Chat with us, powered by LiveChat One of the most important issues addressed in this proposal is the difficulty that slum people who are living in areas with high poverty rates ha | WriteDen

One of the most important issues addressed in this proposal is the difficulty that slum people who are living in areas with high poverty rates ha

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topic: upgrade Los Angeles slum

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Upgrade Los Angeles Slum

Abstract

One of the most important issues addressed in this proposal is the difficulty that slum people who are living in areas with high poverty rates have in acquiring beneficial education. This problem can be alleviated by providing incentives to these students, such as a reduction in college tuition fees. These financial incentives go a great way toward guaranteeing that students from slums can afford higher education, hence lowering the number of college dropouts. This proposal is aimed at identifying the obstacles faced by slum residents in receiving a beneficial education, the obstacles introduced by urbanization that have had a negative impact on these residents, the consequences of lowering college tuition for slum residents students, the roles played by family and friends in improving the lives of slum residents students, and the obstacles faced by students living in poverty that increase their chances of dropping out of college. The study design that will be used to answer these questions will be experimental research design. Data will be collected through interviews and questionnaires, which will be used in assessing and resolving these concerns. In addition to outlining the difficulties experienced by slum resident students, this study will serve to persuade the appropriate authorities to ensure that necessary improvements are implemented in the slum areas therefore ensuring these communities are able to access beneficial education. This study is also significant in contributing knowledge to the field of education for slum residents.

Keywords

• Beneficial education: Process of acquiring or imparting the most fundamental instructions, particularly in a school or university setting.

• College dropout: An individual who leaves college or university prior to the completion of their qualifications.

• College pricing: The fees that students must pay to attend classes at an institution.

• Incentives: Something that stimulates or encourages somebody to perform a particular action.

• Slum: Unofficial enclaves within cities that are characterized by substandard housing and deplorable living conditions.

• Urbanization: The rural to urban population migration.

OUTLINE

Upgrading Slums

· Most people living in the slums are high school and college dropouts who have failed to secure excellent working opportunities. Examining the slums one can identify that it has been populated by people whose chances to obtain excellent improvements have been dimmed (Bianchi et al., 2021). Slums are overpopulated and the living conditions are purely unhygienic for human survival. The slum population is growing because of the poor economic stability affecting the residents. Los Angeles is rapidly developing in the urban sector.

· However, the disparity between the economic systems means that the slum ratio will also rise. Necessary improvement measures should be taken on the slum residents. They have to be given equal and significant opportunities to improve their living conditions (Dupere et al., 2021). Moreover, the slum residents need an improvement as the primary way to have a stable economy in Los Angeles. The report examines how slum residents are affected and the improvement measures for their living conditions.

Research Questions

1. What are some of the challenges experienced by slum residents in receiving beneficial education?

2. What challenges have been introduced by urbanization that have negatively affected the slum residents?

3. How beneficial is reducing college pricing beneficial for the slum resident high school and college dropouts?

4. What are the roles played by family and friends in improving the slum resident lives?

5. Challenges faced by students living in poverty which increases their high school and college dropout levels?

Literature Review

· Challenges experienced by slum residents in obtaining beneficial education

· Slum residents are living under high poverty rates and cannot afford to pay for the needed education (Dynarski et al., 2021). Most of the schools attended by slum residents are under poor conditions since they lack necessary resources to enhance the education quality. Therefore, most slum residents are forced to drop out either in college or high school levels because the education cannot guarantee them excellent future opportunities.

· The Los Angeles government has focused on improving urban education and showing minimal efforts for slum resident education. Lack of incentives has further deteriorated education in the slum areas (Glaeser, 2020). Therefore, most of the children are born and raised in slums with no hope of eliminating poverty. Most residents barely have an education or have minimal resources to cater for the tuition charges. The school drop-out levels has become a culture to the slum residents.

