Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Read the provided YAWP readings Review the video provi | WriteDen

Read the provided YAWP readings Review the video provi

Emma Goldman on Patriotism (July 9, 1917)

W.E.B DuBois, “Returning Soldiers” (May, 1919)

https://fod-infobase-com.occc.idm.oclc.org/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=120615&loid=436174

https://fod-infobase-com.occc.idm.oclc.org/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=120616&loid=436200

https://fod-infobase-com.occc.idm.oclc.org/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=120616&loid=436201

 

1) Read the provided YAWP readings.

2) Review the video provided. 

3) Read about “Controlling Dissent” on pages 670 – 673 of the US History online textbook. 

4) Read about the ACLU on pages 704 – 707 of the US History online textbook

Using the above instructions and the learning materials provided:

1) Create a conversation starter with your fellow students.

2) Discuss about the The Great war and the jazz age

 3) What connections can you make between the U.S. during and after WWI and the U.S. of today? 

2) Pose questions that can lead to further discussions.

Family Feud: 3 Cousins of WWI – all grandsons of Queen Victoria of Great Britain

King George V of Great Britain

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany

Tsar Nicholas II of Russia

Tsar Nicholas (left) and King George V (right)

Odd Man Out: Kaiser Wilhelm

CAUSES

Arms buildup throughout Europe

Personal vendettas:

Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm against his cousins Britain's King George V and Russia’s Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.

Competition for Imperialism

Germany vying for power

Entangling Alliances

Triple Entente: Britain, France, and Russia

Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

Control over Serbia

Nicholas and George's friendship, too, was no match for the shoals of politics. When Nicholas abdicated in 1917, the provisional Russian government asked the British to give the tsar and his family political asylum. The British government initially said yes, but George – who had told Nicholas a few years before, "Remember, you can always count on me as your friend" – was convinced that if his now deeply unpopular cousin came to England, his own position would be threatened. It was the first time his friendship with Nicholas had been genuinely tested; he responded by lobbying energetically for the invitation to be withdrawn, and it was. Whether the imperial family could actually have been spirited out of Russia is unknown, but George's reaction was a negation of all the decades of protestations of family closeness. Nicholas and his family were murdered at Ekaterinburg 18 months later.

6

Alliances – 1917

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Turkey

Bulgaria

Russia

France

Great Britain

United States

Central Powers:

Allies:

Italy

MOTIVES

Germany:

Believed that war with Russia was inevitable

Argued it would be better to fight Russia while its army was still poorly armed and untrained, rather than to wait until it could pose a greater threat.

England

Germany built up a naval fleet, with the specific goal of matching Britain on the high seas.

England saw this as a threat to the balance of power in Europe.

MOTIVES, con’t

France:

Had lost the territories of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany

Believed that if Germany were distracted by a war with Russia, France could regain these territories.

Russia:

Motives are less clear-cut

Russian military leaders had strong nationalistic leanings & encouraged Tsar Nicholas II to join the war

A time of great instability in Russia

A military victory would likely help the tsar politically

General Info

Started on July 28, 1914

US entered war in April, 1917

Ended on November 11, 1918

Almost 8,000,000 dead.

Almost 22,000,000 wounded

3 million US men drafted

2 million volunteered

Cost US $32 million

1 million U.S. women entered work force

Map of Europe greatly changed.

Europe on the Eve of World War I, 1914

The Black Hand

The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation of a Greater Serbia, by means of violence.

spark that lit the fuse

Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) was assassinated while visiting Serbia.

The Black Hand was responsible.

THE ASSASSIN & THE ARCHDUKE

GAVRILO PRINCIP

Seventeen-year old Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian terrorist organization known as "Mlada Bosna" (Young Bosnians), stepped forward and fired two quick shots. The first struck Sophie in the abdomen while the second hit Ferdinand in the neck.

18

Plan was to eliminate France as an ally of Russia.

Trench warfare

The German Army Chief of Staff Alfred von Schlieffen was given instructions to devise a plan that would be able to counter a combined attack from France, Britain and Russia.

In December 1905, he circulated what later became known as The Schlieffen Plan, the key to his plan was that if war took place France had to be defeated quickly so that Russia and Britain would be unwilling to continue.

The plan assumed:

Russia would take 6 weeks to mobilise its army

Belgium would offer little or no resistance

France could be defeated in 6 weeks

France would attempt to re-take Alsace and Lorraine; territories they lost to Germany during the Franco-Prussian war.

Britain would remain neutral

What happened though was:

the advance was held up by the Belgians

the Russians mobilized in just 10 days, not six weeks, so that more troops had to be diverted from the attack on France to defend the eastern border

Britain entered the war on France's side due to an agreement with Belgium to defend her against German attack

the British Expeditionary Force reached France and Belgium far quicker than expected

the Germans failed to take Paris when they had the chance; instead they decided to attack the French army east of the capital at the Battle of the Marne (5th – 11th September 1914).

