Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or | WriteDen

Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or

 Initial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.

Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.

Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. Despite increases in diversity training programs, outcomes are not consistently leading to increases of diversity within upper management. What might be the reason for this phenomenon and how might it be addressed? 

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student's own words – do not provide quotes!]

 [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced) 

Book: 

 Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2022). Essentials of organizational behavior. Student Value Edition. Pearson 15th Edition.  

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 2

Diversity in Organizations

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Learning Objectives

2.1 Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

2.2 Explain how stereotypes function in organizational settings.

2.3 Describe how key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

2.4 Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

2.5 Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

2.6 Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2

Demographics of the U.S. Workforce Learning Objective 2.1

Today’s workforce:

Is more ethnically and racially diverse

Includes more women and older workers

Diversity management must be a central component in organizations

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The demographics of the U.S. workforce have changed over the last thirty-plus years. Today’s workforce is not only more ethnically and racially diverse, it also includes more women and older workers. Wage gaps persist across genders and racial and ethnic groups.

3

Levels of Diversity

Surface-level diversity: differences in age, race, gender, etc.

Less significant over time

Deep-level diversity: differences in personality and values

More important in the long run

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

While surface-level diversity can initially lead to stereotypes and assumptions about others, as people get to know one another, these differences become less significant, and deep-level diversity, such as personality and values, becomes more important.

4

Discrimination and Stereotyping Learning Objective 2.2

Working to eliminate unfair discrimination

Unfair judgements based on stereotypes

Stereotype threat

Concern with being judged negatively based on stereotypes

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Diversity management includes working to eliminate unfair discrimination. To discriminate is to note a difference between things. Stereotyping is judging someone based on our perception of the group in which that person belongs.

Stereotype threat describes the degree to which we are concerned with being judged by or treated negatively based on a certain stereotype. Older workers today are particularly concerned in the recruitment process.

5

Forms of Discrimination in Organizations (Exhibit 2-1)

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

To discriminate is to note a difference between things. While this in and of itself isn’t a bad thing, when we talk about discrimination, we’re usually referring to stereotypes about groups of people and assumptions that everyone in a group is the same. This type of discrimination can be harmful to organizations and employees.

Discrimination is one of the primary factors that prevent diversity, whether the discrimination is overt or covert.

Recognizing diversity opportunities can lead to an effective diversity management program and ultimately to a better organization.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Discriminatory policies or practices: Actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance.

Example: Older workers may be targeted for layoffs because they are highly paid and have lucrative benefits.

Sexual harassment: Unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment.

Example: Salespeople at one company went on company-paid visits to strip clubs, brought strippers into the office to celebrate promotions, and fostered pervasive sexual rumors.

Intimidation: Overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

Example: African-American employees at some companies have found nooses hanging over their work stations.

Mockery and insults: Jokes or negative stereotypes; sometimes the result of jokes taken too far.

Example: Arab-Americans have been asked at work whether they were carrying bombs or were members of terrorist organizations.

Exclusion: Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring; can occur unintentionally.

Example: Many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that don’t lead to promotion.

Incivility: Disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting the person, or ignoring varying opinions.

Example: Female lawyers note that male attorneys frequently cut them off or do not adequately address their comments

6

Biographical Characteristics Learning Objective 2.3

Biographical characteristics include:

Age

Gender

Race and ethnicity

Disability

Length of service

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Biographical characteristics, including age, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, and length of service, are some of the more obvious ways in which employees differ.

7

Age

The relationship between age and performance is important because:

The workforce is aging

Mandatory retirement is outlawed

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The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be important during the next decade for two reasons.

First, the workforce is aging. Second, U.S. legislation essentially prohibits mandatory retirement.

Research shows that combatting age discrimination may be associated with better performance for the organization as a whole.

Most research shows that there is no relationship between age and job performance while some has suggested that older workers perform better. Teams and organizations with age diversity perform better.

Older workers have been found to be more satisfied with their work. That is, job satisfaction increases as people age.

8

Gender

No difference in job performance between genders

Differences in pay, benefits, and rewards

Gender bias in selection for certain positions

Lack of women in CEO positions

Glass cliff

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

While there is no difference in job performance between the genders, there are differences in pay, benefits, and rewards.

There are gender biases and stereotypes especially in the selection process. Men are more likely to be selected for leadership roles.

Stereotypes may be the foundation of the glass ceiling and the glass cliff.

While gender discrimination exists, increasing legislation across the globe is improving the situation.

9

Race and Ethnicity

Race: heritage people use to identify themselves

Ethnicity: additional set of cultural characteristics

Racial and ethnic minorities report higher levels of discrimination in the workplace

Some industries are less racially diverse than others

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Race is associated with biology while ethnicity is associated with culture.

Racial and ethnic minorities report higher levels of discrimination in the workplace. Black individuals tend to fare worse than white individuals in employment decisions.

Some industries are less racially diverse than others.

10

Disabilities

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with physical or mental disabilities

Hidden disabilities (invisible)

The Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA)

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After the Americans with Disabilities Act was passed in 1990, the number of individuals with disabilities in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased. The Act requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for individuals with physical or mental disabilities.

Studies show that workers with disabilities receive higher performance evaluations, while at the same time, they also have lower performance expectations and are less likely to be hired.

The Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA) broadened the impairments for which organizations must provide accommodations. Employees, however, are required to disclose their hidden disabilities to receive accommodations.

11

Other Differentiating Characteristics Learning Objective 2.4

Religion

Sexual Orientation

Gender Identity

Cultural Identity

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U.S. law prohibits employers from discriminating against employees based on their religion. Even so, religion is still an issue in OB. Organizations in the U.S. are required to provide reasonable accommodations for religious exemptions. Discrimination claims based on religion have been increasing.

Discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity is prohibited under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Many organizations have implemented their own policies protecting employees on the basis of sexual orientation. In addition, many states and municipalities also have laws to protect employees based on their sexual orientation. Companies are also beginning to establish policies regarding transgender employees.

12

Ability Learning Objective 2.5

Ability: an individual’s current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job

Intellectual abilities: abilities needed to perform mental activities

Physical abilities: capacity to do tasks that require stamina, dexterity, strength

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Ability refers to an individual’s current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Abilities are made up of intellectual abilities – the abilities needed to perform mental activities – and physical abilities.

13

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability (Exhibit 2-2)

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The seven most frequently cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory.

Long Description:

The details are as follows:

Number aptitude: Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic. Example: Accountant: Computing the sales tax on a set of items.

Verbal comprehension: Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other. Example: Plant manager: Following corporate policies on hiring.

Perceptual speed: Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately. Example: Fire investigator: Identifying clues to support a charge of arson.

Inductive reasoning: Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem. Example: Market researcher: Forecasting demand for a product in the next time period.

Deductive reasoning: Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument. Example: Supervisor: Choosing between two different suggestions offered by employees.

Spatial visualization: Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed. Example: Interior decorator: Redecorating an office.

Memory: Ability to retain and recall past experiences. Example: Salesperson: Remembering the names of customers.

14

Intellectual Ability

General mental ability (GMA)

An overall factor of intelligence

The Wonderlic Ability Test

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

General mental ability (GMA) is an overall factor of intelligence. That is, the dimensions of intellectual ability are positively correlated such that there is a general factor of intelligence.

The Wonderlic Ability Test is used by many organizations in the hiring process to provide inexpensive information on candidates.

15

Types of Physical Abilities (Exhibit 2-3)

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Research on hundreds of jobs has identified nine basic abilities needed in the performance of physical tasks. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities.

To ensure high levels of performance on the job, organizations must match the abilities of the employees with the job requirements.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Strength Factors:

Dynamic strength: Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time.

Trunk strength: Ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles.

Static strength: Ability to exert force against external objects. 4. Explosive strength: Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts.

Flexibility Factors:

Extent flexibility: Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible.

Dynamic flexibility: Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements.

Other Factors:

Body coordination: Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body.

Balance: Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance.

Stamina: Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time.

16

Implementing Diversity Management Strategies Learning Objective 2.6

Diversity management: makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Diversity management makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others. Diversity programs include and are meant for everyone.

17

Attracting and Selecting Diverse Employees

Target underrepresented groups

Ensure that hiring and promotion is bias free

Develop a positive diversity climate

Workers prefer organizations that value diversity

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

To enhance workforce diversity, organizations should target underrepresented groups through ads in publications geared toward certain demographic groups, recruiting at universities and colleges with significant members of minorities, and forming partnerships with associations that represent women and minorities.

Organizations should also take care to ensure that hiring decisions are bias free and that career advancement decisions are fair and objective.

Studies also show that women and minorities have greater interest in employers that make special efforts to highlight a commitment to diversity in their recruiting materials.

18

Diversity in Groups

Diversity can both help and hurt team performance

Leverage differences for superior performance

Watch for faultlines

Divisive differences that may split a group into separate groups

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Does diversity help or hurt group performance? The answer is both – it depends on the characteristic of interest. Diversity in some traits can hurt team performance, but in other cases can facilitate it.

Employees and team leaders should look out for faultlines. These are divisive differences that may split a group into separate groups based on these characteristics. These effects can be minimized by emphasizing similarities among members, capitalizing on complementary differences, and sharing a common goal or vision.

The conversation of diversity in groups does not just revolve around who makes up the team – how diversity affects interpersonal interactions is critical.

19

Effective Diversity Programs

Teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people, regardless of their demographic characteristics

Teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse group of customers and clients

Foster personal-development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Effective diversity programs have three distinct components. First, they teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics. Second, they teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse group of customers and clients. Finally, they foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers.

20

Implications for Managers (1 of 2)

Increase awareness of stereotypes

Assess and challenge your own stereotypical beliefs

Fully evaluate what accommodations a person with disabilities will need and then fine-tune the job to that person’s abilities

Seek to understand and respect the unique biographical characteristics of each individual

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Increase awareness of stereotypes.

Assess and challenge your own stereotypical beliefs to increase your objectivity.

Fully evaluate what accommodations a person with disabilities will need and then fine-tune the job to that person’s abilities.

Seek to understand and respect the unique biographical characteristics of your employees; be fair but individualistic.

21

Implications for Managers (2 of 2)

Understand your organization’s antidiscrimination policies thoroughly and share them with your employees

Look beyond observable biographical characteristics and consider the individual’s capabilities before making management decisions

Strive to promote diversity in recruitment and selection

Develop a comprehensive diversity management program

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Understand your organization’s antidiscrimination policies thoroughly and share them with your employees.

Look beyond observable biographical characteristics and consider the individual’s capabilities before making management decisions.

Strive to promote diversity in recruitment and selection.

Develop a comprehensive diversity management program.

Diversity management must be an ongoing commitment that crosses all levels of an organization.

22

Discussion Questions (1 of 2)

What can organizations do to encourage employees with hidden disabilities to disclose? Why would this be important to the organization to increase the number of employees disclosing? Could this have an impact on diversity overall?

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Discussion Questions (2 of 2)

When discussing diversity, the advice was offered for organizations to be similar “where it counts” and different “where it counts.” What does this mean and how can organizations implement this advice?

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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