· Challenges introduced by urbanization to the slum residents

· Urbanization was introduced to make significant improvements and changes on the livelihood. Urbanization has caused an increase in the economic rates (Silva-laya, 2020). The living rates have been increased and that has become a major problem to the slum residents. For instance, prices for essential items have been increased and most people have shifted from the urban areas to the rural levels. Only those with high education levels have skills needed in securing chances in the urbanized cities.

· Additionally, urbanization has forced overcrowding in the already poor conditions in the slum areas. Slum residents have limited opportunities and depend on menial jobs to cater for essentials like food and house rent (Bianchi et al., 2021). Most of the money obtained from the menial jobs cannot be enough to cater college and high school fees. Most of such students drop out to look for work opportunities that would help in sustainability. Without major improvements on the slum residents, school dropping out would transform into a norm where the learners adapt to live in poverty.

· Benefits of reducing college pricing on the slum resident students

· Students from the slum residents are already suffering from high poverty levels which has a negative impact on their education. The government should examine that student group and develop excellent mechanisms that would help in ensuring they have received beneficial education (Dupere et al., 2021). For instance, equality should be created between the low income and high income students. Most of the low income students miss chances to join excellent schools because of the biases during the allocation period. a low income student should be given equal opportunities to receive beneficial education that would help secure the future.

· Additionally, college fees should be reduced and a free education program should be introduced for the slum resident high school and college students (Dynarrski et al., 2021). That is an excellent mechanism because it is aimed at minimizing dropping out chances. The major objective is ensuring that learners have enough resources that would help them move past the poverty levels.

· Challenges faced by slum students that causes an increase in the college and high school dropout population

· The huge gap between the income classes levels contribute in discrimination of the low income students. For instance, most slum resident students are discriminated against because of their inability to access the necessary resources (Glaeser, 2020). Adding with the constant lack of fees lowers their self-esteem and the morale to read and develop a better future. For some reason, such students will drop out to look for menial jobs and support their needs.

· Additionally, high school and college places an individual under intense pressure to fit in with the current trends. A student from the slum residence feels pressured to stay updated with the social trends. Therefore, many of such students capitalize on the lack of resources for school and fulfilling the peer pressure to drop out. Some students might indulge in drugs and substance abuse but they will drop out and adapt to the poverty life they have been accustomed to (Silva-laya, 2020). It is quite unfortunate that the students have to undergo that type of pressure because of an inequality which can be solved by the Los Angeles government. More efforts are dedicated to introducing new trends that would further affect the slum resident people since they have no voice to communicate about their challenges or desire to witness life improvements.

Theoretical Frameworks

A. The theoretical framework I have selected for the study is redistribution with growth as the primary way to improve the slum situation. Major actions should be taken to ensure that slums have been eliminated. The theoretical framework includes activities like housing programs (Bianchi et al., 2021). The slum residents need to be relocated in better housing and accommodation away from their immediate environment. Significant measures like reducing college fees should be incorporated because it is the best way in which college and high school dropout will be minimized. The selected framework is expected to offer long term solutions to the identified challenges. Various resources should be incorporated to ensure that the slum residence has been eliminated primarily purposely for life improvement and providing equal opportunities to securing high end job opportunities.

B. The theoretical framework is essential in the research since it governs the study development. The research will be based around ensuring that the theoretical framework has been addressed by every mentioned aspect (Dupere et al., 2021). Theoretical framework strives to develop a connection between all the variables presented by the research and indicates how both aspects will be closely related. The strategy used in selecting the theoretical framework is examining the background analysis and developing a proportionate concept.

C. The theoretical framework will be incorporated in the research through data collection where sample questions are developed to show specific variables that should be denoted from the provided data (Dynarski et al., 2021). Theoretical framework will be incorporated through development of survey questions and interviews. The major objective is to obtain an anticipated response.

Positionality Statement

· Los Angeles has the highest number of slum residents and most of them are high school and college dropouts. Poverty has been a system adopted by the slum residents because they have no opportunities working in their favor that would ensure their improvement.