The result

After a short 'race to the coast', in which both sides tried to outflank each other, the German troops dug in to defensive positions, thus creating a chain of trenches from Switzerland to the North Sea and a military stalemate that was to last for nearly four years.

19

World War I was a defensive war. Troops who went "over the top" of the trenches soon found that an infantry advance against entrenched machine guns was not very successful. Casualties in offensives were outrageously high and usually the result was very little gain.  A stalemate soon settled in along the western front which lasted most of the war.

21

Third Degree Trench Foot 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after exposure

In trench foot, the sequence of events leading to the injury followed a fairly constant pattern. The combat infantry soldier is forced into immobility in a wet foxhole for a prolonged period of time. During this period, he first notices tingling or complains of a stinging sensation in his feet, which may become quite intense. After a period of exposure, the feet become numb and finally anesthetic, "like blocks of ice." When the attack is ordered, or he is relieved, walking causes severe burning pain; and on the removal of his shoes, the feet become swollen and warm. Three factors were always present in the carefully examined cases. First, wet cold; second, a prolonged exposure in a relatively immobile position; and third, physical activity following the exposure. Of these factors, wet cold is undoubtedly the most important. Peak casualties always followed periods of wet cold weather.

23

“Little Willie" British prototype of the first tank

A Colonel in the British army developed the idea when he noticed that the only vehicles that could navigate the rough terrain were caterpillar tractors with moving treads. He realized that if such a vehicle were covered with armor, it might be just the very thing to get into and over the other side's trenches.

He passed the idea along to the government and Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, got it. He was intrigued by the idea and started a project to develop the idea.

It was so top secret that the workers were told that they were working on water carriers – naturally, they began to call them "tanks," short for water tanks, and the name stuck.

The tanks weren't used in battle until the end of 1916, but then the first batch was tried. Unfortunately most of them broke down before they got very far, but a few did get past the enemy trenches.  The army saw the potential and got production underway. A year later, in November of 1917, they were for the first time used effectively to break through the enemy lines.

24

However, we traded food, weapons, oil, steel, and other goods far more with the Allied Powers than with the Central Powers.

American Neutrality

Officially, the U.S. was a neutral country.

What did it take to get the US involved?

1. Blockades

Britain blockaded all German ships going to America.

Germany announced submarine war around Britain.

Y-53 German Submarine 1916

What did it take to get the US involved?

28

May, 1915 – Germany told Americans to stay off of British ships.

They could/would sink them.

What did it take to get the US involved?

1915 – Lusitania torpedoed, sinking with 1200 passengers and crew (including 128 Americans)

Eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of ammunition

What did it take to get the US involved?

The US sharply criticized Germany for their action

Germany agreed to no longer sink passenger ships without warning

Note in Bottle After Lusitania Disaster

SUSSEX PLEDGE – 1916

Germany would stop U-Boat warfare

Germany had the right to start U-Boat warfare again if US didn’t force Britain to adhere to same policies.

Passenger ships would not be targeted

Merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of boats had been established & provisions for the safety of passengers and crew

If Germany resumed unrestricted attacks, the US would have to go to war.

What did it take to get the US involved?

2. Resumed Unlimited Submarine Warfare

1917 Germany resumed “unlimited submarine warfare” in the war zone

What did it take to get the US involved?

3. Zimmerman Note – 1917

January,1917 – British cryptographers deciphered a telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German Minister to Mexico, von Eckhardt

Offering US territory to Mexico in return for joining the German cause.

March 1, 1917 – text of the Zimmermann telegram appeared on the front pages of American newspapers

The American public opinion shifted in favor of entering the war.

The U.S. declared war on the Central Powers in 1917.

What did it take to get the US involved?

The Zimmerman Note PLUS the sinking of 4 unarmed American ships, by German U-Boats, led to a declaration of war by the US.

Convincing the American People

Posters!!

How do you think this poster helped to convince the American people that the war was a good idea?

Albert Billy, Mitchell Bobb, Victor Brown, Ben Caterby, James Edwards, Tobias Frazer, Ben Hampton, Solomon Louis, Pete Maytubby, Jeff Nelson, Joseph Oklahombi, Robert Taylor, Calvin Wilson, and Walter Veach

6 of the 14 Choctaw Code talkers.

Convincing the American People

Idealism: Fourteen Points

14 Points:

1) no secret treaties

2) freedom of navigation of seas – Britain didn’t like this

3) lowering of tariffs

4) reduction of armaments

5) adjustment of colonial claims based on Natives’ desires

6-13) Established boundaries of Europe with input from Natives Eastern Europe

14) League of Nations- world’s states have equal representation regardless of size or strength

President Woodrow Wilson

How did the War Affect the US?

