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This week, we learned about motivational strat

 

This week, we learned about motivational strategies and why to use different strategies with different cultures. For this discussion, focus on the country of Vietnam and the Swedish company IKEA, which established a warehouse and retail center there several years ago. 

Decide which of the motivation theories described in the chapter would be the best to use in motivating potential employees to work for IKEA in Vietnam. Then give an example of a motivational technique you would use as a manager to motivate your employees in a warehouse distribution center and a retail store. 
 

Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories, which require supporting citations along with two scholarly peer-reviewed references supporting your answer. Keep in mind that these scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search specific to scholarly references.

Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing all sources referenced. Post your initial response early and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to your peers’ posts as well.

You are required to reply to at least two peer discussion question post answers to this weekly discussion question and/or your instructor’s response to your posting. These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post's answer. Normal course dialogue does not fulfill these two peer replies but is expected throughout the course. Answering all course questions is also required.

 

Required: 

Chapter 12 in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior

Chapter 12 PowerPoint slides Module 13 PowerPoint slides – Alternative Formats  in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior

Choi, Y., & Ha, J. (2018). Job satisfaction and work productivity: A role of conflict management culture. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46(7), 1101. 

Oh, H., Lee, S., & Oh, S. (2018). Expatriate managers' cross-cultural motivation and host country national employees' attitudes (Report). Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46(5), 841.

Monnot, M. (2018). The effect of incentives on intrinsic motivation and employee attitudes: A multilevel study across nations and cultural clusters. Thunderbird International Business Review, 60(4), 675-689.

International Management

© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 12

Motivation across Cultures

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Learning Objectives

Define motivation, and explain it as a psychological process

Examine the hierarchy-of-needs, two-factor, and achievement motivation theories, and assess their value to international human resource management

Discuss how an understanding of employee satisfaction can be useful in human resource management throughout the world

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Learning Objectives (continued)

Examine the value of process theories in motivating employees worldwide

Understand the importance of job design, work centrality, and rewards in motivating employees in an international context

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Motivating Employees in a Multicultural Context

Motivating and rewarding diverse workforces is a significant challenge to organizations

Employee preferences are correlated with culture

Managers must be aware that a reward in one culture may be viewed differently in another culture

Managers focus on extrinsic rewards and ignore intrinsic rewards

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Figure 12.1 – Basic Motivation Process

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6

Determinants of Motivation

Intrinsic

Individual experiences fulfillment through carrying out an activity and helping others

Extrinsic

External environment and result of the activity in the form of competition and compensation or incentive plans are of great importance

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Universalist Assumption

Motivation process is universal

Culture influences the specific content and goals pursued

Specific needs and goals can be different between two cultures

Move toward free-market economies and emergence of new opportunities will change the ways in which individuals are motivated

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Assumption of Content and Process

Content theories

Explain work motivation in terms of what arouses, energizes, or initiates employee behavior

Subject of most research in the field

Process theories

Explain work motivation by how employee behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted

More sophisticated and focused on individual behavior in specific setting

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Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory

Known as Maslow’s theory

Five basic needs constitute a need hierarchy

Physiological: Basic physical needs for water, food, clothing, and shelter

Safety: Desires for security, stability, and absence of pain

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Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory (continued)

Social: Desires to interact and affiliate with others and the need to feel wanted by others

Esteem: Needs for power and status

Self-actualization: Desire to reach one’s full potential

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Assumptions Made by Maslow’s Theory

Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become motivators

Need that is satisfied no longer motivates

More ways to satisfy higher-level needs than to satisfy lower-level needs

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International Findings on Maslow’s Theory

Haire group's study indicated that all needs are important to respondents across cultures

Upper-level needs were of particular importance to international managers

Respondents reported that autonomy and self-actualization were the most important and least-satisfied needs

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International Findings on Maslow’s Theory (continued)

Some researchers suggested modification of Maslow’s Western-oriented hierarchy

Nevis's collectivist need hierarchy

Belonging (social)

Physiological

Safety

Self-actualization (in service of society)

Hofstede reported a link between job types and levels and the need hierarchy

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Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

Formulated by Frederick Herzberg and his colleagues

Identifies two sets of factors that influence job satisfaction

Motivators: Job-content factors that ensure satisfaction

Achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the work itself

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Two-Factor Theory of Motivation (continued)

Hygiene factors: Job-context variables that lead to dissatisfaction when they are not taken care of

Salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision, working conditions, and company policies and administration

Criticisms

Classification of money as a hygiene factor and not as a motivator

Findings support a theory of job satisfaction and not a total theory of motivation

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Two-Factor Theory of Motivation: International Findings

Research holds the overall theory to be true

Cross-cultural studies show that motivators tend to be of more importance to job satisfaction than are hygiene factors

Results indicate that job content is more important than job context

Motivation-hygiene theory must be applied on a country-by-country or a regional basis

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Achievement Motivation Theory

Holds that individuals can have a need to get ahead, attain success, and reach objectives

States that need for achievement is learned

Relies solely on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to measure individual achievement

Does not explain the need for achievement in cultures in which individual accomplishment is neither valued nor rewarded

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18

High Achievers

Like situations in which they take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems

Tend to be moderate risk takers rather than high or low risk takers

Want concrete feedback on performance

Tend to be loners and not team players

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Achievement Motivation Theory: International Findings

