Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Reflecting on Modules 5 and 7:? What have you learned about other health traditions? What have you learned about your heritage in term | WriteDen

Reflecting on Modules 5 and 7:? What have you learned about other health traditions? What have you learned about your heritage in term

 I need 1000 words Paper: See the Instructions file

I attached Module 5, 6, 7 reading in their corresponding file names. I also attached the group paper that I did. 


Reflecting on Modules 5 and 7: 

What have you learned about other health traditions? What have you learned about your heritage in terms of health maintenance, protection, and restoration? How consistent are you with your traditional cultural heritage? Did learning about your traditional cultural heritage change your view of your heritage?

Reflecting on Module 6:

What cultural and religious holidays do you celebrate? What other cultural and religious holidays that are interesting to you?

Reflecting on group work (research paper):

Did you learn about your group member’s cultural heritage through the group work? What went well in your group work? What are the greatest challenge you had as a group? How balanced do you feel the efforts of the group members were? What would you change about your group?


Group 5

Lifestyles Conductive to Health and Disease in College Populations in the U.S

Description of the group

A vast majority of college students today are first generation students that come from low-income families. As the first person to go to college in their family, there is a lot of cultural pressure on them. They feel pressured to lift their families out of poverty and have no other option than to focus on their education to achieve this goal. However, what is not really discussed is the lack of support students receive. Today, college students suffer from mental health issues, sexually transmitted diseases, alcoholism, and sleeping disorders. A place meant for learning can also be a place where diseases emerge. The culture of college life is known as a place to socialize, party, and drink. It is seen as the time to make some of the best memories you will have as a young adult. Consequently, there are negative effects of such a lifestyle of a college student. Now, college students are facing a global pandemic, and their experiences may differ by identity (Journal of Adolescent Health, 2021). Those of lower income have been mostly affected by chronic health issues. There are also well-documented mental health disparities by socioeconomic position (SEP), such that lower-SEP students have a significantly higher average burden of anxiety than higher-SEP students (Journal of Adolescent Health, 2021). Moreover, gender also plays a role in how college students are affected by these health conditions. According to the Journal of Adolescent Health, college women reported worse overall well being compared to men. The pandemic has also put more stress on women due to cultural responsibilities increasing. College students deal with a vast amount of responsibilities in and out of the school setting resulting in increased risk for diseases.

Health Issues College Women Are Facing

College can be an overwhelming period for many women and their overall health. More women are becoming more sexually active during their college years. Which is taking a serious toll on a woman's physical and reproductive health. According to research from the National College Health Assessment, “ 66 percent of students had sex in the past 12 months, compared to 72 percent in the 2000 assessment. This trend holds true for Hopkins students; The News-Letter’s recent survey found that about 67 percent of students are sexually active” (Wooden, 2019). This study was evaluating the sexually active students on college campuses. The research indicated that throughout the years from the early 2000s-2019 there has been an increase in the number of sexually active college students.

Many risk factors come with women and sex on college campuses. Multiple college women are reporting that they have been sexually assaulted. This is a major health concern that the population is being faced with. CDC states, “Approximately 1 in 5 (an estimated 25.5 million) women in the U.S. reported completed or attempted rape at some point in their life, with nearly 52.2 million women reported experiencing some form of contact sexual violence in their lifetime” (CDC, 2021). This is a serious concern, being that women who are sexually assaulted are exposed to STDs, which can cause fertility issues. If an STD is not treated in time, in many cases for women it can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID). Also, in many cases, both men and women could be unaware that they have an STD. Without condom usage the transmission of an STD is possible.

How Income Affects The Health Of The College Population

Many college students are considered low-income. There are a growing number of students who can not afford a safe living environment and access to healthy food. The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) indicates, “a greater percentage of low-income students go to college in California (67%) compared to other states (58%). Enrollment gaps between low- and high-income students in California (21 percentage points) are also substantially lower than in the rest of the country (31 percentage points)” (PPIC, 2019). In California, there is a higher number of college students who are in debt. The health of these college students must be evaluated since many of these individuals are not able to access food. That could indicate that those individuals living in poverty who are in college are mainly eating fast food. There are an adverse amount of health risks that come with eating fast food every day. This is affecting one’s weight, cholesterol levels, overall mood, etc. It is important that resources such as SNAP and other food resources for college students who can not afford groceries.

