Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Prior to attending Residency, you submitted?documentation outlining your topic, problem space, background to the study, and problem statement. Those components h | WriteDen

Prior to attending Residency, you submitted?documentation outlining your topic, problem space, background to the study, and problem statement. Those components h

Prior to attending Residency, you submitted documentation outlining your topic, problem space, background to the study, and problem statement. Those components have likely undergone some degree of revision. In this assignment, you will defend your choices of topic, problem space, background to the study, and problem statement as revised during Residency.

General Requirements:  

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment: 

  • This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA 7th style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for specific guidelines related to doctoral level writing. These chapters contain essential information on manuscript structure and content, clear and concise writing, and academic grammar and usage.
  • This assignment requires that at least two additional scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included.
  •  You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Instructions for Learners

Use this template for a Quantitative study.

This is a working document. You will start this document in RES-831 and update it through your upcoming residency courses RSD-851 and 881, subsequent research courses and potentially in your first two dissertation classes.

Requirements, hints, and alignment notes are found in the Notes section.

To view notes, click the “View” tab at the top of the application and select “notes.”

Hint: You may need to expand the notes section in order to see all of the notes contained for each slide.

To view bubble comments from faculty, click the “review” tab at the top of the application and select “Show Comments.”

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Instructions for Faculty

Written feedback is to be provided via bubble comments. Comments can be created by holding Ctrl+M (for PC) or Command+Shift+M (Mac) on your keyboard, or via the Review tab.

To access the Comment pane, click the “review” tab and select “Show comments.”

The notes section in each slide contains the slide requirements.

Feedback should be focused on helping the learner meet the slide requirements.

See the supplementary faculty job aid materials for grading and other resources.

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RES 831 Slides – Instructions

Complete the slides under the RES 831 section header:

Literature Review:

Background to the Problem

Problem Space

Theoretical Foundation

Review of Literature

Problem Statement

Research Questions/Hypotheses & Variables

Methodology

Feasibility

Note: This template is a similar format is also used for your first residency RSD 851 and in subsequent research and residency courses. You will continuously use and update this document as you move through your research and residency courses.

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Individual Focused Learning for Better Memory Retention Through Experience

06/13/2022

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4

Literature Review: Background to the Problem

10/9/2019

Cognitive theory focuses on experiences in three looping processes comprehension, memory, and application

According to Goossens (2020), cognitive theories in learning is affected by biology, environment, and social constructs

Bottom-up and top-down influences define experience of learning and thus memory and its retention (Tyng et al., 2017)

Comprehension is interpretative with different people and methodologies of gaining skills require support for better retention of knowledge (Ford et al., 2020)

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Objective:

The outline on this slide is used in the Prospectus to develop the Background of the Study in Chapter 1 and the Background of the Problem Space in Chapter 2.

Slide Requirements:

Use either a bulleted format or table format

Describe what is already understood about the problem – Historically, memory retention is dependent on biology, social determinants, and educational roles (Berger et al., 2012)

Present findings from prior research related to the history of the problem space – Individuals are unique by circumstances. Cognition development is different for each person; hence memory retention and its experiences are unique. In the education sector today, curriculum caters to meeting outcomes of the larger group with less focus on the individual pace of learning.

Focus on:

When the problem started – Generalization of education and learning environment through general curriculum tends to segregate some learners

What has been discovered about the problem – According to Tyng et al. (2017), the effects of emotion on learning and memory are not always univalent” it points to the fact that progression is a personal journey such that how knowledge is understood is directly linked to how it is taught, the environment it is taught in, and the emotional attachments of information processing. Therefore, productivity in learning can only be attained by training and task definition, which can be versatile from one person to another.

The current state of the problem – Development of separate special classes for students with learning challenges is beneficial, but with poor education systems, the program could be detrimental to the future, especially in self-teaching learners. With guidance for retention of knowledge being a taught skill, ineffective environments and lack of support could be harmful especially to disadvantaged communities

Support information with APA-compliant in-text citations in your slide, and then make sure to include the complete reference for the citation in the List of References slide (last slide of this presentation)

5

Literature Review: Problem Space

10/9/2019

Perception plays a very important role in motivating learners

It is built on the foundation of the dynamics of instructor-student relationship hence role-based participation

The participation is founded on trust, in the system and its guiding parameters (Andrews et al., 2020)

Is there the institutional capacity to promote progression, knowledge retention, and educational implications?

