Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Reflection and Discussion Week 12 Reflection and Discussion Week 12Assigned Readings:Chapter 9. Strategy Evaluation and GovernanceInitial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings | WriteDen

Reflection and Discussion Week 12 Reflection and Discussion Week 12Assigned Readings:Chapter 9. Strategy Evaluation and GovernanceInitial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings

 

Reflection and Discussion Week 12

Reflection and Discussion Week 12Assigned Readings:Chapter 9. Strategy Evaluation and GovernanceInitial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. As owner of a local, independent supermarket, explain how you would evaluate the firm’s strategy.

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student's own words – do not provide quotes!] [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review] 

Strategic Management Concepts: A Competitive Advantage Approach

Sixteenth Edition

Chapter 9

Strategy Review, Evaluation, and Control

Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

9.1 Discuss the strategy-evaluation process, criteria, and methods used.

9.2 Discuss three activities that comprise strategy evaluation.

9.3 Describe and develop a Balanced Scorecard.

9.4 Identify and describe published sources of strategy-evaluation information.

9.5 Identify and describe six characteristics of an effective strategy-evaluation system.

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After studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

9-1. Discuss the strategy-evaluation process, criteria, and methods used.

9-2. Discuss three activities that comprise strategy evaluation.

9-3. Describe and develop a Balanced Scorecard.

9-4. Identify and describe published sources of strategy-evaluation information.

9-5. Identify and describe six characteristics of an effective strategy-evaluation system.

Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

9.6 Discuss the nature and role of contingency planning in strategy evaluation.

9.7 Explain the role of auditing in strategy evaluation.

9.8 Identify and discuss three twenty-first-century challenges in strategic management.

9.9 Identify and describe 17 guidelines for effective strategic management.

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9-6. Discuss the nature and role of contingency planning in strategy evaluation.

9-7. Explain the role of auditing in strategy evaluation.

9-8. Identify and discuss three twenty-first-century challenges in strategic management.

9-9. Identify and describe 17 guidelines for effective strategic management.

Figure 9-1 A Comprehensive Strategic-Management Model

Source: Fred R. David, “How Companies Define Their Mission,” Long Range Planning 22, no. 3 (June 1988): 40. See also Anik Ratnaningsih, Nadjadji Anwar, Patdono Suwignjo, and Putu Artama Wiguna, “Balance Scorecard of David’s Strategic Modeling at Industrial Business for National Construction Contractor of Indonesia,” Journal of Mathematics and Technology, no. 4 (October 2010): 20.

Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This chapter is highlighted in the strategic management model.

Strategy Evaluation

Three basic activities:

Examine the underlying bases of a firm’s strategy.

Compare expected results with actual results.

Take corrective actions to ensure that performance conforms to plans.

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Strategy evaluation is vital to an organization’s well-being; timely evaluations can alert management to problems or potential problems before a situation becomes critical. The strategy-evaluation process includes three basic activities.

Strategy Evaluation Criteria

Consonance

Consistency

Advantage

Feasibility

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It is impossible to demonstrate conclusively that a particular strategy is optimal or even to guarantee that it will work. One can, however, evaluate it for critical flaws. Richard Rumelt offered four criteria that could be used to evaluate a strategy.

Why Strategy Evaluation is More Difficult Today (1 of 2)

A dramatic increase in the environment’s complexity

The increasing difficulty of predicting the future with accuracy

The increasing number of variables

The rapid rate of obsolescence of even the best plans

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Strategy evaluation is becoming increasingly difficult with the passage of time, for many reasons. Domestic and world economies were more stable in years past, product life cycles were longer, product development cycles were longer, technological advancement was slower, change occurred less frequently, there were fewer competitors, foreign companies were generally weak, and there were more regulated industries. Other reasons why strategy evaluation is more difficult today include the trends on the next two slides.

Why Strategy Evaluation is More Difficult Today (2 of 2)

The increase in the number of both domestic and world events affecting organizations

The decreasing time span for which planning can be done with any degree of certainty

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The Process of Evaluating Strategies (1 of 2)

Strategy evaluation should initiate managerial questioning of expectations and assumptions, should trigger a review of objectives and values, and should stimulate creativity in generating alternatives and formulating criteria of evaluation.

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Strategy evaluation is necessary for all sizes and kinds of organizations.

The Process of Evaluating Strategies (2 of 2)

Evaluating strategies on a continuous rather than on a periodic basis allows benchmarks of progress to be established and more effectively monitored.

Successful strategies combine patience with a willingness to promptly take corrective actions when necessary.

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Some strategies take years to implement; consequently, associated results may not become apparent for years.

Table 9-2 A Strategy-Evaluation Assessment Matrix

Have Major Changes Occurred in the Firm’s Internal Strategic Position? Have Major Changes Occurred in the Firm’s External Strategic Position? Has the Firm Progressed Satisfactorily Toward Achieving Its Stated Objectives? Result
No No No Take corrective actions
Yes Yes Yes Take corrective actions
Yes Yes No Take corrective actions
Yes No Yes Take corrective actions
Yes No No Take corrective actions
No Yes Yes Take corrective actions
No Yes No Take corrective actions
No No Yes Continue present strategic course

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Table 9-2 summarizes the three strategy-evaluation activities in terms of key questions that should be addressed, alternative answers to those questions, and appropriate actions for an organization to take.

Figure 9-2 A Strategy-Evaluation Framework

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Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reviewing the underlying bases of an organization’s strategy could be approached by developing a revised EFE Matrix and IFE Matrix.

Reviewing Bases of Strategy (1 of 2)

How have competitors reacted to our strategies?

How have competitors’ strategies changed?

Have major competitors’ strengths and weaknesses changed?

Why are competitors making certain strategic changes?

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Analysis could also address the questions included on the next two slides.