Major Health Issues

Many students dream of living the college life which can be exciting and adventurous. As challenges begin, students become at risk for major health issues and concerns. According to the article,“Unhealthy behavior clustering and mental health status in the United States college students,” a high percentage of college students do not meet health recommended guidelines. It mentions that in the areas of smoking, lack of exercise, binge drinking, substance abuse, and poor eating habits, college students are at a high rate for each category. Close to 25% of college students said they had used tobacco products frequently, and nearly half of those surveyed said they didn't satisfy the minimum physical activity requirements. Over a third admitted to binge drinking in the previous two weeks, over a quarter of respondents said they had used marijuana in the previous 30 days, and more than three-quarters of students said they didn't eat the required five or more cups of fruits and vegetables per day in the previous month (Jao, Robinson, Kelly, Cieccierski, Hitsman, 2019).

Mental health problems are a major health risk affecting college students across the country. The CDC (Center for Disease Control) describes mental health as psychological, emotional, and social well being. College students face many stress related triggers that can affect their mental health. The pressures for students can be extremely difficult; exams, grades, deadlines, finances, and rigorous courses can lead to feelings of depression, anxiety, and poor sleeping cycles. Studies have shown a direct correlation between mental and physical health. These factors affect how we act, feel, and how we think. According to the CDC, depression and anxiety have been shown to increase risks of heart disease, thyroid disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity, weakened immune system, high blood pressure, and gastrointestinal issues. (CDC, 2021).

Another health issue prevalent in college populations are sexually transmitted dieases. According to the article “STD on a University Campus,” statistics mentioned the screening of sexual transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) and Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) infections are still a major problem among teenagers and young adults. In 2012, there were over 78 million new cases of gonorrhea worldwide, with over 130 million new cases of chlamydia. In 2015, 1,526,658 chlamydia infections were recorded in the United States, an increase of over 6.0 percent over 2014, with the southern area reporting the most cases (Myers, McCaskill, Van Ravenstein, 2017). It is critical to educate students on sexual health and safe sexual practices, as this will aid in the prevention and control of STD’and possible life threatening diseases such as HIV and Syphilis which can affect other parts of your body including your brain and heart.

Alcoholism is an extremely serious disease affecting college students. In many cases before students even enter college, they are peer pressured into using alcohol. But once the college experience begins, drinking becomes part of a regular social and stress relieving routine. Many students will eventually develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) when they drink frequently, The consequences of alcohol abuse and binge drinking include injury, sexual abuse, assault, and in some cases, even death. This is a significant public health concern and that has taken a toll on the intellectual and social lives of students on college campuses across the country. “Roughly 20% of college students meet the criteria for having alcohol use disorder AUD, close to 60% of college students between the ages of 18 and 22 admitted to drinking in the past month. Nearly two out of every three college students binge drink. Each year around 2,000 college students at the age of 18 to 24 die as a result of unintended alcohol related injuries''(, 2022). Serious health issues that are affected by drinking include liver damage, high blood pressure, inflammation of the pancreas.. Nearly two out of every three college students binge drink.

Sleep deprivation is a significant health issue for many college students. Irregular sleeping schedules and lack of sleep cause extreme fatigue, irritability, difficulty focusing, and mood changes. This can cause harmful effects on the body by lowering the immune system, causing weight gain, increasing blood pressure and sugar levels, and triggering hormonal imbalances. According to the article “Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students,” “70.6% of students report obtaining less than 8 hours of sleep, 4% are obtaining at least 7 hours of sleep at night; the average sleep duration was 5.7 hours with 2.7 all-nighters (Hershner, Chervin, 2014). There is an increased risk of accidents among college students, as lack of sleep limits the ability to react quickly, make decisions, and pay attention. Long term complications on the body can include diabetes, stroke, heart attack, depression and anxiety, sleep apnea, and psychosis.

As a college student, one must learn to balance school and work. Time management is a part of a lifestyle that can affect your health such as sleep and/or any mental health problems one may be facing. Between school and work, one can overcome the other, causing college students to most likely drop out of school because earning money is also a main essential to life. According to the article, “Burnout as a Mediator Between Work–School Conflict and Work Outcomes”, the results from their study have found that, “students experience stress when their resources are depleted by trying to attend to both work and school responsibilities.” There were about 87% of the students who felt burnt out due to work-school conflict.

