Chat with us, powered by LiveChat The submission should follow the instructions provided on the Grant Proposal (RFP), include the project goal(s), SMART objectives, and activity timelines chart. Section | WriteDen

The submission should follow the instructions provided on the Grant Proposal (RFP), include the project goal(s), SMART objectives, and activity timelines chart. Section

The submission should follow the instructions provided on the Grant Proposal (RFP), include the project goal(s), SMART objectives, and activity timelines chart.

Section 2 – [2 ½ – 3 pages] 

Description of Proposed Research – (Including Method and Approach, Project Activity, Methodology and Outcomes) Now that you are established a need for your project, you have to describe your project This section is the heart of the proposal and is the primary concern of the technical grant reviewers. • Describe why you/your organization are the best one to do what you propose to do? Is it an extension of successful, innovative work or a pilot project you already completed? Be realistic about what can be accomplished. • Discuss why you chose to address the issue in the manner that you have. Are there other approaches? If so, why are not they appropriate to the situation? Be clear about the focus of the research • Be explicit about any assumptions or hypotheses the research method rests upon. • What are the goals of your project or your research questions? • What are the goals of your project? • Be realistic about what can be accomplished (SMART Objectives – specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timely) and who will do them? • Be certain that the connection between the research objectives and the research method is evident. • Be as detailed as possible about the schedule of the proposed work. Describe the specific activities involved. • Present a timeline of activities. Tables and charts work best here. They crystallize data, break up pages of narrative, and convey extensive information well in a limited space. • Discuss the specific outcomes to be achieved? What will change? • What will your project’s outcomes be? • How are you going to achieve those outcomes? What methods will you use? • How will you measure or recognize your project’s achievements? • How can you be sure that your project will productively respond to the need or problem? Be specific about the means of evaluating the data (Section 3) or the conclusions. Several of the following questions focus on the impact your project will have. Delineating the impact is important because funders want to see that you have clearly established the realistic benefits of your work along with how you plan to verify and assess your achievements.

King Graduate School HA620-101 Research Methods in Health Care

Dr. Su-yan Barrow

Lecture Objectives

At the end of this lecture the students will be able to

Describe the importance project description

Explain the components of a project design

Explain types of Logic Models

Describe research methods

Recap

Each goal can have multiple objectives, and each objective can have multiple activities.

Conversely, every activity must fit into at least one objective, and every objective must fit into at least one goal.

Project-Program Description

Once you have captured the attention of the reviewers by clearly and effectively documenting the need for funding, you get to present the details of how you plan to implement your program.

This section of your proposal should guide the reviewer step by step through all activities needed to accomplish your goal(s) in a way that will continue to engage the reviewer's interest and excitement.

Even if program staff changes over time, the project description should provide a road map for anyone to understand and follow.

The project description includes three main pieces of information:

Goals and objectives

Methods or activities for addressing the identified problem or need

A timeline chart for the completion of each activity

Project-Program Design

These following questions lead you into project design. As you answer them, consider the things that are required to happen as part of the project versus the things that can change or are negotiable. Describe the specific activities that will take place to achieve your objectives. Include the following:

When? This is where you list the order and timing of each task involved . What is your proposed start date? Have you considered the likely award date? How much time do you need to accomplish each part of the project?. You may want to include a timetable here to provide the funder with an easy-to-follow visual. This will make it much easier for the funder to know what you plan to do and when you propose to do it.

Why:? In this part, you will explain your rationale for choosing the particular methods you are proposing. This is important, especially given that the funder may or may not have an expert level of understanding about the problems or issues your project addresses

Who? Who will work on your project? Are you working alone, or do you have collaborators? Will other people need to be hired? What will each person do?

What? What is the purpose of the project? What will it accomplish? What resources will you need to run the project?

How? How will this project accomplish its purpose? What is the work process you will use to accomplish project goals? How will the world be different as a result of this project?

Where? Where will your project take place? Do you need space on community center/church? Do you need a specific space or specific building in your organization, or do you need to acquire space off site? Whose approval will you need to use the space?

Project-Program Design/Methods

The next step in the proposal writing process will be to break down each objective into a series of activities needed to achieve it.

