Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Please design three activities that you would use or engage in, in order to describe three aspects of Piaget's theory to your fellow classmates. That is, these a | WriteDen

Please design three activities that you would use or engage in, in order to describe three aspects of Piaget’s theory to your fellow classmates. That is, these a

  

Assignment 5 requirement

1) Please design three activities that you would use or engage in, in order to describe three aspects of Piaget's theory to your fellow classmates. That is, these activities will be meant for adults, not children. The activities could be skits, videos, drawings, or anything else that you can think of. Please note that if you choose a video, you will actually have to create one, it will not be enough to just describe it. If you choose a comic strip, you will actually have to design/develop/draw it, it will not be enough to just describe it. The more creative this activity is, and the more detail you include in your description of the activity, the better  (6 points).

2) Imagine a debate between Piaget and Vygotsky, regarding cognitive development. What would this debate look like? What would they agree on (please name at least three things)? What would they disagree on (please name at least three things)? (This part of the assignment should follow a "conversation" format, between these two giants, and should be about two to three pages long (Times New Roman, Font 12, Double-Spaced) (4 points)

3)  List and describe Four techniques that parents can use to scaffold (Vygotsky) the development of one or more cognitive skills in their children, and explain why each is effective. You can describe three techniques to scaffold the development of one cognitive skill, one technique to scaffold the development of three different cognitive skills, or three techniques to scaffold the development of three different cognitive skills (4 points)

Lesson 9 Overview

Lesson 9 provides you with information that will help you broaden your understanding of how early thinking/cognitive processing and learning develop in infants and young children. It will show you how these skills affect, and are affected by, all domains of development. You will also learn about individual differences in the early mental development of infants and young children and how these differences are measured using specific tests. Finally, you will see how the complex blend of heredity and environment influence infant and toddler mental development.

Learning Objectives

When you have completed this lesson, you will be able to:

· Understand the theoretical perspectives of cognitive development from infancy to age six

· Develop an understanding of cognitive processes

· Learn how cognitive processes are affected by all areas of development

· Understand the differences in the early cognitive development of typical and atypical infants and children

· Learn about tests/tools that are used to measure infants and children's mental development

· Reflect upon the importance of the social environment as a place where learning takes place

A Review of the Theoretical Perspectives on Cognition

There are a number of theories that have evolved and that describe the nature and development of cognition. First, let's explore the theory of Jean Piaget. In his pioneering investigation of how logical thinking develops, Piaget described the course of development in terms of discrete stages that children pass through on their way to logically understanding the world. Piaget viewed children as "motivated experimenters" and "explorers" who work diligently to figure out how the world works. According to this view, children do not merely absorb knowledge passively. Instead, they actively explore their surroundings, trying to comprehend new information based on their current patterns of understanding. Some of Piaget's educational principles still have a major influence on teacher training and classroom practices today (Gruber & Voneche, 1995).

However, there are a number of recent theorists who have challenged some aspects of Piaget's theory. You will explore the research results of these theories, and in doing so, you may learn about aspects of cognitive development in infants and children that were never described by Piaget.

To explore the work of these theorists, read the following sections in our textbook:

· Chapter 6: Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory pages 204- 216 in the 2012 edition, pages 201-213 in the 2016 edition, and pages 197-210 in the 2020 edition. These include Piaget's ideas about cognitive change, the sensorimotor stage, follow-up research on infant cognitive development, and evaluation of the sensorimotor stage.

· Chapter 9: Piaget's Theory: The pre-operational stage (pages 318-329 in the 2012 edition, pages 311-322 in the 2016 edition, and pages 307-318 in the 2020 edition).

· Chapter 6: Information Processing Theory (pages 217-224 in the 2012 edition, pages 214-222 in the 2016 edition, and pages 210-215 in the 2020 edition).

· Chapter 9: Information Processing Theory in preschoolers (pages 334 – 338 in the 2012 edition, pages 327-332 in the 2016 edition, and pages 323-328 of the 2020 edition).

· Chapter 6: Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development: The Social Context of Early Cognitive Development (pages 224-226 in the 2012 edition, pages 222-223 in the 2016 edition, and pages 218-219 in the 2020 edition)

· Chapter 9: Vygotsky's Socio-Cultural Theory (pages 329-334 in the 2012 edition, pages 322-326 in the 2016 edition, and pages 318-322 in the 2020 edition).

