Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Watch the videos and answer the question read or skim the text provided and answer the questions i will add the Microsoft assignment below and as well as the do | WriteDen

Watch the videos and answer the question read or skim the text provided and answer the questions i will add the Microsoft assignment below and as well as the do

1. watch the videos and answer the question

2. read or skim the text provided and answer the questions

3. i will add the Microsoft assignment below and as well as the documents needed to completed it

PROMPT 1: After watching these clips, answer the following questions:

What resonated with you from the videos?

Often there is a tendency to view very young children in comparison to older children; in that, the value of musical experiences is more important with older age children than the very young.

What are your thoughts on this?

PROMPT 2: Seem the same but they are different! Locate the hand out on this module about the difference between the two. Fill in the following statements from the hand out:

Accommodations change __________ a student learns the material.

Modifications change ____________ a student is taught or expected to learn.

Give an example of a modification and accommodation when providing a musical experience with children.


Then, reflect on her ability to sing even though she is deaf. How does this affect your beliefs about providing musical experiences for all children?

PROMPT 4: Provide a definition for each learning disability listed below .

Review content from our text: Music and Movement A Way of Life for the Young Child, pp. 59- 69) on the following topics:

· Children with speech and language impairments

· Children who are identified as gifted or slow leaners

· Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

· Children who are physically challenged

· Children with visual impairments

· Children with hearing impairments

Then, give an example of a developmentally appropriate music and movement activity for children with these learning disabilities (and the specific modification or accommodation).


Seem the same but they are different

Accommodations change how a student learns the material.

A modification changes what a student is taught or expected to learn.

Here are examples to help explain the differences between them:



Classroom instruction

Accommodations can help kids learn the same material and meet the same expectations as their classmates. If a student has reading issues, for example, she might listen to an audio recording of a text. There are different types of classroom accommodations , including presentation (like listening to an audio recording of a text) and setting (like where a student sits).

Kids who are far behind their peers may need changes, or modifications, to the curriculum. For example, a student could be assigned shorter or easier reading assignments. Kids who receive modifications are not expected to learn the same material as their classmates.

Classroom tests

Testing accommodations can be different from those used for instruction. For example, using a spell-checker might help a student with writing difficulties take notes during class but wouldn’t be appropriate during a weekly spelling test. However, this student might benefit from having extra time to complete the spelling test or using typing technology if the physical act of writing is difficult.

Modifications in testing often involve requiring a student to cover less material or material that is less complex. For example, in the case of the spelling test, if the class was given 20 words to study, the student with modifications might only have to study 10 of them. Or she might have a completely different list of words.

With the modification, what the student is tested on is different.

Standardized testing

Statewide assessments allow certain accommodations like extra time or taking a computerized exam. Ideally these are the same accommodations a child uses to take class tests.

Some students take an “ alternate assessment ” of their statewide test, which includes modifications to the regular test. The questions in this type of alternate assessment might not cover the same materials as the standard exams. Also, the results would be interpreted differently. Before you agree to an alternate assessment, find out how the results will be interpreted and what (if any) implications there will be for your child.

Gym, music and art class

Accommodations for “special” classes like gym, music and art can be helpful. These are similar to accommodations for classroom instruction. Kids might get extra time to complete assignments or be allowed to complete them in a different format.

If the school believes that an assignment within a class like gym, music or art is unreasonable for your child, modifications to that assignment are made. The gym teacher might modify the number of laps a student needs to run; the music teacher might not require a child to participate in the final performance. In some cases, students are even excused from certain classes in order to make time for one-on-one time with a specialist.

By Erich Strom



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MUSIC AND MOVEMENT A Way of Life for the Young Child

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Linda Carol Edwards Professor Emerita, College of Charleston

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ISBN-13: 978-0-13-265716-7 ISBN-10: 0-13-265716-3

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This book is dedicated to my teacher, Ben Timpson.

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Linda Carol Edwards is a professor emerita of early childhood at the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, where she taught both graduate and undergraduate courses in the visual and performing arts. Her degrees include a BA from Pembroke State University and an MEd and EdD from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Before moving to the college level, she taught kindergarten for 12 years in the public schools of North Carolina.

Dr. Edwards is the author of The Creative Arts: A Process Approach for Teachers and Children (Pearson), which is now in its fifth edition. She has been published in Young Children, Science and Children, Journal of Early Education and Family Review, Dimensions in Early Childhood, and the Kappa Delta Pi Record . She also serves on the advisory board of Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education. In ad- dition, Dr. Edwards’s experience allowed her to create undergraduate and graduate programs in early childhood education that have received NCATE/NAEYC approval.

As an advocate for arts education for young children, she takes the opportunity to present at local, state, and national conferences about the importance of the visual and performing arts in the lives of young children.