The Methods section describes in detail how you propose to carry out your goals and objectives over the course of a project.

In the Methods section, you need to show reviewers that you have carefully considered the steps necessary for planning and implementing this objective.

Project-Program Activities: Timeline Chart

Tips for filling in a timeline chart:

Try to anticipate every activity an objective might entail and estimate at which point in the program's time frame the activity will be completed

Understand that the timeline is meant to be used for planning purposes and may be revised over time.

For example, some activities will be dependent upon the completion of prior activities. One cannot train staff members until the staff is hired; if the hiring process takes four months versus two, the training timeline will also need to be adjusted.

It is fine to show multiple items with the same completion date

Remember that all activities in the timeline will shape your budget request

A GANTT chart can be used to present a detailed list of all activities and their projected date of completion. Activities are usually listed in sequential order.

What is a Logic Model

Many grant makers require that applicants include a logic model (sometimes referred to as program theory) with their application to show how contributing resources will lead to long-term results.

The logic model is the diagram or chart depicting your organization’s planned work and intended results for a given project.

It is composed of the inputs, activities, outputs, short- to long-term outcomes, and impacts of the project.

Grant logic model showing inputs and outcomes

Logic Model

Inputs (a.k.a. Resources): The human, financial, and physical resources that support your grant-funded project or program. These include grant funding, cash and/or in-kind matching funds, staff and volunteer time, facilities, equipment, transportation, and community partners.

Activities (a.k.a. Strategies): What your project does with the inputs/resources. Your goals.

Outputs: The direct results of your program’s implementation activities. These are concrete, quantified indicators of productivity.

Outcomes: The short-, intermediate, and long-term benchmarks for your target population during and after program activities.

Impacts/Impact Statement: The fundamental change that is anticipated as a result of your project.

Logic Model

As you conceptualize your program, begin by describing your basic assumptions and then add the following program components in the order that they should occur.

Input/Resources factors are resources and/or barriers, which potentially enable or limit program effectiveness. Enabling protective factors or resources may include funding, existing organizations, potential collaborating partners, existing organizational or interpersonal networks, staff and volunteers, time, facilities, equipment, and supplies. Limiting risk factors or barriers might include such things as attitudes, lack of resources, policies, laws, regulations, and geography.

Activities/Strategies are the processes, techniques, tools, events, technology, and actions of the planned program. These may include products – promotional materials and educational curricula; services – education and training, counseling, or health screening; and infrastructure – structure, relationships, and capacity used to bring about the desired results.

Outputs are the direct results of program activities. They are usually described in terms of the size and/or scope of the services and products delivered or produced by the program. They indicate if a program was delivered to the intended audiences at the intended “dose.” A program output, for example, might be the number of classes taught, meetings held, or materials produced and distributed; program participation rates and demography; or hours of each type of service provided.

Outcomes are specific changes in attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, skills, status, or level of functioning expected to result from program activities and which are most often expressed at an individual level.

Impacts are organizational, community, and/or system level changes expected to result from program activities, which might include improved conditions, increased capacity, and/or changes in the policy arena.

Logic Model: Outcomes Approach Models

Outcomes Approach Models focus on the early aspects of program planning and attempt to connect the resources and/or activities with the desired results in a workable program.

These models often subdivide outcomes and impact over time to describe short-term (1 to 3 years), long-term (4 to 6 years), and impact (7 to 10 years) that may result from a given set of activities.

Models that outline the approach and expectations behind a program’s intended results are most useful in designing effective evaluation and reporting strategies.

Logic Model: Outcome Approach Model

Logic Model: Activities Approach Models

Activities Approach Models pay the most attention to the specifics of the implementation process.

A logic model of this type links the various planned activities together in a manner that maps the process of program implementation.

These models describe what a program intends to do and as such are most useful for the purposes of program monitoring and management.

This type provides the detailed steps you think you will need to follow to implement your program.

It shows what you will actually do in your community/organization if your proposal is funded.

Models that emphasize a program’s planned work are most often used to inform management planning activities.