Theory must be modified to meet specific needs of local culture

Culture of many countries does not support high achievement

Anglo cultures and those rewarding entrepreneurial effort support achievement motivation, and their human resources should be managed accordingly

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Select Process Theories

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21

Equity theory

Goal-setting theory

Expectancy theory

Equity Theory

Focuses on how motivation is affected by people’s perception of how fairly they are being treated

Job performance is positive when people perceive they are treated equitably

Job performance is negative when people believe they are not treated fairly and are dissatisfied

Supported in the West but has mixed results internationally

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Equity Theory: International Findings

In Israeli kibbutz production unit, everyone is treated the same but managers reported lower satisfaction levels than workers

Employees in Asia and the Middle East readily accept inequitable treatment in order to preserve group harmony

In Japan and Korea, men and women receive different pay for doing same work

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Goal-Setting Theory

Focuses on how individuals set goals and respond to them and overall impact of this process on motivation

Specific areas given attention

Level of participation in goal setting

Goal difficulty

Goal specificity

Importance of objective

Timely feedback to progress toward goals

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Goal-Setting Theory (continued)

Has been continually refined and developed

Research shows that employees perform well if they are assigned specific and challenging goals that they have had a hand in setting

Most studies have been conducted in the U.S.

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Goal-Setting Theory: International Findings

In the U.S., employee participation in goal setting is motivational

U.K. and Norwegian workers prefer to have their union representatives work with management in determining work goals

Value of goal-setting theory may well be determined by culture

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Expectancy Theory

Postulates that motivation is influenced by a person’s belief that:

Effort will lead to performance

Performance will lead to specific outcomes

Outcomes will be of value to the individual

Predicts that high performance followed by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction

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Expectancy Theory: International Findings

Theory seems culture-bound

May have less value in societies where people believe that much of what happens is beyond their control

Able to explain worker motivation in cultures where there is a strong internal locus of control

Managers must be aware of limitations in their efforts to apply the theory to motivate human resources

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Job Design

Job’s content, the methods that are used on the job, and the way the job relates to other jobs in the organization

Quality of work life (QWL) – Directly related to culture of the country

Challenge for MNCs – Adjusting job design to meet the needs of the host country’s culture

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Sociotechnical Designs

Job designs that blend personnel and technology

Objective – Integrate new technology into the workplace so that workers accept and use it to increase overall productivity

Employee resistance is common as new technology requires people to learn new methods

Must be a result of job to be done and cultural values that support a particular approach

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Work Centrality

Importance of work in an individual’s life relative to other areas of interest

Provides vital insights into how to motivate human resources in different cultures

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Work Centrality (continued)

Levels

Highest – Japan

Moderately high – Israel

Average – U.S. and Belgium

Moderately low – Netherlands and Germany

Low – Britain

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Value of Work

Culture, gender, industry, and organizational characteristics:

Influence the degree and type of work centrality within a country

Interact with national cultural characteristics

Growing interest exists in the impact of overwork on employees

Overwork or job burnout is now recognized as a real social problem

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Job Satisfaction

Motivation approaches used in one culture may have limited value in another

Assumption – Satisfaction is highest at the upper levels of organizations

Job attitudes toward quality of work life is related to motivation

Work is important in every society, but the extent of importance varies

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Reward Systems

Used to motivate personnel

Financial – Salary raises, bonuses, and stock options

Nonfinancial – Feedback and recognition

Differ from one country to another

Differences are a result of competitive environment or of government legislation

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Financial Incentive Systems

Individual incentive-based pay systems

Workers are paid directly for their output

Organizational incentive-based pay systems

Employees earn individual bonuses based on how well the organization achieves certain goals

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Incentives and Culture

Compensation is based on group membership or group effort in many cultures

Systems are designed to stress equality

Type of rewards that are used is not culture-bound

Cultures

Can affect the overall cost of an incentive system

Influence the effectiveness of various rewards

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Be the Management Consultant

As an international management consultant, how do you view this partnership for Indosat Ooredoo with IBM?

How does this partnership help IBM?

If you were a consultant for an unrelated company, does this deal increase your interest in expanding into Indonesia?

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Review and Discuss

Do people throughout the world have needs similar to those described in Maslow’s need hierarchy?

What does your answer reveal about using universal assumptions regarding motivation?

Is Herzberg’s two-factor theory universally applicable to human resource management, or is its value limited to Anglo countries?

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Review and Discuss (continued 1)

What are the dominant characteristics of high achievers?

Using Figure 12–7 as your point of reference, determine which countries likely will have the greatest percentage of high achievers

Why is this so? Of what value is your answer to the study of international management?

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Review and Discuss (continued 2)

A U.S. manufacturer is planning to open a plant in Sweden

What should this firm know about the quality of work life in Sweden that would have a direct effect on job design in the plant?

Give an example

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Review and Discuss (continued 3)

What does a U.S. firm setting up operations in Japan need to know about work centrality in that country?

How would this information be of value to the multinational?

Conversely, what would a Japanese firm need to know about work centrality in the United States? Explain

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Review and Discuss (continued 4)

In managing operations in Europe, which process theory―equity, goal-setting, or expectancy―would be of most value to an American manager? Why?

What do international managers need to know about the use of reward incentives to motivate personnel? What role does culture play in this process?

© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

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