About the Author

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Music is our universal language, the language of our imaginations, of musicians and dancers, composers and performers, orchestras and operas. Movement is the rhythmic language of the dancing 5-year-old using her body to re-create the graceful movements of a swimming dolphin. Music is the lullaby of a father singing to his infant while commu- nicating tenderness and love. The language of movement is revealed through the dancers who choose not to be restrained by convention as they represent their understanding of space, time, and form in ways that are personally satisfying and pleasing. Music is the language of children adding original lyrics and new melodies to a familiar song.

This new edition presents a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of professional research while continuing to provide links between theory and practice. It encourages teachers and caregivers to attend to the importance of research and contemporary thought regarding music and movement education. At the same time, the narrative frames theo- retical ideas in meaningful ways for the adult who has chosen teaching as a profession.

The songs, ideas, suggestions, and music and movement concepts are time tested. Parents, teachers, student teachers, caregivers, and students have aided in compiling and assessing the contents of this edition. Musical concepts and activities appropriate for each age level have been included to accompany some of the songs and rhythms. Movement and dance concepts are also presented in age-specific content. I do not believe, however, that music and movement experiences provided for young children must always be used to teach them something. Children’s awareness and understand- ing of the concepts and skills presented should grow out of natural encounters with the musical selections and movement activities. At each age level, enjoyment of music and movement should be paramount, and teachers are encouraged to use music and movement in creative ways. I encourage you to actively participate in all the movement activities. They were designed with children in mind, but that doesn’t mean adults can’t enjoy the fun as well. Become an advocate for music and movement in the lives of young children. Even though you may feel you lack experience, just begin! Young chil- dren are not critics of your expertise with music and movement; they enjoy, participate, and thrive as you do the same.

Throughout the book, the word teacher is used to describe the adult who is charged with the care and well-being of children. This includes the preservice college student enrolled in a teacher education program, the student teacher embarking on a teaching career, practicing teachers, master teachers, college professors, and other professionals who are dedicated to enriching the lives of children.


x Preface


In this edition, I have expanded and enriched the emphasis in a number of areas. Most specifically, this seventh edition provides a comprehensive look at music, movement, and physical activity. Here are some of the specifics:

• Updated references throughout the book, including recent research that emphasizes the need for and multiple roles of music, movement, and physical activity in the lives of young children

• New information from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, including the National Standards and the National Standards for Movement and Dance

• New focus on the Head Start: I Am Moving, I Am Learning goals and guidelines • Guidelines for the national Let’s Move obesity campaign program • The most recent developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) guidelines for physical

development • Feature focusing on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised with a

focus on music and movement, diversity, gross motor activities, and children with disabilities

• More songs for infants and toddlers • Sample lesson plan • How to use visual documentation


All chapters present overviews of important components of the learning environment in today’s classrooms.

Music and Movement for Children with Special Needs

Chapter 3 provides an overview of how children with special needs can be actively involved with both music and movement. It includes a review of the research that demonstrates how music and movement curricula can be inclusive and designed to pro- vide for each child’s unique needs. The chapter addresses different special needs, and these are divided into specific categories. Also included in this chapter is an in-depth discussion on the least restrictive environment.

Movement for Young Children

The seventh edition includes a broader focus on music, movement, dance, and physical activity. Chapter 2 addresses a wide range of current issues, such as childhood obesity and physical inactivity. Included in this chapter is information from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, the National Standards for Movement and Dance, Head Start: I Am Moving, I am Learning goals and guidelines, and the Let’s Move obesity campaign program. This chapter also includes the most recent DAP guidelines for physical development and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised.

Songs for Toddlers

Chapter 4 has been expanded to include more action songs and lullabies, including lullabies from around the world for 2-year-olds.

Music and Movement for 3-Year-Olds

Chapter 5 includes a sample lesson plan based on the National Standards for Music Education and the National Standards for Physical Education. The sample lesson plan is designed to address standards, objectives, procedures, guided practice, closure, materials and equipment, and assessment.

Music and Movement for 4-Year-Olds

Chapter 6 has been expanded to include additional information on the National Standards for Music Education. In addition, this chapter addresses the developmental characteristics of 4-year-olds.

Music and Movement for Kindergarten and Early Primary

Chapter 7 includes and acknowledges the importance of music and movement throughout kindergarten and the early primary years. The chapter includes the National Standards for Music Education for 5-year-olds. In addition, this chapter addresses the developmental characteristics of children from 5 to 8 years old. Musical notations on the treble-clef only provide an opportunity to learn melodies of new and/or unfamiliar songs.

Talks with Teachers

The seventh edition retains the feature titled “Talks with Teachers” in which I profile individual teachers who recommend practical methods or strategies for implementing music and movement with children of particular ages. In addition, Chapter 6 presents a new section, an interview with the director of a local preschool in which she describes the process of visual documentation and how teachers and children use it throughout the school year.

Music from Around the World

Music is suited to address the wonderful diversity of children in today’s schools. Music provides teachers with a multicultural context for seeing diversity from viewpoints different from their own and provides some of the tools needed to meet the different learning modalities of children. An expanded focus on viewing music through a multicultural context is included in each chapter in this seventh edition. “Music from Around the World” highlights music’s great potential as a resource for musical and movement expression, and an awareness of the diversity of music.