Women

Women filled factory jobs

May have led to the passage of the 19th Amendment after the war

Black soldiers still served in Segregated Units

African Americans

“Great Migration” – thousands of African Americans moved North to work in factories

How did the War Affect the US?

Enforcing Loyalty

Hatred of all things German

Ex. “Liberty Cabbage” instead of sauerkraut

Stoning of Dachshunds

Espionage Act 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918 punished those against the war

Approximate Comparative Losses in WWI

Job of George Creel during the war

Sell America the war.

“Whip” up support for Wilson’s ideas

Help US raise money to fight

Stress Anti-Germanism

Sell American Culture

LEGACY OF WWI

Germany became a tumultuous place

teetering on the brink of violent revolutions

It was vulnerable to a take over from extremist elements like the Nazi Party.

A few decades proved that the Allies had gone overboard with the punishments they inflicted on Germany

Creating conditions that launched Europe into the center of an even more horrible war.

Casualties of War

TOTAL 2,017,147 576,502

Racial Tensions

Migration of African-Americans to the North led to competition between whites and blacks for jobs

1917 – 38 lynched

1918 – 58 lynched

1919 – “The Bloody Red Summer”

70+ lynched

Major race riots occurred in NYC, Chicago, Elaine, AR, Washington, D.C., & Omaha, NE

Tulsa Race Riot May 31 – June 1, 1921

the official death toll was claimed to be 26 Blacks and 13 whites killed, the death toll from the riot was estimated to be over 3900 people.  Of the 3900 people killed, 300 were Whites, the rest African American

47

The American Red Cross estimated that 300+ people were killed – many of whom were buried in unmarked, mass graves.

It also listed 8,624 persons in need of assistance.

1,000+ homes destroyed.

10,000 people left homeless and living in tents.

6,000+ of Greenwood’s black residents were arrested and detained– many of whom died while in custody. 

,

U.S. History

SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS P.SCOTT CORBETT, VENTURA COLLEGE VOLKER JANSSEN, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY AT FULLERTON JOHN M. LUND, KEENE STATE COLLEGE TODD PFANNESTIEL, CLARION UNIVERSITY PAUL VICKERY, ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY

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Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.1 The Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2 Europe on the Brink of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.3 West Africa and the Role of Slavery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Chapter 2: Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.1 Portuguese Exploration and Spanish Conquest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2 Religious Upheavals in the Developing Atlantic World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.3 Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.4 New Worlds in the Americas: Labor, Commerce, and the Columbian Exchange . . . . 52

Chapter 3: Creating New Social Orders: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.1 Spanish Exploration and Colonial Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.2 Colonial Rivalries: Dutch and French Colonial Ambitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.3 English Settlements in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.4 The Impact of Colonization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Chapter 4: Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.2 The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.3 An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.4 Great Awakening and Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 4.5 Wars for Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Chapter 5: Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests, 1763-1774 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 5.1 Confronting the National Debt: The Aftermath of the French and Indian War . . . . . . 126 5.2 The Stamp Act and the Sons and Daughters of Liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 5.3 The Townshend Acts and Colonial Protest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 5.4 The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 5.5 Disaffection: The First Continental Congress and American Identity . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Chapter 6: America's War for Independence, 1775-1783 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 6.1 Britain’s Law-and-Order Strategy and Its Consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 6.2 The Early Years of the Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 6.3 War in the South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 6.4 Identity during the American Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 7.1 Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 7.2 How Much Revolutionary Change? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 7.3 Debating Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 7.4 The Constitutional Convention and Federal Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 8.1 Competing Visions: Federalists and Democratic-Republicans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 8.2 The New American Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 8.3 Partisan Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 8.4 The United States Goes Back to War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Chapter 9: Industrial Transformation in the North, 1800–1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 9.1 Early Industrialization in the Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 9.2 A Vibrant Capitalist Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 9.3 On the Move: The Transportation Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 9.4 A New Social Order: Class Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

Chapter 10: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820–1840 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 10.1 A New Political Style: From John Quincy Adams to Andrew Jackson . . . . . . . . . 274 10.2 The Rise of American Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

10.3 The Nullification Crisis and the Bank War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 10.4 Indian Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 10.5 The Tyranny and Triumph of the Majority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Chapter 11: A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion, 1800–1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 11.1 Lewis and Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 11.2 The Missouri Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 11.3 Independence for Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 11.4 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 11.5 Free Soil or Slave? The Dilemma of the West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

Chapter 12: Cotton is King: The Antebellum South, 1800–1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 12.1 The Economics of Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 12.2 African Americans in the Antebellum United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 12.3 Wealth and Culture in the South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 12.4 The Filibuster and the Quest for New Slave States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

Chapter 13: Antebellum Idealism and Reform Impulses, 1820–1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 13.1 An Awakening of Religion and Individualism . . . . . . . .

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