Piaget and Vygotsky are great contributors to the field of child development. Their work and influence continue to be present in schools and educational settings, and a lot of current research is based on their work and theories (Mooney, 2013).

If you wish to learn more about Piaget, please watch the following video.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QX6JxLwMJeQ

And if you wish to learn more about Vygotsky, and his contributions to our understanding of how children develop cognitive processes, please watch this video.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=InzmZtHuZPY

How does Vygotsky's view differ from Piaget's? Which view do you favour?

Individual Differences in Mental Development

A variety of infant and child intelligence tools have been devised to assess individual differences in early mental development. Although some predict later performance poorly, those that emphasize speed of habituation/ recovery to visual stimuli and object permanence show better predictability. A stimulating home environment, warm parenting, and reasonable demands for behaviour and early intervention for infants who are at risk for developmental delays, are powerful influences on the intellectual progress of young children. In the following section, you will review some of the measures that are used to assess mental development in infancy and childhood. In order to do so, please read the following:

· Chapter 6: Individual Differences in Mental Development in Infants and Toddlers (pages 227-232 in the 2012 edition, pages 225-230 in the 2016 edition, and pages 219-226 in the 2020 edition)

· Chapter 9: Individual Differences in Mental Development in Preschoolers (pages 346-353 in the 2016 edition, pages 339-347 in the 2016 edition, and pages 336-343 in the 2020 edition)

These sections discuss the importance of the nurturing environment for the development of mental processes in infants and children. Today, many children spend their early years in some form of child care setting, and it is extremely important that these settings consistently provide optimal growth and development opportunities for infants and children. Berk and Meyer (2016) primarily discuss the American child care situation. It is therefore it is important to look at the current issues in Canadian child care. You can do so by visiting the website of the Canadian Child Care Federation (Links to an external site.) , and by visiting the Child Care (Links to an external site.)  section of the Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development.

In order to learn about Aboriginal child care, in British Columbia, please visit the website of the Aboriginal Child Care Society (Links to an external site.) . It has a wealth of information on child care issues, from an Aboriginal perspective, in BC and beyond.

Finally, if you are interested in getting more information about cognitive milestones, in the early years, please visit the Developmental Milestones (Links to an external site.)  section of the Center for Disease Control website. There, you can click on the age group in which you are interested, and learn about the cognitive tasks/achievements (as well as tasks in other developmental domains) that are associated with that age group.

Lesson 9 Summary, References & Assignment

Summary

Cognitive development is the growth in children's thinking and reasoning about the world, and it depends on their interactions with their environment. In this lesson, we have reviewed major cognitive development theories that have sought to document and describe both qualitative and quantitative changes in children's thinking and reasoning as they continue to develop. As you know by now, children initially learn about their world through active physical exploration and then gradually develop the ability to think symbolically and logically about their experiences. Children use cognition in all areas of development. Cognitive development therefore influences and is influenced by development in all domains.

Children who are at risk or who have disabilities experience difficulties with many of these tasks. Some children may have difficulties with object perception, which involves recognizing, differentiating and comparing objects within the environment, while others may have difficulties with memory. Still, others may experience difficulties with attention and may have poor impulse control. Others may have difficulties understanding the consequences of their actions.

We will now move to Lesson 10, where you will learn about infants and children with atypical cognitive development. This will include children with intellectual disabilities at one end of the scale and children who are gifted, at the other end.

References

· Gruber, H. E. & Voneche, J. J. (1995). The Essential Piaget. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson Inc.

· Mooney, C. G. (2013). Theories of Childhood (2nd Ed.). Saint Paul, MN: RedLeaf Press.

