Early Studies Later Studies Leadership Development

Emotions and LMX Development How Does LMX Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair Case 7.3 Pixar: Creating Space for Success

Leadership Instrument LMX-7 Questionnaire

Summary Chapter 8 Transformational Leadership

Description Transformational Leadership Defined


Transformational Leadership and Charisma A Model of Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership Factors Transactional Leadership Factors Nonleadership Factor Transformational Leadership Measurements

Other Transformational Perspectives Bennis and Nanus Kouzes and Posner

How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 8.1 The Vision Failed Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership Case 8.3 Grandmothers and Benches

Leadership Instrument Transformational Leadership Inventory

Summary Chapter 9 Authentic Leadership

Description Authentic Leadership Defined Approaches to Authentic Leadership

Practical Approach Theoretical Approach

How Does Authentic Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader? Case 9.2 Kassie’s Story Case 9.3 The Arena of Authenticity

Leadership Instrument Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire



Chapter 10 Servant Leadership Description

Servant Leadership Defined Historical Basis of Servant Leadership Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader Building a Theory About Servant Leadership

Model of Servant Leadership Antecedent Conditions Servant Leader Behaviors Outcomes Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership

How Does Servant Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 10.1 Global Health Care Case 10.2 Servant Leadership Takes Flight Case 10.3 Energy to Inspire the World

Leadership Instrument Servant Leadership Questionnaire

Summary Chapter 11 Adaptive Leadership

Description Adaptive Leadership Defined

A Model of Adaptive Leadership Situational Challenges

Technical Challenges Technical and Adaptive Challenges Adaptive Challenges

Leader Behaviors Adaptive Work

How Does Adaptive Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies


Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus Case 11.3 Agonizing Options for Marlboro College

Leadership Instrument Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire

Summary Chapter 12 Inclusive Leadership

Description Inclusion Defined

A Model of Inclusive Leadership Antecedent Conditions

Leader Characteristics Group Diversity Cognitions Organizational Policies and Practices

Inclusive Leadership Behaviors Outcomes

How Does Inclusive Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application

Assessment Challenge Support

Case Studies Case 12.1 Difficult Decision Case 12.2 The Extraversion Advantage Case 12.3 Inclusive Leadership During a Crisis

Leadership Instrument Inclusive Leadership Reflection Instrument

Summary Chapter 13 Followership

Description Followership Defined Role-Based and Relational-Based Perspectives Typologies of Followership

The Zaleznik Typology The Kelley Typology


The Chaleff Typology The Kellerman Typology

Theoretical Approaches to Followership Reversing the Lens The Leadership Co-Created Process New Perspectives on Followership

Perspective 1: Followers Get the Job Done Perspective 2: Followers Work in the Best Interest of the Organization’s Mission Perspective 3: Followers Challenge Leaders Perspective 4: Followers Support the Leader Perspective 5: Followers Learn From Leaders

Followership and Destructive Leaders 1. Our Need for Reassuring Authority Figures 2. Our Need for Security and Certainty 3. Our Need to Feel Chosen or Special 4. Our Need for Membership in the Human Community 5. Our Fear of Ostracism, Isolation, and Social Death 6. Our Fear of Powerlessness to Challenge a Bad Leader

How Does Followership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 13.1 Bluebird Care Case 13.2 Olympic Rowers Case 13.3 Penn State Sexual Abuse Scandal

Leadership Instrument Followership Questionnaire

Summary Chapter 14 Gender and Leadership

Description The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth

Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth Understanding the Labyrinth

Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness


Navigating the Labyrinth Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 14.1 The “Glass Ceiling” Case 14.2 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status Case 14.3 Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand

Leadership Instrument Gender-Leader Bias Questionnaire

Summary Chapter 15 Leadership Ethics

Description Ethics Defined

Level 1. Preconventional Morality Level 2. Conventional Morality Level 3. Postconventional Morality

Ethical Theories Centrality of Ethics to Leadership Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership The Dark Side of Leadership Principles of Ethical Leadership

Ethical Leaders Respect Others Ethical Leaders Serve Others Ethical Leaders Are Just Ethical Leaders Are Honest Ethical Leaders Build Community

Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 15.1 Choosing a Research Assistant Case 15.2 Reexamining a Proposal Case 15.3 Ship Shape

Leadership Instrument Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (Short Form)


Summary Chapter 16 Team Leadership

Description Team Leadership Model

Team Effectiveness Leadership Decisions Leadership Actions

How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies

Case 16.1 Team Crisis Within the Gates Case 16.2 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper Case 16.3 1980 U.S. Olympic Hockey Team

Leadership Instrument Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader Questionnaire

Summary References Author Index Subject Index



PREFACE As this ninth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice goes to press, the number of confirmed deaths worldwide from the COVID-19 pandemic is over 1 million. The horrific nature of this pandemic has challenged societies on a global scale and highlights for all of us the importance of understanding how leadership works and the value of leadership in times of crisis. To that end, this edition is written with the objective of bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each theoretical approach can be applied in real- world organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.



First and foremost, this edition includes a new chapter on inclusive leadership, which examines the nature of inclusive leadership, its underpinnings, and how it functions. Authored by two scholars in the areas of diversity and inclusion, Donna Chrobot-Mason and Quinetta Roberson, the chapter presents definitions, a model, and the latest research and applications of this emerging approach to leadership. Underscored in the chapter is how inclusion is an integration of two factors: (1) an individual’s connectedness to others and (2) a person’s uniqueness. Finally, this new chapter provides case studies and leadership instruments to explore how to practice inclusive leadership in a variety of contexts.

