19 Jan Use Mental disorders to fill the concept map except for schizophrenia and write a short conclusion underneath the concept map and any references used. 2 different disorders required =2 co
Use Mental disorders to fill the concept map except for schizophrenia and write a short conclusion underneath the concept map and any references used.
2 different disorders required =2 concept maps
CON CEPT MAP
Pathophysiology – (to the cellular level)
Clinical Manifestations (all data subjective and objective: labs, radiology, all diagnostic studies) (What symptoms does your client present with?)
Treatment (Medical, medications, intervention and supportive)
Risk Factors (chemical, environmental, psychological, physiological and genetic)
Problem statement: (NANDA)
Related to: (What is happening in the body to cause the issue?)
Manifested by: (Specific symptoms)
Pathophysiology – (to the cellular level). Schizophrenia is a complex mental illness that has an impact on a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior. At the cellular level, an imbalance in neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and glutamate, is thought to cause symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions (McCutcheon et al., 2020). At the molecular level, changes in gene expression are thought to lead to changes in the structure and function of neurons in the brain. Glutamate dysregulation also affects the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, leading to cognitive deficits and memory problems. These factors contribute to the development of schizophrenia.
Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, impaired thinking, and cognitive deficits.
Subjective: Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, cognitive deficits. Objective:
Abnormal laboratory tests (Elevated white blood cell count, decreased thyroid function, and elevated levels of certain hormones)
Abnormal brain imaging studies: MRI or CT scans may show shrinkage or enlargement of certain brain structures or changes in brain activity patterns. Neuropsychological testing: Tests of cognitive functioning that may show deficits in memory, attention, and problem-solving skills.
Genetic testing: DNA to identify certain genetic markers that are associated with schizophrenia
Symptoms: social withdrawal, apathy, decreased motivation, difficulty with self-care, and changes in sleep patterns.
Complications: Social isolation, difficulty functioning in everyday life, increased risk of suicide, Cognitive difficulties, motor skill impairments, difficulty managing emotions, depression and anxiety, Substance abuse, financial problems, and Homelessness (Chan et al., 2021).
Treatment- Medicals: Regular visits to a psychiatrist or primary care doctor to monitor symptoms, side effects of medications, and overall physical health. Medications: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety medications, mood stabilizers, and drugs to help with sleep or cognitive functioning (Baandrup, 2020). Interventions: Psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and family intervention. Supportive care: social support, vocational rehabilitation, and ongoing monitoring and assessment of symptoms.
Chemical risk: Drug use such as cannabis, cocaine, and hallucinogens. These drugs can trigger psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of developing schizophrenia (Bansal & Chatterjee, 2021). Environmental risk: exposure to toxins, traumatic events, and stress. Psychological risk: Family dynamics, social isolation, and personality traits. Physiological: Neurodevelopmental abnormalities, hormone imbalances, and brain structure abnormalities. Genetic: Family history of schizophrenia, mutations in certain genes, and ethnicity
Problem statement: (NANDA)- Impaired Social Interaction related to psychotic thinking patterns as evidenced by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized behavior
Related to: Imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, which disrupts the brain’s normal functioning, lack of social interaction, and exposure to traumatic events.
Manifested by: Delusions, olfactory or visual hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or abnormal motor behavior, lack of pleasure or interest in activities, lack of motivation, social withdrawal, and apathy.
In conclusion, schizophrenia is a complex mental illness that has an impact on a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior. It is believed to be caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate, as well as changes in gene expression and the structure of neurons in the brain. Risk factors for schizophrenia include drug use, environmental toxins, family history of schizophrenia, and hormone imbalances. Symptoms of schizophrenia include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, impaired thinking, and cognitive deficits. Treatment for schizophrenia includes medications, psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and family intervention. Complications of schizophrenia include social isolation, difficulty functioning in everyday life, increased risk of suicide, cognitive difficulties, motor skill impairments, difficulty managing emotions, depression and anxiety, substance abuse, financial problems, and homelessness. Schizophrenia patients can have happy, purposeful lives if given the right care and encouragement.
Baandrup, L. (2020). Polypharmacy in schizophrenia. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 126(3), 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13384
Bansal, V., & Chatterjee, I. (2021). Role of neurotransmitters in schizophrenia: a comprehensive study. Kuwait Journal of Science, 48(2). https://doi.org/10.48129/kjs.v48i2.9264
Chan, J. K. N., Wong, C. S. M., Or, P. C. F., Chen, E. Y. H., & Chang, W. C. (2021). Risk of mortality and complications in patients with schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus: population-based cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 219(1), 375–382. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.248
McCutcheon, R. A., Krystal, J. H., & Howes, O. D. (2020). Dopamine and glutamate in schizophrenia: biology, symptoms, and treatment. World Psychiatry, 19(1), 15–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20693
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