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Lesson 10 Overview

Learning Objectives

When you have completed this lesson, you will be able to:

· Understand the influences of cognitive delay on all areas of development

· Describe both current and historical definitions and concepts of intellectual disability

· Demonstrate an awareness of cognitive development in children with Down Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

· Demonstrate an understanding of the common signs of learning disabilities in young children

· Develop an awareness of giftedness in young children

Influences on Cognitive Delay

Cognitive development is the growth in children's thinking and reasoning about the world, and it occurs as they interact with the environment. As discussed in the previous lesson, we see both qualitative and quantitative changes in children's thinking and reasoning as they continue to develop. Cognitive abilities are clusters of mental skills that enable the child to think, know, remember, conceptualize, solve problems, use abstract reasoning, and engage in critical thinking. It is important to recognize that despite individual differences, cognitive abilities continue to develop throughout a person's life. It is also important to recognize that cognition affects many areas of learning including adaptive functioning, motor skills, language and communication, perceptual skills, social relationships, problem solving, emotional development and the development of a sense of self (Bjorklund, 2011).

Children who are at risk or who have known disabilities may experience difficulties with many of these skills. Some children have difficulties with object perception, which involves recognizing, differentiating and comparing objects within the environment. Others encounter memory difficulties and find recalling and remembering what they have learned or seen, to be difficult. Still, others find it difficult to attend to task, have a low tolerance to frustration, poor impulse control, and find it difficult to think about the consequences of their actions. There is a two-way interaction in cognitive processes: what you know affects what you perceive and how you conceptualize and classify objects, which in turn influences the way you reason about them.

Cognitive delay is a broad term that can refer to children of all ages with differing degrees of delayed cognitive development. It is now recognized that early identification of children with cognitive delays, and provision of early intervention services can help to minimize the impact of the delay (be it permanent or temporary) and to maximize their potential, and therefore make them as autonomous as possible.

What is Intellectual Disability?

Intellectual Disability is a relatively new term. Not too long ago, individuals with serious and permanent cognitive delays used to be referred to as "mentally retarded". Several years ago, in Canada, the term Intellectual Disability replaced the term Mental Retardation. And this term has also replaced the "mental retardation" term, in the newly published fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).

In order to learn more about what does and does not constitute an Intellectual Disability, please watch this short video (Links to an external site.)  that describes Intellectual Disability.

In the next two sections of this lesson, you will have an opportunity to examine two specific syndromes commonly associated with intellectual disability.

Children with Down Syndrome

Please start this section by watching this lovely video about a beautiful little girl called Emma, who has Down Syndrome.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qNSsasY0XU

For a comprehensive overview of Down Syndrome, please visit the following website (Links to an external site.) . And to learn more about current issues that are faced by individuals with Down Syndrome, please take a moment to visit the website of the Global Down Syndrome Foundation (Links to an external site.) , where you can gather a lot of interesting and informative information, about this syndrome.

The biggest challenges that children with Down Syndrome face are in the area of cognitive and academic skills. Children with Down Syndrome are described as "concrete thinkers", and the older they get, the more difficulties they will face, in areas that require abstract thinking (Kumin, 2012). Difficulties and serious delays in cognitive development will undoubtedly lead to difficulties/delays in almost all academic areas (including reading and writing). Children with Down Syndrome will learn how to read and write, but they will do so at a slower rate than their typically developing peers (Kumin, 2012). Difficulties with cognitive skills will also lead to difficulties in all areas of language and communication.

Children with Down Syndrome will also have difficulties with the development and acquisition of motor skills. Many will have hypotonia (Links to an external site.) , or low tone, and this will impact how they move and interact with the world. This will also impact how they develop speech, as the low tone will also impact the oral/motor (or mouth) area (Bruni, 2006, Winders, 2013).

Despite all these challenges, children with Down Syndrome who receive early intervention services grow up to be happy and relatively autonomous adults, who in many ways, are just like everyone else. Just watch this lovely video, and you will see!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cA3t1HW1Ow

Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

In Lesson 3, you were introduced to the contributing factors in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and its most serious type, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Maternal consumption of alcohol is the leading non-hereditary known cause of intellectual disability. In addition to general deficits in intellectual functioning, cognitive difficulties are noted in learning, memory, attention and problem solving.

