10 May Module 14: Leadership and Ethics: Ethics is related to values and morals of individuals in a society (Northouse, 2022, p. 423). Being ethical mea
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Module 14: Leadership and Ethics:
Ethics is related to values and morals of individuals in a society (Northouse, 2022, p. 423). Being ethical means doing the right thing. It is important to mention that values and morals are tied to culture, which can impact what one individual sees as ethical versus unethical.
Ethical leadership is related to the expectations of leaders doing the right thing at the right moment. For this discussion board, please address the following requirements:
1. Define the term “ethics” in your own words.
2. Identify two ethical challenges that leaders often face in the workplace.
3. Analyze how ethical leadership impacts organizational performance.
4. Evaluate the importance of having a “Code of Conduct” or a “Code of Ethics” in the organization.
Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (including supporting citations) along with at least two current, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. You may find that your discussion of leadership characteristics is easily supported with such current scholarly research, while the information about how your chosen leader exhibits those leadership characteristics is supported by popular research.
Keep in mind that current scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search. Current research means published in the last five years.
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Chapter 15 in Leadership: Theory and Practice
Almarshoud, N. (2021). Implications of ethical leadership to the corporations of Saudi Arabia in terms of employee performance, trust, and commitment. PalArch’s Journal of Archeology of Egypt/ Egyptology, 18(14), 394-405.
Schwepker, C. H., & Dimitriou, C. K. (2021). Using ethical leadership to reduce stress and improve performance quality in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-11.
DEDICATION To Madison, Isla, Sullivan, and Edison
Theory and Practice
Peter G. Northouse
Western Michigan University
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Northouse, Peter Guy, author.
Title: Leadership : theory and practice / Peter G. Northouse, Western Michigan University.
Description: Ninth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publishing, 2021. | Revised edition of the author’s Leadership,  | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2020045038 | ISBN 9781544397566 (paperback) | ISBN 9781071836149 | 9781071834466 (epub) | ISBN 9781071834473 (epub) | ISBN
Subjects: LCSH: Leadership. | Leadership—Case studies.
Classification: LCC HM1261 .N67 2021 | DDC 303.3/4—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020045038
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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Preface Acknowledgments About the Author About the Contributors Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Trait Approach Chapter 3 Skills Approach Chapter 4 Behavioral Approach Chapter 5 Situational Approach Chapter 6 Path–Goal Theory Chapter 7 Leader–Member Exchange Theory Chapter 8 Transformational Leadership Chapter 9 Authentic Leadership Chapter 10 Servant Leadership Chapter 11 Adaptive Leadership Chapter 12 Inclusive Leadership Chapter 13 Followership Chapter 14 Gender and Leadership Chapter 15 Leadership Ethics Chapter 16 Team Leadership References Author Index Subject Index
Preface Acknowledgments About the Author About the Contributors Chapter 1 Introduction
Leadership Defined Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership Definition and Components
Leadership Described Trait Versus Process Leadership Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership Leadership and Power Leadership and Coercion Leadership and Morality
Leadership Is a Neutral Process Leadership Is a Moral Process
Leadership and Management Plan of the Book Case Study Case 1.1 Open Mouth . . . Leadership Instrument Conceptualizing Leadership Questionnaire Summary
Chapter 2 Trait Approach Description
Intelligence Self-Confidence Determination Integrity Sociability Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership Strengths and Leadership Emotional Intelligence
How Does the Trait Approach Work? Strengths
Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research Case 2.2 Recruiting for the Bank Case 2.3 Elon Musk
Leadership Instrument Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)
Summary Chapter 3 Skills Approach
Description Three-Skill Approach
Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills Summary of the Three-Skill Approach
Skills Model Individual Attributes Competencies Influences on Skills Development Leadership Outcomes Summary of the Skills Model
How Does the Skills Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team Case 3.2 Andy’s Recipe Case 3.3 2019 Global Teacher of the Year: Peter Tabichi
Leadership Instrument Skills Inventory
Summary Chapter 4 Behavioral Approach
Description Task and Relationship Behaviors Task Orientation