· The best focus should be about ensuring that necessary improvements have been introduced in the slum regions.

· The improvement measures are beneficial because students will have chances at beneficial education and have necessary supporting resources.

· The main objective should be eliminating the slum regions to provide the people with better housing structures and living conditions.

Research Design

1. The best research for the study is experimental design where the cause and effects of slum residence is examined. The participants living within the slums will be selected to help examine causes of the poverty levels. Comprehending the root problems will help in accumulating the data on why students drop from colleges and high schools (Glaeser, 2020). The variables would be examined on changes that would be experienced suppose the slum resident’s livelihood is improved. The major objective is to analyze whether school dropout would be a prominent factor. Experimental design ensures that enough data has been collected from the targeted population.

2. Participant recruitment is focused on selecting people from residing in the slums. They have a first hand in experiencing poverty and they have the best answers for the provided questions (Silva-laya, 2020). For instance, participants for the research will be high school and college dropouts residing in the slums. They should volunteer to provide the needed data for the research. The students will explain how residing in slums has affected their life opportunities in escaping poverty. They will state some of the improvements that should be done in the slums that would ensure they have improved living standards.

Data collection measures

The major data which should be collected is the challenges experienced by the slum residents. The questions should be centered on all the struggles faced and why most students are forced to drop out of schools where they reach the college levels. Their opinion should be included where they communicate about some of the improvements that should be done on the slum residences and extended to their education opportunities.

1. Interviews is the first data collection technique that should be used in retrieving data from the respondents (Bianchi et al., 2021). A question list would be developed in which they are questioned and their responses are recorded and would be used as the research data. That is an excellent mechanism because interviews develop an interaction and the respondents will open up about challenges experienced while living in the slums.

2. Questionnaires is another data collection measure that would be used in collecting information from the participants. Some of the participants like their information to be concealed. The questionnaire provides privacy for the respondents as they provide their experiences in living within the slums (Dupere et al., 2021). Questionnaire is effective because the students will have an expression platform and provide significant data more than it would have been given in a formal interview without their identities hidden.

Empirical strategy

1. How to analyze interview data

I will analyze the interview data through transcription and ensuring that I read through the transcription scripts to obtain meaningful data. I will ensure that I highlight the key information that will be translated and incorporated into the study. It means that I should use digital devices during the interview to ensure that all of the provided information has been recorded (Dynarski et al., 2021). The audio should be translated to a transcript which can be read to examine all the points. However, reading through the transcript can be quite time consuming especially if the interview was held for a long duration.

Additionally, I can analyze the interview information through developing codes that would identify key phrases for the essential data. For instance, the annotation will help in identifying reasons why slum residents drop out of the learning institutions (Glaeser, 2020). The codes will help develop an excellent pattern and it will be corrected later after the major key points have been examined. I will develop a segment in which I will categorize the data. That is an excellent strategy since it will facilitate separation of the key phrases from the bias in the recorded information.

2. Survey data from the questionnaire can be analyzed through transferring the information to the excel documents. Excel helps in segmenting the information to different parts. The major benefits of using excel documents is because of its easy interpretation of the information (Silva-laya, 2020). Findings should be used in ensuring that enough information has been deducted for the research. Survey data can be translated to numerical form and the necessary data speculations will be achieved. The major objective is to ensure that raw data has been translated to meaningful results which will be included in the research for accurate information.

