Chat with us, powered by LiveChat The companies that developed the vaccines and treatments in the covid pandemic provide very real-life, real-time examples of the questions of protecting patents as busines | WriteDen

The companies that developed the vaccines and treatments in the covid pandemic provide very real-life, real-time examples of the questions of protecting patents as busines

  

The companies that developed the vaccines and treatments in the covid pandemic provide very real-life, real-time examples of the questions of protecting patents as business assets while answering social responsibility concerns.

As the CEO of one of these companies, how would you respond to calls to share your company’s IP and under what circumstances? How would a Biblical worldview influence your decisions?

BUSI 561

Discussion Assignment Instructions

The student will first post a thread of at least 600 words (content, not including references)

For each thread and reply, analysis must be supported with a minimum of 2 scholarly sources other than the course textbook and provided materials. Each source must be cited in current APA format. Each thread and each reply must include both full citations in a reference list at the end of each post, and short-form in-text citations.

Acceptable sources include books, legal and business journals, legal cases, the law (cases, statutes, regulations, etc.), the Bible, biblical commentary, etc. Dictionaries and other web sources that lack scholarly support are not acceptable sources. Any sources cited must be current to the issue (e.g., Bible commentaries may by applicable from any age, but articles discussing current legal practices may no longer be relevant after 2 or 5 years).

A well-developed, complete worldview analysis of the situation requires more than simply adding a Bible verse at the end of the post. Each thread and each reply must include at least 1 verse from Scripture, quoted and applied as an integral part of the discussion of the applicable issues in the context of a Biblical worldview.

Copy/paste the content of your posts; do not use attachments, which will not be accepted or graded.

Assignment:

Thread:

The companies that developed the vaccines and treatments in the covid pandemic provide very real-life, real-time examples of the questions of protecting patents as business assets while answering social responsibility concerns.

As the CEO of one of these companies, how would you respond to calls to share your company’s IP and under what circumstances? How would a Biblical worldview influence your decisions?

Consider, for example, the following:

Rowland, C., Rauhala E., & Berger, M. (2021, March 20). Drug companies defend vaccine monopolies in face of global outcry. The Washington Post.

https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A655745537/BIC?u=vic_liberty&sid=summon&xid=4321e4f8 (Links to an external site.)

 

D’Eminio, F. (2021, October 11). Moderna has no plans to share its COVID-19 vaccine recipe. AP. https://apnews.com/article/coronavirus-pandemic-technology-business-united-nations-europe-d4aff7ddb273194b312354a57c244ce6 (Links to an external site.)

 

Taylor, A. & Parker, C. (2021, October 27). U.S. drug company Merck to share license for experimental covid-19 treatment with nonprofit. Washington Post. https://bi-gale-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/global/article/GALE%7CA680335867/3c02464fd736364ef628911fa70dea32?u=vic_liberty

 

Reference examples:

Personality Assesment

James W. Bland III

School of , Liberty University

Author Note

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to . Email:

Abstract

Studies show that there are sixteen work personalities. Those personalities are known as the type of table, which the Publisher wrote, Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. Palo Alto, Ca 94303. It shows how important it is to know identify your work type for a healthy, happy, and fulfilled work environment for yourself and others.

Keywords:

2

PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT 2

Introverts, extroverts, sensors, intuitive

Personality Assessment

Part 1: Jung and Briggs Myers personality results analysis

           My personality test based on Jung and Briggs Myers typology indicated that I have an INTJ (introverted (38 percent), Intuitive (19 percent), thinking (6 percent), and judging (25 percent) type of personality. My results indicate that I have a moderate preference for introversion over extroversion. I have a slight preference for intuition over sensing, a slight preference for thinking over feeling, and a mild preference for judging over perceiving. As INTJ, my primary mode of living is known to be focused intrinsically; I take things and decisions based on my intuition. My secondary way of living is external, where I deal with situations rationally and logically. INTJ is known as masterminds; they live in a world of ideas and plan strategically rather than following their emotions. I value competence, intelligence, and knowledge as an INTJ person, and I have similar expectations to other people I work with currently and in the past. Since I am more of an introvert, I channel my energy into observing the world to generate potential ideas and possibilities which may turn out to be innovative. According to David Keirsey, a psychologist, and developer of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, nearly 1 to 4 percent of the world's population has an INTJ personality type. Keirsey's four temperaments are better known as their subdivided sixteen kinds of personalities. The four-character types, according to Keirsey. The sixteen personality types include guardians, Artisans, Rationales, and Idealists; there are four personality types (Daniel, 2017). 