Implications for Multicultural and Global Health

Culture plays an important role in the lives of individuals. It is known to influence what people believe, their morals, and behaviors. Accessing the health condition of the United States college students should consider multicultural and global health aspects. The issues about global health cannot be analyzed as a stand-alone without understanding people's social dynamics, political structure, and the lifestyle of different global communities which form the United States college population (Ammigand, Drexlerd, Williamson, & Guerra, 2018). It is important to consider multicultural health because it reflects the need to provide health care services considering sensitivity, non-judgemental, and knowledgeable manners.

People's health practices are different from your own because of the diversity witnessed within populations in the United States. Diversity among students in the United States affects how individuals handle situations they are exposed to. This affects the way these students make decisions about their health (Ammigand, Drexlerd, Williamson, & Guerra, 2018). Even though many cultures have developed beliefs about various causes of diseases, the procedure to treatment, and specific people involved in the care process, many college students are still exposed to diseases because of the lifestyle they tend to adopt.

College years are difficult for adolescents as they are moving into adulthood and going through many changes. These hard years can lead college students to partake in behaviors and lifestyles that are harmful to their bodies and overall health. Many adolescents during this time seem to rely on alcohol and drug use to consult feelings associated with the vulnerable times they are going through, specifically when dealing with stress. They are also known to lack a healthy diet and maintain physical activity recommended for their age group (Deasy, 2015).

College students may become overwhelmed with all of life’s situations. Many are not only full-time students, but may have jobs, children, families, and other obligations. Due to the overwhelming amount of situations they may be in, many are dealing with high incidents of stress. Stress risks a person’s overall health due to an individual's immense relationship with their overall environment, affecting their well-being (Deasy, 2015). Ultimately, these factors affect the overall success of a student's academic performance (Deasy, 2015). Along with these stressors, academic stress also plays a major factor within this population. For specific majors, such as nursing and education students, they deal with death and disorderly children, respectively (Deasy, 2015).

As mentioned previously, many students turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms in order to deal with the stressors they face. Some of the top coping strategies for this population include: sleeping, physical activity, eating, consuming alcohol, ignoring stress, and using study drugs (American Addiction Centers, 2019). College culture revolves heavily on partying and drinking as well as the use of drugs. While some students are able to find creative and healthy outlets to relieve their stress, for others that is not the case. In many majors such as engineering, marketing and communications, and education, over 60 percent of these students reported using alcohol to cope with stress (American Addiction Centers, 2019). When looking at the year and academic level of college students who rely on drinking as their outlet, over 50 percent of each year and level reported using alcohol. Seniors and freshmen were amongst the top ranked at 60 and 58.8 percent, respectively (American Addiction Centers, 2019).

When looking at specific cultures, some suffer from higher rates of stress than others. Each racial and ethnic group face different imbalances which affect their overall burnout, stress, dropout, completion, and GPA rates (Dickerson, 2015). Some of the heavily impacted populations include the Black and Latino or Hispanic when comparing them to Asian and White populations (Dickerson, 2015).

The percentage of Black students across college campuses are beginning to increase every year. The rates of black graduates, however, continue to remain low at only 43 percent despite their White counterparts at 63 percent. Racism was found to be very impactful on the levels of stress in college students. Black students who were surveyed noted that they experienced institutional, personal, and internal racism while in college (Dickerson, 2015). Furthermore, black students who were identified as having parents who had received low levels of education reported higher stress levels among other races and ethnicities (Dickerson, 2015).

Based on the findings, stress should be taken into consideration when dealing with the college population. Stress has impacted this population in many ways from many different factors. Different education programs and suggestions can be made to improve the health among these populations. For starters, classes could be offered through college campuses to combat these issues. Freshman year is an important time to start these habits. Incorporating classes into freshman year general education such as, physical activity, nutrition, and psychology could impact the lives of this population. These classes allow students to learn first hand how health impacts them overall.

Another program that could be offered to this population could be therapy and counseling to these students. Many students are unaware of how to take care of their mental health. By allowing therapy sessions, students will be able to connect what they are going through and allow them to get pointers and suggestions on how to combat it. Group therapy sessions could also be beneficial, especially for minorities, to be able to connect with others who may be going through the same struggles.


Ammigand, R., Drexlerd, M. L., Williamson, A. A., & Guerra, N. G. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among international students: Implications for university support offices. Journal of International Students, 2019 Vol. 9 No. 1, 9(1), 129-148.