References

Bianchi, D., Cavicchiolo, E., Lucidi, F., Manganelli, S., Girelli, L., Chirico, A.,

& Alivernini, F. (2021). School Dropout Intention and Self-esteem in Immigrant and Native Students Living in Poverty: The Protective Role of Peer Acceptance at School. School Mental Health, 13(2), 266-278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-021-09410-4

Dupéré, V., Dion, E., Cantin, S., Archambault, I., & Lacourse, E. (2021). Social

contagion and high school dropout: The role of friends, romantic partners, and siblings. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(3), 572-584. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000484

Dynarski, S., Libassi, C., Michelmore, K., & Owen, S. (2021). Closing the Gap: TheEffect of Reducing Complexity and Uncertainty in College Pricing on the Choices of Low- Income Students. American Economic Review, 111(6), 1721-1756. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.20200451

Glaeser, E. (2020). Urbanization and Its Discontents. Eastern Economic Journal,

46(2), 191-218. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41302-020-00167-3

Silva-Laya, M., D'Angelo, N., García, E., Zúñiga, L., & Fernández, T. (2020).

Urban poverty and education. A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 29, 100280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2019.05.002

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Spring 2022 Senior Seminar: CAS 490T Children & Adolescents At-Risk Senior Paper Rubric

Total Score: /100 points Student Name:_____________________________

APA Formatting

Cover Page has APA running head, page number, title, author name, school and department affiliation, author note 1 2

3

__/10

12-15 double spaced times new roman 12pt font pages excluding cover page, abstract page, and references list. 1- inch margins all around. Abstract and keywords are on their own page and follow APA.

0 1

All pages have APA running head + page numbers & If including footnotes, tables, figures, appendices/supplemental material – follow APA formatting. All headings & subheadings are in APA formatting

1 2 3

Properly cites prior work using quotation marks, block quotes, paraphrasing, etc avoiding plagiarism 1 2 3

Title + Abstract + Keywords Title, abstract, & keywords offer key insights into what the paper is about.

Title goes beyond the general topics (e.g., teacher training) or outcomes (e.g., social-emotional learning) and gives insight into the issue, relationships or cause-effect, and/or research question being asked and/or the method being used.

1 2 3

__/10 Abstract clearly describes the big picture problem statement, what the proposal RQ is, how the author plans to address that RQ, and the potential implications/contributions of this proposal to the literature, practice, policy, and/or society at large.

1 2 3 4 5

Keywords go beyond listing all the outcomes or independent variables and touch on research design and who this proposal may be useful for/implications.

0 1 2

Introduction (1-2 pages inclusive of RQs)

Captivating intro sentences that clearly communicate the problem statement (use prior literature to support your argument/the way you set-up your problem statement).

1 2 3 4

__/8 Clearly describe what gap your proposal is aiming to fill or how it will address the problem stated. It does not have to a big creative innovative contribution but it should show an understanding of where the current body of knowledge lies and using that add a new perspective or push things forward even slightly.

1 2 3 4

Research Question(s)

Research question(s) are clearly listed either within a paragraph, with bullet points, or numbered after the introduction body

0 1

__/8

Research questions are written as questions not as statements. If questions are related there is proper use of sub- questions as opposed to a long list of individual questions. No more than 3 key/major RQs listed but each question can have a sub-question if absolutely needed.

1 2 3

Research questions appropriately match the methods being used. For example, do not use a question asking about A “causing, impacting, or having an effect” on B and then propose a qualitative research design. Use the resources on canvas for how to form proper research questions.

1 2 3 4

Spring 2022 Senior Seminar: CAS 490T Children & Adolescents At-Risk Senior Paper Rubric

Background/Relevant Literature (3+ pages)

Organized in a cohesive manner with logical sequence of sub-headings/topics. 1 2 3

__/8 Goes beyond summarizing prior studies and discusses how they relate to one another and how you as the author are thinking of them as they relate to your study. Describes key seminal pieces in the literature informing the RQs or proposed program. Remember, your job is to present all relevant knowledge not only what confirms your prior biases or hypothesis.

1 2 3 4 5

Conceptual or Theoretical Framework (~2 paragraphs)

Effectively describes the chosen model, framework, or theory driving your research proposal. This includes discussing who the key scholar behind the model, framework, or theory is…when the theory was originally conceptualized and why. What data if any was used to generate said model, framework, or theory?