I-introverted

           Because I am more introverted at 38 percent, I am less likely to interact with others and share my ideas. I spend much of my time on my mind thinking about new ideas and how to plan strategically. As a result, I usually have little interest in the thoughts and feelings of other people. 

Therefore, other people will perceive me as a reserved person who is often isolated and less likely to share ideas. However, I am open to welcoming ideas from other people that I perceive as critical and logical since my primary focus as an INTJ person is to uncover innovations. As an introvert, I prefer working by myself ad strongly prefer solo work to group work. People find it hard to know me because I see little value in social events such as partying and small talk and thus making it difficult for people to get to know me. As a result, I have reserved interaction with a small circle of friends and family members. 

           A person with INTJ personality traits tends to have difficulty establishing intimate solid relationships. I find it hard to show affection to other people. I do not feel the need to express appreciation to other people. People in a romantic relationship with an INTJ person may feel as they are not loved due to the type rarely showing respect. They are less likely to give positive support and praise as other partners desire, which I know significantly demonstrates in my personality (Daniel, 2017). I do not find it necessary to keep praising my partner, and I rarely use words of affirmation to other people, which makes them think that I am not romantic. In terms of career, I have great interest and passion in pursuing what I live to become more skilled and knowledgeable in my field of study. I have high expectations, and I see it as my responsibility to become the better version of myself. 

I -Intuitive

           Based on the personality test, my score for intuition was 19 percent. As an intuitive person, I slightly prefer intuition over sensing. I tend to rely on imagination on the potential outcomes rather than sense. I am more focused on tangible facts and more specific results. I tend to discuss and assess different views and options of what the world would look like in the future. I am interested in the future rather than the current moment. For example, I would like to think of where I will be in five years and how that will influence my personal and professional growth. In addition, I tend to exercise my imagination to seek new ideas and possibilities.

T-thinking

           I have a slight preference for thinking over feeling. According to Keirsey's four temperaments, my INTJ personality falls under the rational category as a mastermind. Masterminds are planners, self-confident, systematic, utilitarian, willful, and ingenious (Keirsey, n.d). Under planning, they understand the logical outcomes of each move, and their decisions do not influence by the current situation but the consequences of the action. They quickly understand how a particular decision affects the next step. They foresee what will be the outcome of the present action. In addition, masterminds are self-confident and thus quickly make decisions because they believe in their intuitions and knowledge. When it comes to making decisions, I rarely waste time because I am self-confident that I am making the right decision. I have unparalleled certainty of my ability to overcome barriers and achieve excellent outcomes.

Furthermore, INTJ's personality confronts challenges head-on and acts as a stimulant for the mastermind to dig deep to uncover innovations. INTJ personality follows a systematic approach to a problem. In addition, a mastermind believes that every situation exists for a reason, and thus every issue must have a solution. They are interested in using ideas and their utility in reality, not merely concerned about the pictures.

           NTS value knowledge and competence over everything else and seek to make sense of the world around them so that they can help improve it. However, they are not generally interested in taking care of details but instead are focused on seeing the big picture, discovering ideas, and recognizing patterns. Other people may find a person with an INTJ personality as a rigid person because they are committed to implementing their ideas. Other people may find it hard to understand a person with an INTJ personality. 

J- Judgment

           From the personality test, I score 25 percent in judgment. This score implies that I prefer judging over perceiving. For example, I like gathering information from the external world and analyzing it to gather new insights to make informed judgments rather than perceiving a situation. 

Part 2: Relationship of various personality types at work

           The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a practical framework that shows how different personality types work together. A workplace cannot be effective with too many people sharing the same personality. The workplace will not be effective because there are too many of the same character traits, and they do not benefit from different input from people with other character traits. For example, INTJ people are all rational masterminds and not input from a person with ISTP personality traits. An organization with an accurate mixture of different personalities will perform better if it has idealists, rationalists, guardians, and artisans. All these personality types interact to bring out the best results. For example, ENFP personality types are regarded as imaginative motivators, while ENSTJ personality types are considered efficient organizers (Thompson, 2022). As a result, a company needs efficient organizers and creative motivators to perform to its full potential. If an organization only has employees with ESTJ personality type, it will have a workforce full of efficient organizers.