Examination of expectation presents a set of needs that must be understood within identification of learning mechanisms (Bernacki et al., 2020)

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Dropouts making it big in technology fields and platforms like YouTube providing other opportunities have impacted learning has seen more formal education reduce. Increasing virtual communities has provided several chances for self teaching and instructional learning. However, what they have facilitated the most is gaining information and skills at the learner's pace and based on discipline and self motivation.

Objective:

This slide is used to develop the Problem Space section in Chapter 2. The outline on this slide is used in the Prospectus to develop the Background of the Study in Chapter 1 and the Background of the Problem Space in Chapter 2.

Slide Requirements:

In 3-5 bullets, describe what still needs to be understood related to the topic from empirical literature or research.

Use empirical literature dated primarily within the past 5 years.

Identify and support what still needs to be understood regarding the problem space through a combination of arguments:

Professional and/or broader societal need identified in the literature

Directions for future research based on limitations, recommendations, and/or conflicting findings

Synthesis of broader topics to study in combination

Support information with APA compliant in-text citations in your slide, and then make sure to include the full reference for the citation in the List of References slide (last slide of this presentation)

Slide Requirements:

Use the following steps to complete the Table above:

Step 1: Define the Perspectives to be used.

Step 2. Identify what is known (in the literature).

Step 3. Identify what is unknown or needs to be better understood.

Step 4. Develop a need statement for each perspective.

Step 5. Synthesize the points into a need statement.

Step 6. Develop a problem statement.

6

Literature Review: Theoretical Foundations

10/9/2019

Biology links episodic memories as instrumental in individual capabilities to comprehend and retain information (Palombo et al., 2018)

Integral part of the learning process is to explore task orientation as essential for conscious modulation of individual differences (van Abswoude et al., 2018)

Therefore, supported cognition development at any level allows for self-development and actualization necessary for contextualization of successful education (Andrews et al., 2020)

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In consideration of theories that may apply to emphasize that memory retention is a cognitive element to be nurtured

– Cognitive learning theory points to individual mental influences being affected by supplemental training

– Social cognitive theory emphasizes that environmental influences provide room for observational learning

– Cognitive behavioral theory defines mental processing as led by interpretation of experience and event

Objective:

Identify the laws, theories, models, and/or concept that will be used to develop the study variables and research questions/hypothesis, and to guide data collection. In the Proposal this information is used to develop the research questions for chapter 1 and 3. It is expanded significantly in Chapter 2.

Slide Requirements:

There should be one slide on each model or theory in outline format.

Include a visual of the model or theory if it is available.

Focus on describing the theory and not on discussing how it has been used in prior studies.

Define study variables based on theory or model, then develop research questions/hypotheses that align to the theory/model and variables.

Support information with APA compliant in-text citations in your slide, and then make sure to include the full reference for the citation in the List of References slide (last slide of this presentation)

Hints:

Two ways to find models or theories for both quantitative and qualitative research are:

Find studies related to your topic and see what theoretical foundation theory, model, or concept they used. Then research it or find a quantitative instrument that is used to collect data on it.

Look for validated quantitative instruments that measure variables you are studying from either a quantitative or qualitative approach; then do a Google or Google Scholar search that combines the name of the instrument and the term “validation study” or “validity”. This document will explain the model behind the instrument, trace it back historically to the creator of the initial model or theory. For the quantitative studies, use the instrument article to provide the reliability and validity statistics for the instrument.

For each theory and or model, provide an explanation of the theory, one sentence to describe the components/dimensions within the theory/model, and one sentence to explain how the theory(s)/model(s) will be used to form your study.

7

Literature Review: Review of Literature

Major Topic Topic Description Empirical Sources APA Formatted Reference
Acquisition of cognitive skills through learning Direct gaining of cognitive skills is implementable in actively self driven participation, and questioning Andrews et al., 2020 Sepp et al., 2019
Development of competency skills through instructional learning Demonstrative capabilities attained through retained memories requires purposeful awareness for distinctive support Wake et al., 2020 Apaydin & Hossary, 2017
Stimulation of positivity favors systemic changes in learning Psychological responsive mechanism are ingrained within recognizing gaps and thus a necessity for transitional mainstreaming of cognitive element in instructions Warsah et al., 2021 Pilotti et al., 2019 Apaydin & Hossary, 2017

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The three areas that touch on each of the three cognitive aspect are defined by the major topics. The authors supporting this fact center their studies on biology, neurophysiology, and psychological studies when trying to explain response and behavioral aspect. Within this, they touch on the stimulation of better learning modalities that can be mainstreamed within instructive teaching of individuals as a means to facilitate better information retention. Most importantly, the support the discussion on transferability of knowledge being linked directly to both internal and external circumstance hence can be hindered or supported to grow as experiences to develop skills hence better recollection in future when needed. With diversification of education spaces seen with the Internet of Things in modern day, this is essential to cultivate nondiscriminatory learning and teaching environments.