0 1 2 3 4

__/8 Effectively discusses why the chosen model, framework, or theory makes sense and is a good fit for your proposal. In what ways does it inform the way you ask your RQs, the recruitment or data collection strategy, the analysis and interpretation of findings, the measures or survey/interview questions being asked to participants, the kind of dataset(s) you propose using.

0 1 2 3 4

Positionality Statement (1- 2 paragraphs)

Clearly connects your identity and experiences to the proposal by discussing concrete examples of how those inform your approach and understanding of the issue and each aspect of the proposed study/program. For example, If you are proposing to interview or survey immigrant students but you are not an immigrant student yourself, will you collaborate with a peer/colleague who does have that experience and/or an expert in that area and/or do member checks etc. Another example is, if you are using a city, county, state, or national dataset to investigate issues within special education instruction or systems and you or a family member has experienced the special education system first-hand how does that influence your understanding of potential findings (e.g., you bring a nuanced perspective that others may not and you see areas where future surveys or data collection efforts can improve on). Those are only examples but essentially how are you accounting for potential biases and blind spots and/or how does your positionality shed a new light or meaningfully contribute to the work.

1 2 3 4 5

__/5

Research Design/Methods

Enough detail is provided so that someone else can replicate your proposed research design and cite proper references informing your research design decisions. Covers sites/location, target population and sample being recruited. If using a dataset describe how that dataset was generated. Where and from who was data collected and when. Who collected the data and cleaned it? Who is the dataset available to? Explains reasoning behind these decisions. These pieces should be several paragraphs or subsections.

1 2 3 4 5

__/15 Describes data collection strategies and the measures. Will you use surveys, interviews, focus groups, or will you do classrooms, community, teacher, child, or parent observations? Will data be collected in-person, over the phone, online (what websites or software will be used – google forms, Qualtrics, survey monkey, etc). Will you not collect your own data and instead use a dataset already available (e.g., NCES, IES, School District, City, County, State, National datasets)? Or will it be a combination of data forms? Explain reasoning behind these decisions and offer detail descriptions of the surveys, interviews, datasets etc. that you created for your proposal or are using for your

1 2 3 4 5

Spring 2022 Senior Seminar: CAS 490T Children & Adolescents At-Risk Senior Paper Rubric

proposal (if you did not develop the scales or measures being used than cite where you are getting them from). Are you doing an intervention or implementing a pilot program and if so, how are you measuring its success? How are you measuring all the variables/factors at play? Don’t just say cognitive development tell me what specific construct/scale/measure you are using to operationalize cognitive development or academic progress or self- esteem or any other outcome. These pieces should be several paragraphs or subsections.

Give a clear timeline of your recruitment, data collection, data cleaning, and analysis. If it is a longitudinal study, what measures or data will be collected at every wave? How often will you do data collection (once a week, once a month, every 3 months, every semester, every 6 months, every year, etc)?

1 2 3 4 5

Analytic Plan Strategy + Budget Justifications

Enough detail is provided so that someone else can replicate your proposed analysis. Describe how you are cleaning and organizing the data. Where/what software are you using to store the data? Why?

1 2 3 4 5

__/15 Explain how you are going to analyze the data citing proper references that are informing your analytic plan. Use the resources on canvas and the analytic sections of other papers related to your topic to help guide you. Don’t just say you are doing a thematic analysis, a meta-analysis, or a regression analysis. Explain what those look like in more detail (what steps are involved). These pieces should be several paragraphs or subsections.

1

2

3 4 5

X2

References

Minimum of 12 scholarly sources cited. References are timely and relevant pieces. 0 1 __/6 If they are in your references list, they must be cited at least once in your paper. References list and in-text citations

follow APA formatting. 1 2 3 4 5

Writing

Free of grammar and spelling errors. 1 2 3

__/7 Smooth transitions used throughout. Sentence structure is simple and clear. Free of run on sentences or convoluted sentences. Free of jargon language and is written in a clear easy to follow manner. Technical terms are readily and clearly defined.