In addition to the discussion of inclusive leadership in Chapter 12, this edition includes an expanded analysis of leadership and morality—the “Hitler Question.” It discusses the perplexing question of whether the process of leadership is inherently a moral process that is concerned with the common good or whether it is a neutral process that is not dependent on promoting the common good.

Another new feature in this edition is the inclusion of a real-world case study in each chapter. Because it is important to acknowledge and see real leaders exhibiting the behaviors and concepts behind the leadership approaches discussed in the text, the third case study in each chapter profiles a leader that epitomizes the chapter’s concepts. These new real- world case studies include profiles from across the globe including a mental health program utilizing grandmothers in Africa, an Italian energy company, and New Zealand prime minister Jacinda Ardern. In addition, there are profiles of leaders responding to crisis including closing a college and battling COVID-19 on a U.S. aircraft carrier.

This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and everyday applications for many leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of


leadership. In addition, it includes an expanded look at the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to practice it more effectively.



Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.

Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then practice.

Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach under consideration, and assists readers in determining the relative merits of each approach.

Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the practical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings.

Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers to interpret the case.

A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help readers apply the approach to their own leadership style or setting.

Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more meaningful.

Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive, understandable, and practical.



This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and military science, and training and development. It can also be utilized outside of academia by small and large companies, as well as federal government agencies, to aid in developing the learner’s leadership skills. It is particularly well suited as a supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an overview text within MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing education, in- service training, and other leadership-development programs.



This text includes an array of instructor teaching materials designed to save you time and to help you keep students engaged. To learn more, visit or contact your SAGE representative at

In the electronic edition of the book you have purchased, there are several icons that reference links (videos, journal articles) to additional content. Though the electronic edition links are not live, all content referenced may be accessed at . This URL is referenced at several points throughout your electronic edition.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the ninth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Lauren Gobell and Sarah Wilson), who have contributed in so many different ways to the quality and success of this book. For their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank the copy editor, Melinda Masson, and the project editor, Tracy Buyan. In her own unique way, each of these people made valuable contributions to the ninth edition.

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of this manuscript:

Sidney R. Castle, National University

Jason Headrick, Texas Tech University

Michelle Jefferson, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Gary F. Kohut, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

R. Jeffery Maxfield, Utah Valley University

Daniel F. Nehring, Morehead State University

Michael Pace, Texas A&M University

Heather I. Scott, Kennesaw State University

Charlotte Silvers, Texas Tech University

Elena Svetieva, University of Colorado Colorado Springs

Mark Vrooman, Utica College


Isaac Wanasika, University of Northern Colorado

Rosie Watwood, Concordia University Texas

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of the eighth-edition manuscript:

Sandra Arumugam-Osburn, St. Louis Community College–Forest Park

Rob Elkington, University of Ontario Institute of Technology

Abimbola Farinde, Columbia Southern University

Belinda S. Han, Utah Valley University

Deborah A. Johnson-Blake, Liberty University

Benjamin Kutsyuruba, Queen’s University

Chenwei Liao, Michigan State University

Heather J. Mashburn, Appalachian State University

Comfort Okpala, North Carolina A&T State University

Ric Rohm, Southeastern University

Patricia Dillon Sobczak, Virginia Commonwealth University

Victor S. Sohmen, Drexel University

Brigitte Steinheider, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa

Robert Waris, University of Missouri–Kansas City

Sandi Zeljko, Lake-Sumter State College


Mary Zonsius, Rush University

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of the seventh-edition manuscript:

Hamid Akbari, Winona State University

Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville

Mel Albin, Excelsior College

Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University

Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University

Julie Bjorkman, Benedictine University

Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University

Dianne Burns, University of Manchester

Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University

Steven Bryant, Drury University

Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University

David Conrad, Augsburg College

Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing

S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University

Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama


Brad Gatlin, John Brown University

Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University

Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine

Decker B. Hains, Western Michigan University

Amanda Hasty, University of Colorado–Denver

Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University

Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University

Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville

Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College

Jeanea M. Lambeth, Pittsburg State University

David Lees, University of Derby

David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Carol McMillan, New School University

Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University

Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe

Keeok Park, University of La Verne

Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth

Lori M. Pindar, Clemson University

Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque

Casey Rae, George Fox University


Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology

Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge

Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)

Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University

Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica

Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University

Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville

Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College

John Tummons, University of Missouri

Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University

Tamara Von George, Granite State College

Natalie Walker, Seminole State College

William Welch, Bowie State University

David E. Williams, Texas Tech University

Tony Wohlers, Cameron University

Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business

Alec Zama, Grand View University

Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills


In addition, I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile tool and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker (Western Kentucky University), and Eric Buschlen.

A very special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse who has been my number-one critic and supporter from the inception of the book in 1990 to the present. In addition, I am especially grateful to Marie Lee for her exceptional editing and guidance throughout this project. For her comprehensive literature reviews and chapter updates, I would like to thank Terri Scandura.

For his review of and comments on the morality and leadership section, I am indebted to Joseph Curtin (Northeastern University). I would like to thank Kate McCain (University of Nebraska–Lincoln) and Jason Headrick (University of Nebraska–Lincoln) for their co


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