Objective:

This slide is used to provide an outline of the topics that will be included in the Review of Literature section, which is 30+ pages in Chapter 2.

Slide Requirements:

Column 1: Identify 3-5 major topics in the literature related to the proposed problem space, perspectives/topics (Use the list from the Problem Space slide)

Column 2: Write 1-2 sentences defining/describing each topic

Column 3: Provide at least 3 current empirical sources (ideally within the past 5 years) supporting each topic

Hints:

For quantitative studies, topics could include:

Research describing societal, community, or professional issues/needs

Research on the broad population and why the topic is relevant

Studies describing and/or relating the topics associated with the variables

Studies on the instruments used to collect data

Studies defining the need from an organizational perspective

Studies similar to the topic

Studies on related research such as factors associated with the themes

8

Problem Statement

While literature indicates that success has been attained with in class theoretical learning, cognitive theory and its progression has shown that practicality breeds better memory retaining

There is thus a need to understand how individual focused learning promotes better memory retention through experience

10/9/2019

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Objective:

This slide is used to provide the problem statement, which will be expanded upon in the Chapter 2: Problem Statement section.

Slide Requirements:

State the specific problem for research with a clear declarative statement.

Alignment: The problem statement must align with the established problem space as described on previous slides.

Alignment: The research questions must be based on the problem statement as well as the theoretical foundation.

Hints:

Some examples of how to phrase a problem statement include:

It is not known how or why…

Based on what is known in the empirical research literature, _____ is still unknown/what still needs to be understood is…

While the literature indicates ____________, it is not known in (school/district/organization/community) how/why __________.

Use this Slide for Quantitative Studies: Variables

10/9/2019

Variable Conceptual Definition Operational Definition Measurement Level Instrument/Data Source
Individual focused learning Higher education learners Number of students Nominal Questionnaire
Memory retention Higher education learners Test scores Ordinal Questionnaire
       

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To understand how individual-focused learning promotes better memory retention through experience reaching out to the learners themselves and collection of data about their experiences is the best approach. This means collection of data through questionnaires with focus on why student would chose research based studies over theoretical class work studies, what learners remember the most about there studying and why they can easily remember that over others is an important insight into individual driven to learning and their facilitators.

Nominal level of measurement – Learners choosing research-based learning/program of study (preference of studying)/Type of study (curriculum theoretical based study, research based study)

Ordinal Measurement Level – Category of scores, educational status(completed doctoral program, still in doctoral program, dropped out of doctoral program, took longer)

Objective:

State and define each variable in table format. The table is used in Chapter 3: Research Questions and Hypotheses in the dissertation template.

Slide Requirements:

Complete the table for each variable.

Included citations as appropriate.

Hints:

The conceptual definition is ‘what does it mean’. For example, a conceptual level of a variable in a school setting may be student achievement.

An operational level is how the researcher will measure the variable to reflect the conceptual definition. The operational level of the variable for student achievement may be the test score on a final exam, which ranges from 0 to 100.

The measurement level is whether the variable is nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio.

10

Use this Slide for Quantitative Studies: Research Questions and Hypotheses

RQ1: Individual focused learning promotes better memory retention in doctoral learners in the long run

H10- Individual learning provides better memory retention

H1A- Individual learning does not provide better memory retention

RQ2: Does research based learning as individual focused model promote better retention of memory of the experience and skill

H20- Research based learning promotes retention of memory of skill and experience

H2A -Research based learning promotes retention of memory of skill and experience

10/9/2019

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The first research question looks at the generalization of individual focused learning by not specifying the model f learning. On the other hand, research-based learning is a self driven learning with little to no strict curriculum, and supports hands-on experience in learning hence using it as model of learning, it can eb understood whether the discipline in the student or the mode of instruction is instrumental in memory retention

Objective:

State and define each research question and hypothesis. This information is expanded upon in Chapter 3: Research Questions and Hypotheses in the dissertation template.