Logic Model: Activities Approach Models

Logic Model: Theory Approach Models

Theory Approach Models emphasize the theory of change that has influenced the design and plan for the program.

These logic models provide rich explanation of the reasons for beginning to explore an idea for a given program.

Sometimes they have additional parts that specify the problem or issue addressed by the program, describe the reasons for selecting certain types of solution strategies, connect proven strategies to potential activities, and other assumptions the planners hold that influence effectiveness.

These models illustrate how and why you think your program will work.

They are built from the “big picture” kinds of thoughts and ideas that went into conceptualizing your program.

They are coming to be most often used to make the case in grant proposals. Models describing the beginnings of a program in detail are most useful during program planning and design.

Theory Logic Model

Interventions

The health care system consists of two broad sectors:

The medical care sector is focused on services for individuals.

The medical model includes interventions such as screening, diagnostic and therapeutic services, referrals for specialized services, and follow-up care to maintain the patient's health and prevent the recurrence of health disorders.

The public health sector is concerned with community-based efforts to improve the quality of care for special groups, including the poor and persons with infectious diseases and chronic or debilitating health problems.

The public health approach aims to reveal underlying patterns of disease in communities, to identify individuals and groups at risk, and to highlight and control the risk factors and behaviors.

Prevention efforts in the public health system include programs and interventions to improve the health of the public or special populations within a community.

Focus Group

A qualitative method used to collect data from a group of people (about 6 – 11) who meet for 1-2 hours to discuss their insights, ideas, and observations about a particular topic with a trained moderator.

Participants are selected because they share certain characteristics (e.g., individuals who have been tested for syphilis, women in detention facilities) relevant to the evaluation

Individual Interview

A data collection method which involves dialogue with individuals who are carefully selected for their personal experience and knowledge with the issues at hand.

Since these interviews are conducted individually, they are useful when anonymity is an issue or when asking about sensitive topics so participants can feel free to express their ideas.

Surveys and Questionnaires

Assessment – primary data

Intervention

Evaluation

Project/Program Methods: Summary

The method section lets the funder visually “see” the project at various steps of its implementation, which will help them gain a much better understanding of how your proposed solutions will address the problems or issues you have described in your proposal.

This will add credibility to you and your organization and can go a long way toward helping the funder realize you know what you are doing.

Questions?

Assignment

Start to work on Section 2, following the RFP Grant Proposal instructions include the following:

Project Description

Project goal(s) and SMART Objectives (process and outcome [short-term, intermediate and long-term outcome objectives])

Project Design/Method

Project activity timetable – GANTT chart

Section 2 Due

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King Graduate School Weekend Program HA620-151 Research Methods in Health Care

Week 6 06062020

Dr. Su-yan Barrow

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this tool, you will be able to:

1. Distinguish between a goal and an objective.

2. Develop one or more program goals and related objectives that will provide the basis for determining your program’s performance.

Project/Program Goal(s) and Objectives

Program goals and objectives establish criteria and standards against which you can determine program performance.

You will need to identify the goals and objectives of the program component or intervention you plan to evaluate.

Logic models are a useful tool that can help you do this.

Project/Program Goal(s)

A broad statement about the long-term expectation of what should happen as a result of your program (the desired result).

Well-written goals do the following:

1) establish the overall direction for and focus of your program,

2) define the scope of what you want your program to achieve, and

3) serve as the foundation for developing your program objectives.

Criteria:

1) Specifies the STD problem or STD-related health risk factors;

2) Identifies the target population(s) for your program.

Goal: Reduce gonorrhea rates among male adolescents in County Z

What Is An Objective?

Your program objectives are statements describing the results to be achieved, and the manner in which they will be achieved.

Objectives are more immediate than goals; they are the mileposts you will pass on the way to achieving your program goal(s).

Because objectives detail your program activities, you usually need multiple objectives to address a single goal.

Well-written and clearly defined objectives will help you monitor your progress toward achieving your program goals and set targets for accountability.

Project/Program Objective(s)

Statements describing the results to be achieved, and the manner in which they will be achieved. You usually need multiple objectives to address a single goal.

Criteria: SMART attributes are used to develop a clearly-defined objective.