Relationship Orientation Historical Background of the Behavioral Approach
The Ohio State Studies The University of Michigan Studies Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid Paternalism/Maternalism Opportunism
Recent Studies How Does the Behavioral Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First Case 4.2 We Are Family Case 4.3 Cheer Coach Monica Aldama
Leadership Instrument Leadership Behavior Questionnaire
Summary Chapter 5 Situational Approach
Description Leadership Style Development Level
How Does SLII® Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels Case 5.2 Getting the Message Across Case 5.3 Philosophies of Chinese Leadership
Leadership Instrument SLII® Questionnaire: Sample Items
Summary Chapter 6 Path–Goal Theory
Description Leader Behaviors
Directive Leadership Supportive Leadership Participative Leadership Achievement-Oriented Leadership
Follower Characteristics Task Characteristics
How Does Path–Goal Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors Case 6.2 Playing in the Orchestra Case 6.3 Row the Boat
Leadership Instrument Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire
Summary Chapter 7 Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Description Early Studies Later Studies Leadership Development
Emotions and LMX Development How Does LMX Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair Case 7.3 Pixar: Creating Space for Success
Leadership Instrument LMX-7 Questionnaire
Summary Chapter 8 Transformational Leadership
Description Transformational Leadership Defined
Transformational Leadership and Charisma A Model of Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership Factors Transactional Leadership Factors Nonleadership Factor Transformational Leadership Measurements
Other Transformational Perspectives Bennis and Nanus Kouzes and Posner
How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 8.1 The Vision Failed Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership Case 8.3 Grandmothers and Benches
Leadership Instrument Transformational Leadership Inventory
Summary Chapter 9 Authentic Leadership
Description Authentic Leadership Defined Approaches to Authentic Leadership
Practical Approach Theoretical Approach
How Does Authentic Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader? Case 9.2 Kassie’s Story Case 9.3 The Arena of Authenticity
Leadership Instrument Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Chapter 10 Servant Leadership Description
Servant Leadership Defined Historical Basis of Servant Leadership Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader Building a Theory About Servant Leadership
Model of Servant Leadership Antecedent Conditions Servant Leader Behaviors Outcomes Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership
How Does Servant Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 10.1 Global Health Care Case 10.2 Servant Leadership Takes Flight Case 10.3 Energy to Inspire the World
Leadership Instrument Servant Leadership Questionnaire
Summary Chapter 11 Adaptive Leadership
Description Adaptive Leadership Defined
A Model of Adaptive Leadership Situational Challenges
Technical Challenges Technical and Adaptive Challenges Adaptive Challenges
Leader Behaviors Adaptive Work
How Does Adaptive Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus Case 11.3 Agonizing Options for Marlboro College
Leadership Instrument Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire
Summary Chapter 12 Inclusive Leadership
Description Inclusion Defined
A Model of Inclusive Leadership Antecedent Conditions
Leader Characteristics Group Diversity Cognitions Organizational Policies and Practices
Inclusive Leadership Behaviors Outcomes
How Does Inclusive Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application
Assessment Challenge Support
Case Studies Case 12.1 Difficult Decision Case 12.2 The Extraversion Advantage Case 12.3 Inclusive Leadership During a Crisis
Leadership Instrument Inclusive Leadership Reflection Instrument
Summary Chapter 13 Followership
Description Followership Defined Role-Based and Relational-Based Perspectives Typologies of Followership
The Zaleznik Typology The Kelley Typology
The Chaleff Typology The Kellerman Typology
Theoretical Approaches to Followership Reversing the Lens The Leadership Co-Created Process New Perspectives on Followership
Perspective 1: Followers Get the Job Done Perspective 2: Followers Work in the Best Interest of the Organization’s Mission Perspective 3: Followers Challenge Leaders Perspective 4: Followers Support the Leader Perspective 5: Followers Learn From Leaders
Followership and Destructive Leaders 1. Our Need for Reassuring Authority Figures 2. Our Need for Security and Certainty 3. Our Need to Feel Chosen or Special 4. Our Need for Membership in the Human Community 5. Our Fear of Ostracism, Isolation, and Social Death 6. Our Fear of Powerlessness to Challenge a Bad Leader
How Does Followership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 13.1 Bluebird Care Case 13.2 Olympic Rowers Case 13.3 Penn State Sexual Abuse Scandal
Leadership Instrument Followership Questionnaire
Summary Chapter 14 Gender and Leadership