Slide Requirements:

State the research question(s) and hypotheses guiding the proposed study.

Define the variables within the RQs and hypotheses.

Alignment: Research questions must align with the problem statement presented on the previous slide and the theoretical foundations.

A minimum of two sets of hypotheses is required.

Hints:

Do not introduce new constructs in the research questions that were not introduced in the problem statement or theoretical foundation.

One research question may have more than one set of hypotheses.

11

Methodology Justification

Quantitative Qualitative
Seminal sources describing quantitative methodology: Capability and controls are important when it comes to standardization of competency modulation of learners. As such, understanding value in the scholarly setting requires a look at metacognition at a specific population (Pilotti et al., 2019) An example for a population that have been practicing individual focused learning contextualizes the response of facilitates learning through positive reinforcement. Therefore individual circumstance is an important aspect to consider as factor that may support or derail learning (Wake, et al., 2020) Seminal sources describing qualitative methodology: Tyng et al., (2017) substantiates that emotional connection and cognitive processes are linked and within that define modulation of memory and reasoning Sepp et al. (2019) emphasizes that expansion of learning and instruction is assessment based and within that facilitation of interaction and resource creates an chance for opportunistic control of sensory retention hence memory but it requires assistive models for assertion of learning.
Justification for quantitative: The research is based on human behavior and having a simple size is essential as it can be collected quickly and be easily replicated (Queirós et al., 2017) Justification against qualitative: Qualitative research presents a challenge as it cannot be statistically representative hence can easily be dismissed Open ended questions can fail to pinpoint exact outcomes and thus data can easily be lost with lessened accuracy (Rahman, 2020)

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Recognition that the prediction of performance of an individual in a scholarly setting can only be achieved by recognizing the individual input and thus their capability as essential to improving their state. In this way, the research brings to attention the fact that metacognition forms memory retention and can only be done effectively through practice and repetition with quantifiable data from a specific population

Objectives:

The approach on this slide is used to justify the methodology using methodology articles and resources

The information presented on this slide is used to develop one of the three paragraphs comprising the methodology section in Chapter 3. In addition, a second paragraph is added justifying why the opposite methodology is not as appropriate. A third paragraph is developed that uses similar and related empirical articles to justify the proposed methodology for the study

Slide Requirements:

Present 2-3 seminal sources describing quantitative methodology (Top Row – Left Box)

Justify why either qualitative or quantitative methodology is appropriate based on those sources (Bottom Row – Left Box)

Present 2-seminal sources describing qualitative methodology (Top Row – Right Box)

Justify why either qualitative methodology is not as appropriate based on those sources (Bottom Row – Right Box)

Hint:

Do not summarize prior research in this slide

First, find citation(s), then, develop argument(s) based on the research articles.

Justify methodology from methodology articles

Justify methodology from empirical studies. For example, current empirical studies, foundational studies, government studies

Justify why the alternative methodology is not suited for your study. Use empirical evidence.

12

Feasibility – Slide 1

Resources for study:

Permission from head of school – Authorization will be required form the institution in requesting permission to carry out the questionnaire and observation in their premises.

Access to program administration records – just the data on number of learners

Time and access to quantitative data of similar research that have been done

Ethical Concerns:

The biggest would be in data acquisition. The administration would likely question need for data of students and would require commitment to not misuse

Consent is important and thus voluntary participation needs to be sought for the participants

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Objectives:

Identify and discuss the feasibility of your proposed study based on the Feasibility & Benefits Checklist located in the Dissertation Template appendices.

The information on this slide will be used to inform the Ethical Considerations section in Ch. 3.

As part of preparation for this slide, you will complete the Feasibility & Benefits Checklist located in the dissertation template appendices, a required appendix in your dissertation.

Slide Requirements:

Complete the following bullets in order of presentation:

Resources for Study:

What, if any, authorization(s) are required as well as how you will obtain authorization? If no authorization is needed, why not?

What, if any, access to site resources will you need? (i.e., building access, computer programs, etc.)

Additional trainings necessary (i.e., instrument certifications, etc.)

Any other resources you will need to complete this study.

Ethical Concerns/Considerations:

What risks, if any, are present? How will you mitigate these risks?

What benefits are there to participants?

Study Alignment with Program:

Identify your degree program

Describe how your study aligns with your overall degree program (i.e. Business Administration, Organizational Leadership, General Psychology, etc.).