American Addiction Centers. (2019). Coping With College Stress. Retrieved from,t%20too%20far%20behind%2C%20though.

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than ever before? Letter. Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

American Addiction Centers. (2019). Coping With College Stress. Retrieved from


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, September 21). College health and safety for

women. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

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lifestyle of students: implications for health promotion, Health Promotion International. 30(1), Pages 77–87 Retrieved from

Dickerson T. F., Smith, J. (2015). A comparative study on the stress levels of black, white,


asian, and latino undergraduate Students. 1(3). Retrieved from

Gao, C. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Zhou, F. Dong, C. Ke, Z. Wang, Q. Yang, Y. Sun, H. (2021).

Prevalence and correlates of lifestyle behavior, anxiety and depression in Chinese college freshman: A cross-sectional survey, International Journal of Nursing Sciences. 8(3).

Hershner, S. D., & Chervin, R. D. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college

students. Nature and science of sleep, 6, 73–84.

Hoyt, Lindsay Till et al. “‘Constant Stress Has Become the New Normal’: Stress and Anxiety

Inequalities Among U.S. College Students in the Time of COVID-19.” Journal of

adolescent health 68.2 (2021): 270–276. Web.

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Conflict and Work Outcomes. Journal of Career Development, 43(5), 413–425.

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The final exam for this course is a reflection paper. It is worth 125 points. 

Please respond to the following prompts (1000 words).  

Reflecting on Modules 5 and 7: 

What have you learned about other health traditions? What have you learned about your heritage in terms of health maintenance, protection, and restoration? How consistent are you with your traditional cultural heritage? Did learning about your traditional cultural heritage change your view of your heritage?

Reflecting on Module 6:

What cultural and religious holidays do you celebrate? What other cultural and religious holidays that are interesting to you?

Reflecting on group work (research paper):

Did you learn about your group member’s cultural heritage through the group work? What went well in your group work? What are the greatest challenge you had as a group? How balanced do you feel the efforts of the group members were? What would you change about your group?



What is healing? 

The practice of healing is thousands of years old. Healing can mean to make or become healthy, or to be comforted again. It can also mean the restoration of health. Just like health, there are various ways to define healing. There are also many different types of healing in the world. Some are ancient and others are modern.

A good video connecting the previous module (allopathic vs homeopathic medicine) to this one. Healing from a scientific and spiritual point of view. 


In traditional epidemiology, healing is linked to beliefs in evil and the removal of evil from the sick person. 


woman spreading her arms


Ancient Forms of Healing

· Illness was considered to be a crises.

· Cause of an Illness was attributed to forces of evil, which originated either within or outside the body.

· Early forms of Healing dealt with the removal of evil.

· Successful treatments were passed on through generations.


The cause of an illness was attributed to the forces of evil, which originated either within (internal evil) or outside (external evil) the body. Early forms of healing dealt with the removal of evil. 

Interval Evil

If the source of sickness-causing evil was internal, the treatment was to get the evil out of the body. This can be done in multiple ways:

1. Purgatives

· vomiting or diarrhea

2. Blood-letting

· Bleeding

· Leeching "sucking out" blood

If the source of the evil was external, there are a number of ways to deal with it. 

· Ancient belief – Witchcraft

· People (or a single person) who were “different” from the other people

· Seen as the causative agent

· Remove or punish the guilty person from the community, the disease would be cured

· Healers themselves were often seen as witches and the possessors of evil skill.

Ancient Rituals

· Sick person isolated from others.

· Special prayers chanted and incantations recited.

· Sacrifices and dances often were performed.

· Speaking in tongues

· Reciting incantations in an unfamiliar language

· Use of strange practices


Watch the video clip "Ceremonial Dance of the Bushmen" below. This is a form of "medicine dance".

Religion and Healing

Religion strongly affects the way people interpret and respond to the signs and symptoms of illness/illness. Threads—religion, ethnicity, and culture—are woven into the fabric of each person’s particular response to treatment and healing. There are many religious beliefs and practices related to healing. An introductory discussion of religious healing beliefs from the Judeo-Christian background. 


The Old Testament does not focus on healing to the extent the New Testament does.  In the Old Testament:

· God is seen to have total power over life and death, and is the healer of all human woes.