Description The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth
Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth Understanding the Labyrinth
Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness
Navigating the Labyrinth Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 14.1 The “Glass Ceiling” Case 14.2 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status Case 14.3 Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand
Leadership Instrument Gender-Leader Bias Questionnaire
Summary Chapter 15 Leadership Ethics
Description Ethics Defined
Level 1. Preconventional Morality Level 2. Conventional Morality Level 3. Postconventional Morality
Ethical Theories Centrality of Ethics to Leadership Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership The Dark Side of Leadership Principles of Ethical Leadership
Ethical Leaders Respect Others Ethical Leaders Serve Others Ethical Leaders Are Just Ethical Leaders Are Honest Ethical Leaders Build Community
Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 15.1 Choosing a Research Assistant Case 15.2 Reexamining a Proposal Case 15.3 Ship Shape
Leadership Instrument Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (Short Form)
Summary Chapter 16 Team Leadership
Description Team Leadership Model
Team Effectiveness Leadership Decisions Leadership Actions
How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 16.1 Team Crisis Within the Gates Case 16.2 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper Case 16.3 1980 U.S. Olympic Hockey Team
Leadership Instrument Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader Questionnaire
Summary References Author Index Subject Index
PREFACE As this ninth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice goes to press, the number of confirmed deaths worldwide from the COVID-19 pandemic is over 1 million. The horrific nature of this pandemic has challenged societies on a global scale and highlights for all of us the importance of understanding how leadership works and the value of leadership in times of crisis. To that end, this edition is written with the objective of bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each theoretical approach can be applied in real- world organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
First and foremost, this edition includes a new chapter on inclusive leadership, which examines the nature of inclusive leadership, its underpinnings, and how it functions. Authored by two scholars in the areas of diversity and inclusion, Donna Chrobot-Mason and Quinetta Roberson, the chapter presents definitions, a model, and the latest research and applications of this emerging approach to leadership. Underscored in the chapter is how inclusion is an integration of two factors: (1) an individual’s connectedness to others and (2) a person’s uniqueness. Finally, this new chapter provides case studies and leadership instruments to explore how to practice inclusive leadership in a variety of contexts.
In addition to the discussion of inclusive leadership in Chapter 12, this edition includes an expanded analysis of leadership and morality—the “Hitler Question.” It discusses the perplexing question of whether the process of leadership is inherently a moral process that is concerned with the common good or whether it is a neutral process that is not dependent on promoting the common good.
Another new feature in this edition is the inclusion of a real-world case study in each chapter. Because it is important to acknowledge and see real leaders exhibiting the behaviors and concepts behind the leadership approaches discussed in the text, the third case study in each chapter profiles a leader that epitomizes the chapter’s concepts. These new real- world case studies include profiles from across the globe including a mental health program utilizing grandmothers in Africa, an Italian energy company, and New Zealand prime minister Jacinda Ardern. In addition, there are profiles of leaders responding to crisis including closing a college and battling COVID-19 on a U.S. aircraft carrier.
This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and everyday applications for many leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of
leadership. In addition, it includes an expanded look at the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to practice it more effectively.
Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.
Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then practice.
Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach under consideration, and assists readers in determining the relative merits of each approach.
Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the practical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings.
Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers to interpret the case.
A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help readers apply the approach to their own leadership style or setting.
Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more meaningful.
Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive, understandable, and practical.
