Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Submit the final version of the Results section of your evaluation report. Be sure to incorporate the feedback from your instructor on the draft submitted last w | WriteDen

Submit the final version of the Results section of your evaluation report. Be sure to incorporate the feedback from your instructor on the draft submitted last w

 

Submit the final version of the Results section of your evaluation report. Be sure to incorporate the feedback from your instructor on the draft submitted last week.

*Note: Avoid first person verbiage and write in third person, no direct quotes, and do not give possession to in-text citations or inanimate objects.

The introduction was good

organization and flow was fair, Instructions were fair. analysis and  synthesis was excellent

Scholarly literature was excellent, APA Style and formatting was poor mistakes made throughout document,. The above was the feedback from the professor that needs to improve. My evaluation report is on children aged 3-11 with anxiety and adults 65 and older with opoid addiction

Running Head: WEEK 5 ASSIGNMENT 1

WEEK 5 ASSIGNMENT 9

Week 5 Assignment: Results Section

Barbara Maclure

Dr. Whitaker

6/11/2022

Results

A survey was taken where 54 children who were between the age of 3 and 13, were examined to determine their level of anxiety using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) scale which had 44 items. Thirty-five of these items (negative phrases) were reverse coded to help in reduction of biased responses. The items were sub-scaled into six subscales namely, Separation anxiety subscale, Social Phobia subscale, Obsessive Compulsive subscale, Panic Subscale, Physical injury subscale and General anxiety subscale depending about each of the given item (Reardon et al., 2019).

Adult opiate substance abuse was also examined for adults above 65 years. Forty-six of participants were chosen for this study and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used to determine substance addiction scores for the participants. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) had 13 items running from D1 to D13. Table 1 showed the composition of the participants used in this study. About 54% (N = 54) belonged to children anxiety program while the rest 46% (N = 46) where adults with underlying addiction condition.

Program ID

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Children Anxiety

54

54.0

54.0

54.0

Underlying Condition

46

46.0

46.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

The items of the two tools used, Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Addiction Severity Index (ASI), were determine prior and after treatment to examine whether the treatment reduced anxiety among children and substance abuse among the adults who were above 60 years. This resulted to pre and post items of the database. The pre items for each instrument were summed to form; SCAS_Pre_Total, SCAS_Pst_Total, ASI_Pre_Total and ASI_Pst_Total.

The descriptive statistics for the variables were as shown in Table 2.

Table 2

Descriptive Statistics

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Age of participant

100

1

96

42.52

39.225

SCAS_Pre_Total

100

48.00

84.00

67.3100

8.48730

ASI_Pre_Total

100

14.00

39.00

26.2600

5.37976

SCAS_Pst_Total

100

48.00

84.00

67.3800

8.38202

ASI_Pst_Total

100

15.00

42.00

26.7400

5.63291

Valid N (listwise)

100

The results showed that the minimum age was 1 and the maximum was 96 where the mean score was 42.52, SD = 39.23. The SCAS_Pre_Total had a minimum score of 48 and maximum score of 84 with M = 67.31, SD = 8.49. The scores for SCAS_Pst_Total scale had minimum value and maximum values of 48 and 84 respectively and M = 67.38, SD = 8.38. ASI_Pre_Total had a minimum score of 14 and a maximum score of 39 with a mean M = 26.26, SD = 5.38. ASI_Pst_Total had minimum and maximum scores of 15 and 42 respectively with mean M = 26.74, SD = 5.63.

To compare pre scores and the post scores, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used for Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) to check whether there was a difference in means for SCAS_Pre_Total scores and SCAS_Pst_Total (Shams & Hesamian, 2021). The null and alternative hypotheses were given as.

H0: There was no significant difference in mean scores between SCAS pre scores and SCAS post scores.

Ha: There was a significant difference in mean scores between SCAS pre scores and SCAS post scores.

The results were as shown in Table 3.

Table 3

Descriptive Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Minimum

Maximum

SCAS_Pre_Total

54

67.6481

9.50106

48.00

84.00

SCAS_Pst_Total

54

67.7593

9.28569

48.00

84.00

Test Statistics

SCAS_Pst_Total – SCAS_Pre_Total

Z

-.962b

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

.336

a. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

b. Based on negative ranks.

The analysis showed insignificant difference in means where Z (52) = -.962, p = .336. The descriptive statistics showed that children anxiety was higher after treatment (M = 67.76, SD = 9.29) compared to before treatment (M = 67.64, SD = 9.50). The null hypothesis was not rejected in this case and the conclusion was that there was no significant difference in mean scores between SCAS pre scores and SCAS post scores.

Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was also used to determine the significance of the difference between mean scores for ASI instrument before and after treatment of substance abuse for participants older than 65 years. The two variables used in this case were ASI_Pre_Total and ASI_Pst_Total. The null and alternative hypothesis were given as.

H0: There was no significant difference in mean scores for substance abuse for adults above 65 before and after treatment.

Ha: There was a significant difference in mean scores for substance abuse for adults above 65 before and after treatment.

The results were as shown in Table 4.

Table 4

Descriptive Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Minimum

Maximum

ASI_Pre_Total

46

26.6304

6.08225

17.00

39.00

ASI_Pst_Total

46

27.6739

6.45344

19.00

42.00

Test Statistics

ASI_Pst_Total – ASI_Pre_Total

Z

-3.584b

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

a. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

b. Based on negative ranks.

The results showed significance since Z (44) = -3.584, p < .01 implying rejection of the null hypothesis and the conclusion was that there was a significant difference in mean scores for substance abuse for adults above 65 before and after treatment. According to descriptive statistics, the ASI scores after treatment were higher (M = 27.67, SD = 6.45) compared to ASI scores before treatment (M = 27.67, SD = 6.45) (Warner, 2020). The differences in opiate substance abuse among older people showed that treatment significantly increased the intake since p-value was less than .05 level of significance.

When comparing two independent groups of an ordinal scale, Mann-Whitney U test will be the most appropriate test statistics (Selvakumar et al., 2018). In this study, the scores for participants in the treatment and control group were compared for the SCAS and ASI instruments. The hypotheses for the SCAS instrument were given as.

H10: There was no significant difference in children anxiety mean pre-scores for those in the treatment and those in the control group.

H1a: There was a significant difference in children anxiety mean pre-scores for those in the treatment and those in the control group.

H20: There was no significant difference in children anxiety mean post-scores for those in the treatment and those in the control group.

H2a: There was a significant difference in children anxiety mean post-scores for those in the treatment and those in the control group.

The hypotheses for ASI instrument were given as.

H10: There was no significant difference in mean pre-scores for adult substance between those in treatment and those in control group.

H1a: There was a significant difference in mean pre-scores for adult substance before treatment between those in treatment and those in control group.

H20: There was no significant difference in mean post-scores for adult substance between those in treatment and those in control group.

H2a: There was a significant difference in mean post-scores for adult substance before treatment between those in treatment and those in control group.

Table 5 showed the results for both instruments.

Table 5

Test Statistics

SCAS_Pre_Total

SCAS_Pst_Total

Mann-Whitney U

331.500

330.500

Wilcoxon W

682.500

681.500

Z

-.565

-.582

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

.572

.561

a. Grouping Variable: Groups

Test Statistics

ASI_Pre_Total

ASI_Pst_Total

Mann-Whitney U

219.000

187.000

Wilcoxon W

625.000

593.000

Z

-.746

-1.480

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

.456

.139

a. Grouping Variable: Groups

Analysis showed that SCAS_Pre_Total (Z (52) = -.565, p = .572) and SCAS_Pst_Total (Z (52) = -.582, p = .561) were insignificant implying failure to reject the null hypothesis and the conclusion was that there was no significant difference in children anxiety mean pre-scores and post-scores for those in the treatment and those in the control group.

The results also showed that both ASI_Pre_Total (Z (44) = -.746, p = .456) and ASI_Pst_Total (Z (44) = -1.48, p = .139) were insignificant implying failure to reject the null hypothesis and conclusion was that there was no significant difference in mean pre and post scores for adult substance between those in treatment and those in control group.

Reference

Reardon, T., Creswell, C., Lester, K. J., Arendt, K., Blatter-Meunier, J., Bögels, S. M., Coleman, J., Cooper, P. J., Heiervang, E. R., Herren, C., Hogendoorn, S. M., Hudson, J. L., Keers, R., Lyneham, H. J., Marin, C. E., Nauta, M., Rapee, R. M., Roberts, S., Schneider, S., Silverman, W. K., … Eley, T. C. (2019). The utility of the SCAS-C/P to detect specific anxiety disorders among clinically anxious children. Psychological assessment31(8), 1006–1018. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000700

Shams, M., & Hesamian, G. (2021). Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test based on Fuzzy Random Variables and Fuzzy Hypotheses. Journal of Decisions and Operations Research.

Warner, R. M. (2020). Applied statistics I: Basic bivariate techniques. Sage Publications.

Selvakumar, M., Sathyalakshmi, V., Mariappan, M., & Mohammed Abubakkar Siddique, R. (2018). Comparison of Customer Satisfaction in SBI and ICICI-Application of Mann- Whitney Rank Sum U-Test. EuroEconomica37(1).

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