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Privatization of Prisons The United States has incarcerated at least 1.5 million people, making it the country with the hi


  1. Privatization of Prisons  

1.1 Introduction  

  • The United States has incarcerated at least 1.5 million people, making it the country with the highest number of people behind bars.  
  • In the United States, private companies run prisons for both the federal government and the 29 states.  
  • The privatization of prisons contributed towards efficiency of services, quality of services, and saving of finances.  
    1. Advantages and Disadvantages of  Privatizing Prisons  
  • Advantages
  • Private prisons are cheaper for tax payers
  • There is an economic benefit to the local community
  • Easy to maintain the prison population  
  • Lower rates if reoffending  
  • Prison facilities can be used for various purposes.
  • Disadvantages
  • Prisoners end up serving longer sentences behind bars
  • Private prisons do not house costly prisoners
  • The community can be left with costly facilities which are empty
  • They are more violent as compared to government-operated prisons
  • Prisoners can be many miles away from their families.  
  1. Organized Crime  
    1. Introduction
  • The impacts of organized crimes are felt by almost every individual in their day to day lives
  • Organized crime is a global problem while its nature and activities are hard to understand.
  • Often, organized crime groups seek illicit profits as they size opportunities to infiltrate and control the government or private agencies

2.1 Types of Organized Crime

  • Drug trafficking  
  • Immigrant smuggling  
  • Human trafficking  
  • Money laundering  
  • Firearms trafficking  
  • Illegal gambling  
  • Wildlife and cultural property smuggling  
    1. Impacts of Organized Crime  
  • Threatens peace and security of the people  
  • Contributes to the violation of human rights  
  • Undermines a country’s and global economy
  • Undermines the civil development of societies  
  • Undermines the social, cultural, and political aspects of the society
    1. How to Curb Organized Crime
  • Enhancement of intelligence and information sharing
  • Protection of financial systems and strategic markets against transitional organized crimes  
  • Disruption of drug trafficking  
  • Facilitation of every existing transnational threats  
  • Threatening interdiction, investigations, and prosecutions.  
  1. Terrorism
    1. Introduction
  • Terrorism is defined as an unlawful act of violence and intimidation against the civilian population
  • Terrorism has been on the rise over the past few years
  • It is difficult to prevent acts of terrorism because of its sophisticated nature.
    1. Types of Terrorism  
  • Political terrorism (Broken down into sub-state terrorism, Social revolutionary terrorism. Nationalist-separatist terrorism. Religious extremist terrorism. Religious fundamentalist Terrorism. New religions terrorism.
  • Criminal terrorism
  • Pathological terrorism  
    1. Impacts of Terrorism  
  • Ripple effect in the economy of the affected country  
  • Direct economic destruction  
  • Increased market uncertainty
  • Increase in national and foreign skeptism
  • Death of the victims of the act of terrorism  
    1. Strategies to Curb Terrorism  
  • Attrition- Causing unbearable loss to the enemy   
  • Intimidation- increasing counterterrorism control   
  • Provocation- increasing recruitment and creating sympathizers  
  • Outbidding- increasing counterterrorism control   
  • Spoiling- a strategy of harming the enemy   

4. Conclusion  

  • This paper thoroughly discusses the privatization of prisons, terrorism, and organized crimes. It provides definitions of the three aforementioned main topics. Also, it shades lights on the effects of terrorism and organized crimes.  

5. References  

  • Gaes, G. G. (2019). Current status of prison privatization research on American prisons and jails. Criminology & Public Policy, 18(2), 269-293.
  • Rose, A. Z., Wei, D., Byrd, K., & John, R. (2021). Economic Impacts of Spillover Effects of Terrorism Countermeasures at Public Assembly Sites. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management.
  • Gazepova, V. (2019). FORMS OF ORGANIZED CRIMES. Student's Social Science Journal, 1(8), 6-25.


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