Objectives can be process or outcome oriented

What are Process and Outcome Objectives?

There are two types of objectives:

Process

Outcome.

When you write a process objective, you describe the activities/services that will be delivered as part of implementing the program.

Process Objectives

Process objectives describe the activities/services/strategies that will be delivered as part of implementing the program.

Process objectives, by their nature, are usually short-term.

Outcome Objectives

Outcome objectives specify the intended effect of the program in the target population or end result of a program.

The outcome objective focuses on what your target population(s) will know or will be able to do as a result of your program/activity

Outcome Objectives

Outcome objectives can be categorized as:

Short-term,

Intermediate,

Long-term

They should be logically linked to each other and to the process objectives.

Short-term outcome objectives are the initial expected changes in your target population(s) after implementing certain activities or interventions (e.g., changes in knowledge, skills, and attitudes).

Intermediate outcome objectives are those interim results that provide a sense of progress toward reaching the long-term objectives (e.g., changes in behavior, norms, and policy).

Long-term outcome objectives are achieved only after the program has been in place for some time (e.g., changes in mortality, morbidity, quality of life).

Objectives vs. Project Activities

Note: Objectives are different from listing program activities.

Objectives are statements that describe the results to be achieved and help monitor progress towards program goals.

Activities are the actual events that take place as part of the program. Following is an example of how program activities differ from objectives

s

SMART Objectives

Your objectives will be appropriate and effective if you follow the SMART technique for writing objectives.

Attributes of SMART objectives:

• Specific: includes the “who”, “what”, and “where”. Use only one action verb to avoid issues with measuring success.

• Measurable: focuses on “how much” change is expected.

• Achievable: realistic given program resources and planned implementation.

• Relevant: relates directly to program/activity goals.

• Time-bound: focuses on “when” the objective will be achieved.

[Note: Be aware that there is a variety of terminology used for the five components of SMART. For instance the “A” sometimes stands for appropriate or the “R” sometimes stands for realistic. The bottom line is that the message is the same.]

SMART – Specific

Specific. Making your objectives specific means including the

“who,”

“what,” and

“where” of the objective.

“Who” refers to your target population (e.g., Latino adolescents, attendees of STD clinics).

“What” refers to the action (e.g., screen, identify).

“Where” refers to the location of the action (e.g., STD clinic in City X).

Be as specific as possible about the target population (e.g., male and female adolescents between the ages of 15-19 years, instead of “adolescents”).

Remember: The greater the specificity, the greater the possibility for measurement.

SMART – Measurable

Measurable. Your objectives need to be measurable. Here the focus is on “how much” change is expected. Your objectives should quantify the amount of change you hope to achieve (e.g., Project area X will implement 2 professional development workshops among all STD clinical providers in State X by January 2007.). “2” and “all” represent the “how much” of the objective.

SMART – Achievable

Achievable. Your objectives should be realistic given your program resources and planned implementation.

For instance, if you read the following: “100% of women in project area X will be screened for Ct” you realize that this is not achievable.

Besides the fact that reaching 100% of women is unrealistic, you will be wasting resources because not all women are at risk for Ct.

You can use state, county, or local statistics as well as data from similar STD programs to provide context for what is reasonable and to help you ensure that your program objectives are achievable

SMART – Relevant

Relevant. Objectives are relevant when they relate directly to the program’s goals and together represent reasonable programmatic steps that can be implemented within a specific timeframe.

For instance, a program goal is “Reduce congenital syphilis in City X”. A relevant objective may be: “By December 2006, increase the percentage of women (from X% to Y%) in City X receiving a test for syphilis at first prenatal visit”.

SMART – Time-bound

Time-bound. Your objectives should be defined within a timeframe.

Here the focus is on “when” the objective will be met. Specifying a timeframe in the objective will help you in both planning and evaluating your program (e.g., at the end of laboratory visits; by January 2007).

Questions?

Goals and Objectives Assignment

Complete exercise 1 and 2 by the end of class. Submit the assignment as an email attachment to [email protected]

Start to develop the goal(s) and SMART objectives for your proposed grant project/program using the work sheet provided in the Writing Goals and Objectives folder on Black Board.