However, unfortunately, it will be missing employees with ENFP personality types who are imaginative motivators. Different personality types bring various talents and ensure the team generates a broad spread of ideas and solutions. However, with team members having diverse personality traits can be hard to synchronize the differences into something that can work for the better of the company. However, it is not impossible if all team members respect the boundaries of others. For example, if a person is an introvert and prefers email, approaching their workstations may make them uncomfortable (Kroeger, Thuesen & Rutledge, 2009). It is also imperative to come to people with different personalities in different ways. For example, guardian types prefer facts and patience. Therefore, it is essential to approach the points and have plenty of time for them to make decisions.

           Based on the personality test results, I have learned the impacts that my personality type, both positive and negative, can have on an organization. One of the traits I have a person with an INTJ personality type is that I can easily make a decision because I can project the future outcomes, and thus, I am confident with the decision I make. I can predict how the future will unfold, and therefore, I can make strategic decisions for an organization that will place the company in a better position. As a mastermind, I am driven to achieve the result and always watch the long-term consequences of a given action. Therefore, I am now better positioned to avoid decisions that may have adverse outcomes for an organization. INTJs are about strategy, and organizations are about strategic planning. As an INTJ, one of my biggest strengths is strategy. I approach situations in terms of problem-solving by looking at the bigger picture and the outcome of a given case. Businesses miss out because of a lack of visionary leaders who can strategize effectively (Kroeger, Thuesen & Rutledge, 2009). In addition, as an INTJ, I am independent and have self-confidence about myself. Self-confidence helps a leader take more bold moves that can take the organization far ahead. However, one of the weaknesses of INTJs is that they like working in solitary; this can be a disadvantage, especially for projects that require teamwork. I prefer working on projects alone. However, it can be hard when I am supposed to team with other employees to complete a task. 

References

Kroeger, O., Thuesen, J. M., & Rutledge, H. (2009). Type talk at work (revised): How the 16 personality types determine your success on the job. Delta.

Thompson, J. (2022). How to work with all the Myers-Briggs personality types. https://www.atlassian.com/blog/leadership/every-myers-briggs-personality-type

Keirsey. (n.d). Learn about the rational mastermind. https://keirsey.com/temperament/rational- mastermind/

Daniel. (2017). Keirsey temperaments. https://www.personalityclub.com/blog/keirsey- temperaments/

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 1

Created by Christy Owen of Liberty University’s Online Writing Center

[email protected]; last date modified: November 7, 2021

Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students

Claudia S. Sample

School of Behavioral Sciences, Liberty University

Author Note

Claudia S. Sample (usually only included if author has an ORCID number)

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Claudia S. Sample.

Email: [email protected]

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 2

Table of Contents

(Only Included for Easy Navigation; Hyperlinked for Quick Access)

Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students ……………………………… 6

Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7 ………………………………………………………………………………… 8

Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract …………………………………………………………………………. 9

Basic Formatting Elements …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Font ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Line Spacing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Spaces After Punctuation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Footnotes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Heading Levels—Level 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Level 2 Heading …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Level 3 Heading ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one

space, and begin your content on the same line as shown here. ………………………………… 13

Level 5 Heading …………………………………………………………………. 13

Specific Elements of Academic Papers ……………………………………………………………………………. 13

Tables of Contents and Outlines …………………………………………………………………………… 13

Annotated Bibliographies ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 3

Crediting Your Sources………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes ……………………………………………………………………………. 15

Paraphrasing ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Block Quotes …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph ………………………………………………… 17

Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication ……………………………………………………………… 17

Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations ………………………………………………. 17

Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year …………………………………………………. 18

Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name ……………………………. 18

Three or More Authors Cited In-Text ……………………………………………………………………. 18

Number of Authors in the Reference List ………………………………………………………………. 19

Numbers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Displaying Titles of Works in-Text …………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources ……………………………………………………………………… 20

Personal Communications ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays) …………………………………. 21

Bible and other Classical Works …………………………………………………………………………… 21

Plays …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Lectures and PowerPoints ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Dictionary Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

Changes in Reference Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 4

Electronic Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Adding Color ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Self-Plagiarism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Final Formatting Tweaks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources ………………………………… 26

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 5

Abstract

Begin your abstract at the left margin. This is the only paragraph that should not be indented.