· God is the giver of all good things and of all misfortune, including sickness.

· Sickness represents a break between God and humans.



In the New Testament:

· Large focus on Healing

· Recordings of the Healings by Jesus

· Healing practices of the Roman Catholic tradition include a variety of beliefs and numerous practices of both a preventive and healing nature.

Saints and Healing



There are many places in this world where people make spiritual journeys, pilgrimages, or show popular piety for the purpose of petitioning for giving thanks for favors. One place is at a shrine. Shrines ranges from small memorials to large, famous shrines where people who are part of a given religious tradition, or a follower of a giver healer may go to pray or petition at the site. Shrines are not limited to any one faith tradition, and they can be secular as well as religious. 

Selected Shrines 

Callery pear tree, New York City

The Callery pear tree was found alive in the rubble of the World Trade Center in 2001; it is now a secular shrine.


The Tomb of Menachem Mendel Schneerson in Queens, New York

This is a Holy Shrine where Jewish people from around the world gather to seek healing and restored health.


Shrine of our Lord of Esquipulas, Chimayo, New Mexico. The shrine was built between 1814 and 1816 and is visited by thousands of people each year. There is a hole in the floor of the shrine, and it is believed that eating the dirt from this hole will cure many illnesses. 


Shrine of Our Lady of Montserrat, Spain. 

Pilgrims have visited this site since the 13th century to venerate the miraculous statue of the Black Madonna, and many miracles have been reported here.



The Tomb of Rachel in Bethlehem, south of Jerusalem. 

This is a place where pilgrims go seek protection, healing, and help, especially for fertility. Here one is able to acquire the red string that is worn for protection from the evil eye. 


An extensive list of shrines throughout the world can be found here:

Healing and Today's Beliefs

There are four main types of healing:

1. Spiritual Healing

· Illness of the spirit

· The cause of suffering is personal sin. 

· The treatment method is repentance

2. Inner Healing

· Emotional (mental) illness

· The cause lie in the person's conscious or unconscious mind.

· The treatment method is to heal the person's memory. 

3. Physical Healing

· Disease or accident that resulted in some form of bodily damage

· The treatment method is laying on of hands and speaking in tongues and the person is prayed over.

4. Deliverance or exorcism

· Body and mind are victims of evil from the outside

· The treatment method is that the person must be delivered, or exorcised, from the evil.


Traditional Healers

The people who heal:

· Received the gift of healing from a “divine” source;

· Received gift in a vision and have been unable to explain how they know what to do;

· Learned shills from one of their parents or other family members;

· Most healers with acquired skills are women, who subsequently pass on their knowledge to their daughters;

There are other healers setters as bone setters and midwives. Those who use herbs and other preparations to remove the evil from the sick person's body are known as herbalists. 


Compare: Traditional Healers/Modern Providers


Healing using ring of fire.


Healing and today's medicine. Please watch the video clip "Hmong Healing at Dignity Health" below. 



Please watch the video clip below. A Hmong shaman performs a home-based curing ceremony for a man who fell ill during a funeral. To keep his soul from being drawn into the underworld with the deceased, the soul of a sacrificed pig is offered in exchange.


Ancient Rituals Related to the Lifecycle

Religion also plays a role in the rites surrounding both birth and death. Many of the rituals that we observe at the time of birth and death have their origins in the practices of ancient human beings. 


Ancient Life Cycle Rituals

· Early human beings believed the number of evil spirits far exceeded the number of good spirits.

· Great deal of energy and time was devoted to thwarting evil spirits.

· Spirits would be defeated by the use of gifts or rituals, or redemptive sacrifice.

· Prevented from returning by various magical ceremonies and rites.


Birth Rituals

· Power of the evil spirits was believed to endure for a certain length of time.

· 3rd, 7th, and 40th days – Newborn and the mother were at the greatest risk from the power of supernatural beings.

· Usually on the 8th day, most of the rituals were observed. 

· The person can be freed by certain rituals:

· Mother and child may be separated from the rest of the community for a certain length of time (usually 40 days),

· Rubbing the baby with different oils or garlic,

· Swaddling the baby,

· Lighting candles, or

· Baby and mother were watched for 7 days.

When the various rites were completed and the 40 days were over, both the mother and child were believed to be redeemed from evil. Ceremonies that freed the person had a double character: they were partly magic and partly religious. 


Ancient Birth Rituals and


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