This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and military science, and training and development. It can also be utilized outside of academia by small and large companies, as well as federal government agencies, to aid in developing the learner’s leadership skills. It is particularly well suited as a supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an overview text within MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing education, in- service training, and other leadership-development programs.
This text includes an array of instructor teaching materials designed to save you time and to help you keep students engaged. To learn more, visit sagepub.com or contact your SAGE representative at sagepub.com/findmyrep.
In the electronic edition of the book you have purchased, there are several icons that reference links (videos, journal articles) to additional content. Though the electronic edition links are not live, all content referenced may be accessed at . This URL is referenced at several points throughout your electronic edition.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the ninth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Lauren Gobell and Sarah Wilson), who have contributed in so many different ways to the quality and success of this book. For their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank the copy editor, Melinda Masson, and the project editor, Tracy Buyan. In her own unique way, each of these people made valuable contributions to the ninth edition.
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of this manuscript:
Sidney R. Castle, National University
Jason Headrick, Texas Tech University
Michelle Jefferson, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Gary F. Kohut, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
R. Jeffery Maxfield, Utah Valley University
Daniel F. Nehring, Morehead State University
Michael Pace, Texas A&M University
Heather I. Scott, Kennesaw State University
Charlotte Silvers, Texas Tech University
Elena Svetieva, University of Colorado Colorado Springs
Mark Vrooman, Utica College
Isaac Wanasika, University of Northern Colorado
Rosie Watwood, Concordia University Texas
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of the eighth-edition manuscript:
Sandra Arumugam-Osburn, St. Louis Community College–Forest Park
Rob Elkington, University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Abimbola Farinde, Columbia Southern University
Belinda S. Han, Utah Valley University
Deborah A. Johnson-Blake, Liberty University
Benjamin Kutsyuruba, Queen’s University
Chenwei Liao, Michigan State University
Heather J. Mashburn, Appalachian State University
Comfort Okpala, North Carolina A&T State University
Ric Rohm, Southeastern University
Patricia Dillon Sobczak, Virginia Commonwealth University
Victor S. Sohmen, Drexel University
Brigitte Steinheider, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa
Robert Waris, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sandi Zeljko, Lake-Sumter State College
Mary Zonsius, Rush University
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of the seventh-edition manuscript:
Hamid Akbari, Winona State University
Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville
Mel Albin, Excelsior College
Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University
Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University
Julie Bjorkman, Benedictine University
Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University
Dianne Burns, University of Manchester
Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University
Steven Bryant, Drury University
Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University
David Conrad, Augsburg College
Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing
S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University
Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama
Brad Gatlin, John Brown University
Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University
Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine
Decker B. Hains, Western Michigan University
Amanda Hasty, University of Colorado–Denver
Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University
Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University
Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville
Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College
Jeanea M. Lambeth, Pittsburg State University
David Lees, University of Derby
David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Carol McMillan, New School University
Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University
Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe
Keeok Park, University of La Verne
Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth
Lori M. Pindar, Clemson University
Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque
Casey Rae, George Fox University
Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology
Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge
Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)
Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University
Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica
Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University
Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville
Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College
John Tummons, University of Missouri
Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University
Tamara Von George, Granite State College
Natalie Walker, Seminole State College
William Welch, Bowie State University
David E. Williams, Texas Tech University
Tony Wohlers, Cameron University
Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business
Alec Zama, Grand View University
Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills
In addition, I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile tool and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker (Western Kentucky University), and Eric Buschlen.
A very special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse who has been my number-one critic and supporter from the inception of the book in 1990 to the present. In addition, I am especially grateful to Marie Lee for her exceptional editing and guidance throughout this project. For her comprehensive literature reviews and chapter updates, I would like to thank Terri Scandura.
For his review of and comments on the morality and leadership section, I am indebted to Joseph Curtin (Northeastern University). I would like to thank Kate McCain (University of Nebraska–Lincoln) and Jason Headrick (University of Nebraska–Lincoln) for their co
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