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Goal and objectives Worksheet

References

Salabarría-Peña, Y, Apt, B.S., Walsh, C.M. Practical Use of Program Evaluation among Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Programs, Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2007. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/program/pupestd/Step2_0215.pdf

Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/program/pupestd.htm

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Minnesota Health Department

Smart Objectives

https://www.health.state.mn.us/communities/practice/resources/phqitoolbox/objectives.html#examples

SMART Objectives

Specific Measurable Time-Bound Achievable Relevant Different Ways to Write SMART Objectives Additional Examples of SMART-er Objectives Further Resources Courses and Training Sessions

Good public health practice requires strong objectives in order to monitor progress toward achieving goals and outcomes. Many programs and services are funded by grants that require developing, implementing and completing objectives to prove success for continued funding. Organizations often struggle to create objectives that accurately measure progress toward a goal and that are meaningful to other team members or stakeholders.

A SMART objective is one that is SPECIFIC, MEASURABLE, ACHIEVABLE, RELEVANT AND TIME-BOUND.

Why use SMART objectives?

· To provide a structured approach to developing and designing a work plan.

· To systematically monitor progress towards a target

· To set the stage for measuring performance and identifying opportunities for improvement

· To succinctly communicate intended impact and current progress to stakeholders

· To concretely describes how goals will be met

Devoting time and resources early on to intentionally writing SMART objectives is an investment in the future of a plan, program, or service. By starting out with SMART objectives, a program or plan can systematically and meaningfully measure progress, show achievements and identify opportunities for improvement.

How to Write SMART Objectives

In order to understand how the parts of SMART objectives flow together, the order of the SMART components listed below will go out of order—SMTRA. This is because the Specific, Measurable and Time-Bound parts are clearly visible in the standard written format for objectives. The Achievable and Relevant pieces are more abstract and require reflection. Each of these parts will include an example objective that will be re-written to be SMART.

SMART objectives should:

· Include all components of SMART

· Relate to a single result

· Be clearly written

Specific

Objectives should be well-defined, and clear to other team members and to stakeholders who also understand the program or plan.

Consider these prompts:

What:

· What exactly will you do?

· What is the action?

· What do you intend to impact?

Who:

· Who is responsible for carrying out the action?

· What are you intending to impact or who is your target population?

Note that not all of these questions will apply to every objective.

Example Objective

Original Objective

How Can We Fix?

SMART-er Objective

Staff will be trained in Quality Improvement.

We need to clarify the WHO and WHAT to make this objective "smarter."

USA County management will offer Quality Improvement training opportunities to staff.

Measurable

This involves selecting what will be measured to show improvement, impact or success. There may be existing measures and targets that are required for a specific program or grant. Try to pick a measure that is meaningful. The easiest things to measure may not be the most meaningful.

Consider these prompts:

· How much and in what direction will the change occur?

· What data will be used to prove the target is met?

· Where will this data come from?

· Is there a stand-in or proxy measure to use if this objective cannot be directly measured, or is there another measure that would be more appropriate to use instead?

Key Terms

Measure: Show success or impact over time. It is the number, percent or some standard unit to express how you are doing at achieving the goal or outcome.

Target: The desired level of performance you want to see that represents success.

Example Objective

Original Objective

How Can We Fix?

SMART-er Objective

USA County management will offer Quality Improvement training opportunities to staff.

We need to clarify the MEASURE and TARGET to make this objective "smarter."

USA County management will offer Quality Improvement training opportunities resulting in 75% of staff completing Quality Improvement 101.

Time-Bound

Objectives should be achievable within a specific time frame that isn't so soon as to prevent success, or so far away as to encourage procrastination.

Consider these prompts:

· When will this objective be achieved?

· Is this time-frame realistic?

· Should it be closer or further in the future?

Example Objective

Original Objective

How Can We Fix?

SMART-er Objective

USA County management will offer Quality Improvement training opportunities resulting in 75% of staff completing Quality Improvement 101.

We need to clarify the TIME to make this objective "smarter."

USA County management will offer Quality Improvement trainin

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