Unless otherwise instructed, APA recommends an abstract be no more than 250 words. It should

generally not contain any citations or direct quotes. This should be a tight, concise summary of

the main points in your paper, not a step-by-step of what you plan to accomplish in your paper.

Avoid phrases such as “this paper will,” and just structure your sentences to say what you want

to say. The following three sentences exemplify a good abstract style: There are many

similarities and differences between the codes of ethics for the ACA and the AACC. Both include

similar mandates in the areas of —-, —, and —. However, each differs significantly in the areas

of —, —, and —. For more detailed information, see “Writing an Abstract” at

https://www.liberty.edu/casas/academic-success-center/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2019/04/

Writing_an_Abstract_Revised_2012.pdf (note that you would not include any links in your

abstract). This is just now at 168 words, so eyeball how brief your abstract must be. Think of

your paper as a movie you want to sound enticing, and the abstract as the summary of the plot

you would share to draw people’s interest into wanting to come and see your movie. You want to

really hook and intrigue them. What you have to say is important! Remember to stay under 250,

words. Keywords highlight the search terms someone would use to find your paper in a database.

Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 6

Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students

The title of your paper goes on the top line of the first page of the body (American

Psychological Association [APA], 2019, section 2.11). It should be centered, bolded, and in title

case (all major words—usually those with four+ letters—should begin with a capital letter)—see

p. 51 of your Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: Seventh Edition

(APA, 2019; hereinafter APA-7). It must match the title that is on your title page (see last line on

p. 32). As shown in the previous sentence, use brackets to denote an abbreviation within

parentheses (bottom of p. 159). Write out the full name of an entity or term the first time

mentioned before using its acronym (see citation in first sentence in this paragraph), and then use

the acronym throughout the body of the paper (section 6.25).

There are many changes in APA-7. One to mention here is that APA-7 allows writers to

include subheadings within the introductory section (APA, 2019, p. 47). Since APA-7 now

regards the title, abstract, and term “References” to all be Level-1 headings, a writer who opts to

include headings in his or her introduction must begin with Level-2 headings as shown above

(see section 2.27) for any divisions within the introductory section.

If you do choose to include headings in your introduction section (which is optional), be

sure to include two or more subheadings, since APA (2019) forbids stand-alone heading levels.

A second notable change in APA-7 is that writers are no longer required to cite their source every

single sentence that content from it is mentioned (section 8.1). As demonstrated in this paper,

since all of the content (other than the examples included for illustration and reference-entry

variation purposes) comes directly from the APA-7 itself, citations to the APA-7 are only

included for the first instance in each paragraph. Section and/or page numbers are included

parenthetically throughout for the sake of students who desire to know exactly where the stated

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 7

rule appears in the APA-7 itself. In your academic papers, however, it is critical to include the

required author(s) and year, as applicable, for all citations that are included; this may include

more than one citation for each resource per paragraph, as required to avoid any confusion about

the source of that content.

Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing

Most beginning students have difficulty learning how to write papers and also format

papers correctly using the seventh edition of the APA manual. However, the Liberty University

Online Writing Center’s (OWC) mission includes helping students learn how to be autonomous,

proficient writers. The OWC also provides students with templates to help them with basic

formatting elements, but this sample paper is designed to help graduate and doctoral students

learn to master APA rules and formatting on their own, which will prove helpful as they progress

in their studies and work toward future publication in scholarly journals.

For the purpose of instruction, this paper will use second person (you, your), but third

person (this author) must be used in most student papers. First person (I, me, we, us, our) is not

generally permitted in academic papers. Students should refrain from using first or second person

in college courses (even though the APA manual encourages this in other writing venues) unless

the assignment instructions clearly permit such (as in the case of personal reflection sections or

life histories). If in doubt, students should clarify with their professors.

APA-7 delineates separate rules and guidelines between “student” and “professional”

writers (APA, 2019). Because a primary purpose of graduate and doctoral studies is to prepare

those students to publish professionally, Liberty University has decided to have undergraduate

students follow APA-7’s guidelines for “student papers,” and graduate/doctoral students follow

APA-7’s guidelines for “professional papers.” Separate templates are available for each level.

SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS 8

This sample paper illustrates and discusses the rules and formatting of professional papers, as

required for all Liberty University graduate and doctoral courses using APA-7 style.

Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7

Most of these changes will be discussed in more detail below; this is just a very brief

overview here. APA-7 reverts back to only one space after closing punctu

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