Feasibility Concerns:

What obstacles might you face, and what are your backup plans?

Based on the information you have learned, is your study feasible? Why or why not? How can you make your study more manageable?

Hints:

Visit https://dc.gcu.edu/irb for additional resources and information

Feasibility – Slide 2

Study Alignment with Program (Identify Program of Study):

Doctor of Philosophy in General Psychology with an emphasis in Cognition & Instruction

Understanding cognition development as facilitated by individual focused learning covers both cognition study and instruction

Feasibility Concerns:

The obstacles that might be faced include refusal for participation by sample population, potential financial input, and time constraints

However, the study is feasible as there is already existing population

For contextualization, narrowing down the research to only one location would help manage it

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The research population would easily be managed by focusing on only the outcomes of individual focused learning through research-based models of education in our institution only.

Objectives:

Identify and discuss the feasibility of your proposed study based on the Feasibility & Benefits Checklist located in the Dissertation Template appendices.

The information on this slide will be used to inform the Ethical Considerations section in Ch. 3.

As part of preparation for this slide, you will complete the Feasibility & Benefits Checklist located in the dissertation template appendices, a required appendix in your dissertation.

Slide Requirements:

Complete the following bullets in order of presentation:

Resources for Study:

What, if any, authorization(s) are required as well as how you will obtain authorization? If no authorization is needed, why not?

What, if any, access to site resources will you need? (i.e., building access, computer programs, etc.)

Additional trainings necessary (i.e., instrument certifications, etc.)

Any other resources you will need to complete this study.

Ethical Concerns/Considerations:

What risks, if any, are present? How will you mitigate these risks?

What benefits are there to participants?

Study Alignment with Program:

Identify your degree program

Describe how your study aligns with your overall degree program (i.e. Business Administration, Organizational Leadership, General Psychology, etc.).

Feasibility Concerns:

What obstacles might you face, and what are your backup plans?

Based on the information you have learned, is your study feasible? Why or why not? How can you make your study more manageable?

Hints:

Visit https://dc.gcu.edu/irb for additional resources and information

List of References

Andrews, R., Hayes, L., Kilgore, K., MacDonald, M., & D. Gabbard, C. (2020). Dynamic Structural Integration: A Metaphor for Creating Conditions to Facilitate Teacher-Centered Organisational Learning. Professional Development in Education, 46(4), 622-637.

Apaydin, M., & Hossary, M. (2017). Achieving metacognition through cognitive strategy instruction. International journal of educational management.

Ashman, A. F., & Conway, R. N. (2017). Cognitive strategies for special education: Process-based instruction. Routledge.

Bernacki, M. L., Greene, J. A., & Crompton, H. (2020). Mobile technology, learning, and achievement: Advances in understanding and measuring the role of mobile technology in education. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101827.

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Slide Requirements:

Include a fully APA 7.0 correctly formatted reference for each citation used in the preceding slides. Add an additional List of References slide as needed so that ALL citations in your presentation are listed.

List of References

Berger, J. B., Blanco Ramirez, G. & Lyon, S. (2012). Past to present: A historical look at retention. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, 7-34. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Ford, T. G., Lavigne, A. L., Fiegener, A. M., & Si, S. (2020). Understanding district support for leader development and success in the accountability era: A review of the literature using social-cognitive theories of motivation. Review of Educational Research, 90(2), 264-307.

Goossens, L. (2020). Theories of adolescence. In Handbook of adolescent development (pp. 11-29). Psychology Press.

Palombo, D. J., Sheldon, S., & Levine, B. (2018). Individual differences in autobiographical memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22(7), 583-597.

Pilotti, M. A., El Alaoui, K., Mulhem, H., & Al Kuhayli, H. A. (2019). The illusion of knowing in college: A field study of students with a teacher-centered educational past. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 15(4), 789.

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Slide Requirements:

Include a fully APA 7.0 correctly formatted reference for each citation used in the preceding slides. Add an additional List of References slide as needed so that ALL citations in your presentation are listed.

List of References

Queirós, A., Faria, D., & Almeida, F. (2017). Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European journal of education studies, 3(9). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.1017

Rahman, M. S. (2020). The advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative and quantitative approaches and methods in language “testing and assessment” research: A literature review. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1). 102. Canadian Center of Science and Education

Samuel, R. (2012). Theatres of memory

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