1 2 3 4

Comments:

Spring 2022 Senior Seminar: CAS 490T Children & Adolescents At-Risk Senior Paper Rubric

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1

Branching Paths: A Novel Teacher Evaluation Model for Faculty Development

James P. Bavis and Ahn G. Nu

Department of English, Purdue University

ENGL 101: First Year Writing

Dr. Richard Teeth

January 30, 2020

Commented [AF1]: At the top of the page you’ll see the header, which does not include a running head for student papers (a change from APA 6). Page numbers begin on the first page and follow on every subsequent page without interruption. No other information (e.g., authors' last names) is required. Note: your instructor may ask for a running head or your last name before the page number. You can look at the APA professional sample paper for guidelines on these.

Commented [AF2]: The paper's title should be centered, bold, and written in title case. It should be three or four lines below the top margin of the page. In this sample paper, we've put four blank lines above the title.

Commented [AF3]: Authors' names are written below the title, with one double-spaced blank line between them. Names should be written as follows: First name, middle initial(s), last name.

Commented [AF4]: Authors' affiliations follow immediately after their names. For student papers, these should usually be the department containing the course for which the paper is being written.

Commented [AWC5]: Note that student papers in APA do not require author notes, abstracts, or keywords, which would normally fall at the bottom of the title page and on the next page afterwards. Your instructor may ask for them anyway — see the APA professional sample paper on our site for guidelines for these.

Commented [AF6]: Follow authors' affiliations with the number and name of the course, the instructor's name and title, and the assignment's due date.

2

Branching Paths: A Novel Teacher Evaluation Model for Faculty Development

According to Theall (2017), “Faculty evaluation and development cannot be considered

separately… evaluation without development is punitive, and development without evaluation is

guesswork” (p.91). As the practices that constitute modern programmatic faculty development

have evolved from their humble beginnings to become a commonplace feature of university life

(Lewis, 1996), a variety of tactics to evaluate the proficiency of teaching faculty for development

purposes have likewise become commonplace. These include measures as diverse as peer

observations, the development of teaching portfolios, and student evaluations.

One such measure, the student evaluation of teacher (SET), has been virtually ubiquitous

since at least the 1990s (Wilson, 1998). Though records of SET-like instruments can be traced to

work at Purdue University in the 1920s (Remmers & Brandenburg, 1927), most modern histories

of faculty development suggest that their rise to widespread popularity went hand-in-hand with

the birth of modern faculty development programs in the 1970s, when universities began to

adopt them in response to student protest movements criticizing mainstream university curricula

and approaches to instruction (Gaff & Simpson, 1994; Lewis, 1996; McKeachie, 1996). By the

mid-2000s, researchers had begun to characterize SETs in terms like “…the predominant measure

of university teacher performance […] worldwide” (Pounder, 2007, p. 178). Today, SETs play an

important role in teacher assessment and faculty development at most universities (Davis, 2009).

Recent SET research practically takes the presence of some form of this assessment on most

campuses as a given. Spooren et al. (2017), for instance, merely note that that SETs can be found

at “almost every institution of higher education throughout the world” (p. 130). Similarly,

Darwin (2012) refers to teacher evaluation as an established orthodoxy, labeling it a “venerated,”

“axiomatic” institutional practice (p. 733).

Commented [AF7]: The paper's title is bolded and centered above the first body paragraph. There should be no "Introduction" header.

Commented [AWC8]: Here, we've borrowed a quote from an external source, so we need to provide the location of the quote in the document (in this case, the page number) in the parenthetical.

Commented [AWC9]: By contrast, in this sentence, we've merely paraphrased an idea from the external source. Thus, no location or page number is required. You can cite a page range if it will help your reader find the

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