Reviewing Bases of Strategy (2 of 2)

Why are some competitors’ strategies more successful than others?

How satisfied are our competitors with their present market positions and profitability?

How far can our major competitors be pushed before retaliating?

How could we more effectively cooperate with our competitors?

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Measuring Organizational Performance

Strategists use common quantitative criteria to make three critical comparisons:

Comparing the firm’s performance over different time periods

Comparing the firm’s performance to competitors’

Comparing the firm’s performance to industry averages

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Measuring organizational performance includes comparing expected results to actual results, investigating deviations from plans, evaluating individual performance, and examining progress being made toward meeting stated objectives.

Key Questions to Address in Evaluating Strategies (1 of 2)

How good is the firm’s balance of investments between high-risk and low-risk projects?

How good is the firm’s balance of investments between long-term and short-term projects?

How good is the firm’s balance of investments between slow-growing markets and fast-growing markets?

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Some additional key questions that reveal the need for judgments in strategy evaluation are on the next two slides.

Key Questions to Address in Evaluating Strategies (2 of 2)

How good is the firm’s balance of investments among different divisions?

To what extent are the firm’s alternative strategies socially responsible?

What are the relationships among the firm’s key internal and external strategic factors?

How are major competitors likely to respond to particular strategies?

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Table 9-4 Corrective Actions

1. Alter the firm’s structure.
2. Replace one or more key individuals.
3. Divest a division.
4. Alter the firm’s vision or mission.
5. Revise objectives.
6. Alter strategies.
7. Devise new policies.
8. Install new performance incentives.
9. Raise capital with stock or debt.
10. Add or terminate salespersons, employees, or managers.
11. Allocate resources differently.
12. Outsource (or rein in) business functions.

Corrective Actions Possibly Needed to Correct Unfavorable Variances

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The final strategy-evaluation activity, taking corrective actions, requires making changes to competitively reposition a firm for the future. As indicated in Table 9-4, examples of changes that may be needed are altering an organization’s structure, replacing one or more key individuals, selling a division, or revising a business mission.

The Balanced Scorecard (1 of 2)

Is the firm continually improving and creating value along measures such as innovation, technological leadership, product quality, operational process efficiencies, and so on?

Is the firm sustaining and even improving on its core competencies and competitive advantages?

How satisfied are the firm’s customers?

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The Balanced Scorecard is a strategy evaluation and control technique. Balanced Scorecard derives its name from the perceived need of firms to “balance” financial measures that are oftentimes used exclusively in strategy evaluation and control with nonfinancial measures such as product quality and customer service. An effective Balanced Scorecard contains a carefully chosen combination of strategic and financial objectives tailored to the company’s business.

The Balanced Scorecard (2 of 2)

The Balanced Scorecard approach to strategy evaluation aims to balance long-term with short-term concerns, to balance financial with nonfinancial concerns, and to balance internal with external concerns.

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As a tool to manage and evaluate strategy, the Balanced Scorecard is currently in use at Sears, United Parcel Service, 3M Corporation, Heinz, and hundreds of other firms.

Characteristics of an Effective Evaluation System (1 of 2)

Strategy evaluation activities must be economical

too much information can be just as bad as too little information

too many controls can do more harm than good

Activities should be meaningful

should specifically relate to a firm’s objectives

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The strategy-evaluation process must exhibit several characteristics to be effective.

Characteristics of an Effective Evaluation System (2 of 2)

Activities should provide timely information

Activities should be designed to provide a true picture of what is happening

Activities should not dominate decisions

should foster mutual understanding, trust, and common sense

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Contingency Planning (1 of 3)

Contingency Plans can be defined as alternative plans that can be put into effect if certain key events do not occur as expected.

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A basic premise of good strategic management is that firms strive to be proactive, planning ways to deal with unfavorable and favorable events before they occur. Too many organizations prepare contingency plans just for unfavorable events; this is a mistake, because both minimizing threats and capitalizing on opportunities can improve a firm’s competitive position.

Contingency Planning (2 of 3)

If a major competitor withdraws from particular markets as intelligence reports indicate, what actions should our firm take?

If our sales objectives are not reached, what actions should our firm take to avoid profit losses?

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Some contingency plans commonly established by firms include the elements on the next two slides.

Contingency Planning (3 of 3)

If demand for our new product exceeds plans, what actions should our firm take to meet the higher demand?

If certain disasters occur, what actions should our firm take?

If a new technological advancement makes our new product obsolete sooner than expected, what actions should our firm take?

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Effective Contingency Planning

Identify both good and bad events that could jeopardize strategies.

Determine when the good and bad events are likely to occur.

Determine the expected pros and cons of each contingency event.

Develop contingency plans for key contingency events.

Determine early warning trigger points for key contingency events.

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Linneman and Chandran suggest that effective contingency planning involves a five-step process.

Auditing

Auditing

“a systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain the degree of correspondence between these assertions and established criteria, and communicating the results to interested users”

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A frequently used tool in strategy evaluation is the audit.

Twenty-First-Century Challenges in Strategic Management

Deciding whether the process should be more an art or a science

Deciding whether strategies should be visible or hidden from stakeholders

Deciding whether the process should be more top-down or bottom-up in their firm

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Three particular challenges or decisions face all strategists today.

Guidelines for Effective Strategic Management

Keep the process simple and easily understandable.

Eliminate vague planning jargon.

Keep the process non routine; vary assignments, team membership, meeting formats, settings, and even the planning calendar.

Welcome bad news and encourage devil’s advocate thinking

Do not allow technicians to monopolize the planning process.

To the extent possible, involve managers from all areas of the firm.

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Failing to follow certain guidelines in conducting strategic management can foster criticisms of the process and create problems for the organization.

Copyright

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Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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