Please take a moment to meet Iyal and his family, through this  video (Links to an external site.) . Listen to Iyal's mother, as she describes her life and the life of her family, as they live with a child with FASD. You can also watch the following video about a youg man called Miles, who is from Calgary, and who also has FASD. Listen to how he describes his childhood, and the fact that he would get into trouble with his friends, by hurting them, and then would not understand why they did not want to be his friends. This difficulty with cause and effect (that is, the understanding of the consequences of one's actions) is one of the most salient characteristics of FASD.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nzxwWJw0vI

For a comprehensive overview of FAS/FASD, please go to the  FASD section (Links to an external site.)  of the Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development website. There, you will learn a great deal about this  completely preventable  disorder. Please also visit the  FASD section (Links to an external site.)  of the BC Provincial Outreach Program website, where you can gather a lot of information and resources on FASD, in the province of British Columbia. And in order to learn about the physical features that are  usually associated with FAS , please visit this  website (Links to an external site.) .

The Early Signs of Learning Disabilities

The term "learning disabilities" is a term that we hear a lot about, today. Children with learning disabilities constitute quite heterogeneous group, and many of them experience difficulties in several domains, including the cognitive and academic domains (Siegel, 2013). In order to get a general overview of what learning disabilities are and are not, please visit the "Understood (Links to an external site.) " website.

Although learning disabilities are not usually identified until children start attending grade school, some of the signs of learning disabilities can be found in Kindergarten and even preschool children (Wong, Graham, Hoskyn & Berman, 2008).

You have already learned that there are many types of learning disabilities. Here are some of the common signs of some of these types, in young children:

· The common signs of dyslexia in young children can be found in this section (Links to an external site.)  of the Understood website.

· The common signs of dysgraphia in young children can be found in this section (Links to an external site.) of the Understood website.

· The common signs of dyscalculia in young children can be found in this section (Links to an external site.)  of the Understood website.

Children Who Are Gifted

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· Finally, we turn our attention to giftedness. Children who perform or have the potential to perform at levels significantly above those of other children, have special needs that are as great as those of children whose disabilities demonstrably limit their performance. Children with exceptional abilities continue to be an under-identified, under-served, and often inappropriately served group. Much of this is due to misguided beliefs. One such belief is that gifted children do everything well. In fact, some children may show giftedness in a broad range of areas while other may show talents in one area and several deficits in others. Another misguided belief is that children who are gifted do not need help. This is a complete myth as children who are gifted need as much help as those who have cognitive and other difficulties (Smutny, Walker, & Meckstroth, 1997).

· Our understanding of giftedness has changed over time, and the terminology used to describe it has also varied. The term gifted is often used to refer to the heterogeneous spectrum of students with exceptional abilities. In Canada, the terms highly able or developmentally advanced are also recognized. Other terms such as talented and creative are used to differentiate sub-groups of gifted people. In order to learn more about this population, please visit  this website (Links to an external site.) , from one of Australia's provinces. From that general section, you can click on different sections (on the left side), in order to learn about identifying children who are gifted, and working with them and their families. 

Lesson 10 Summary, References & Assignment

Summary

You have now finished Lesson 10. Before you move on to the next lesson, please take a moment to reflect upon what you have learned from this lesson. Identify what was new for you and how both cognitive delay and developmentally advanced cognition can and do affect and are affected by other developmental areas, especially those we have already learned about!

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Assignment 5 requirement

1) Please design three activities that you would use or engage in, in order to describe three aspects of Piaget's theory to your fellow classmates. That is, these activities will be meant for adults, not children. The activities could be skits, videos, drawings, or anything else that you can think of. Please note that if you choose a video, you will actually have to create one, it will not be enough to just describe it. If you choose a comic strip, you will actually have to design/develop/draw it, it will not be enough to just describe it. The more creative this activity is, and the more detail you include in your description of the activity, the better  (6 points).

2) Imagine a debate between Piaget and Vygotsky, regarding cognitive development. What would this debate look like? What would they agree on (please name at least three things)? What would they disagree on (please name at least three things)? (This part of the assignment should follow a "conversation" format, between these two giants, and should be about two to three pages long (Times New Roman, Font 12, Double-Spaced) (4 points)

3)  List and describe Four techniques that parents can use to scaffold (Vygotsky) the development of one or more cognitive skills in their children, and explain why each is effective. You can describe three techniques to scaffold the development of one cognitive skill, one technique to scaffold the development of three different cognitive skills, or three techniques to scaffold the development of three different cognitive skills (4 points)

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