Preface xi

xii Preface

Music and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Chapter 8 describes how music and movement can be interwoven into other disci- plines, such as mathematics, science, reading and the language arts, and multicultural- ism and social studies. Examples of national standards are included to facilitate lesson planning. This chapter presents many ideas for the integration of music and movement using the boundless enthusiasm and spontaneity of children.

Other Features of This Text

Summary and Conclusions Each chapter ends with key ideas, a summary of the content, and questions to consider. Included in these chapters are suggestions for song collections and recommendations for recordings.

Multiple Intelligences Theory Howard Gardner’s intelligences theory has implications for music and movement education. In this edition, the coverage of musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and logical- mathematical intelligences is integrated into the content of the age-specific chapters.

National Standards for Music and Dance Education Sections on the National Standards for Music Education and the National Standards for Dance Education are included throughout the chapters.

Research Each chapter is rich in current and relevant references. More than ever before, research studies and theoretical contributions provide a comprehensive view of why music and movement are integral components of education for all learners, especially children. Current and relevant research is included in this edition to provide the foundation for continued study of music and movement. Also cited are practical articles and refer- ences to which teachers can refer for additional information.

Developmentally Appropriate Practice The term developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), as reported by the National Association for the Education of Young Children, focuses on the ways in which teach- ers implement the curriculum, the organization of the classroom environment, the materials and equipment, and the children’s interactions with the teacher and with one another. This edition presents new information on DAP as it relates to music education for young children.

Quotations The powerful words of philosophers, musicians, and dancers at the beginning and end of each chapter promote new ways of thinking about music. Some quotations are presented to provoke serious thought, while others use humor to convey a musical message. All provide inspiration to teachers for including music education in the lives of young children.

Preface xiii



Chapter 1 of the seventh edition presents an overview of the central themes and ideas about music and movement that are woven throughout the book. Chapter 2 focuses on the role of music and movement, singing as a support to movement, and children and dance in the classroom. Chapter 3 focuses on children with special needs. Chapters 4 , 5 , 6 , and 7 focus on specific age levels and children’s growth and development in music and movement education. Chapter 8 emphasizes music and movement in an integrated curriculum, with suggestions, songs, and movement activities suitable for other content areas, including language arts, mathematics, science, multiculturalism, and social studies. Musical notations are included throughout the chapters as an aid to learning melody.


The extensive appendixes at the end of the book provide a wealth of additional resources and information. Appendix A , “Music Terminology and Approaches to Music Education,” introduces musical concepts, a glossary of terms, grand staff and piano keyboards, music fundamentals, and information on the Orff and Suzuki approaches to teaching and learning to play musical instruments. Appendix B , “Resources for Teachers in Early Childhood Classrooms,” provides a quick refer- ence for professional organizations, newsletters, and journals; sources for ordering instruments; books on making instruments; songs for listening and music appreciation; an extensive list of recordings appropriate for encouraging movement and music in the learning environment; and a list of wonderful children’s books that involve music. Appendix C , “Learning Autoharp ® and Guitar for the Classroom,” introduces the basics of playing the autoharp and guitar. There is also a fingering chart for the guitar. Appendix  D , “Instruments for the Classroom,” provides an overview of percussion, melody, and chording instruments.

Many people inspired me as I was writing this seventh edition, and it has been enhanced by the combined efforts of a talented team of professionals at Pearson. I want to thank Julie Peters for her valuable assistance, support of my writing, and her commitment to music and movement education. I wish to thank Linda Bayma for her careful attention to detail, valuable feedback and for securing permissions; Carol Sykes


CourseSmart is an exciting new choice for students looking to save money. As an alternative to purchasing the printed textbook, students can purchase an electronic version of the same content. With a CourseSmart eTextbook, students can search the text, make notes online, print out reading assignments that incorporate lecture notes, and bookmark important passages for later review. For more information, or to purchase access to the CourseSmart eTextbook, visit .

xiv Preface

and Lori Whitley for selecting beautiful and appropriate photographs for this edition; and Andrea Hall for keeping the communication lines open. I would also like to thank the talented team at S4Carlisle Publishing Services, especially Kelli Jauron. It has been a pleasure and an honor to work with such a wonderful group of professional women.

In addition, I appreciate the input from the following reviewers, who provided timely and helpful reviews of the manuscript: Debra Brodowski, Aiken Technical College; Kelly Jennings, University of Central Florida; Carole Outwater, Central Piedmont Community College; Bob Sasse, Palomar College; Carol Sigala, Rio Hondo College; and Olivia Wagner Wakefield, Central Carolina Community College.

I appreciate and wish to acknowledge the support of friends and colleagues who provided guidance during the writing process: Dr. Candace Jaruszewicz, director, and Mary White, Phyllis Gates, Deanna Satzger, and Stephanie Johnston, master teachers at the N. E. Miles Early Childhood Development Center on the College of Charleston campus ( ).

I wish also to thank my graduate assistant, Kathleen Malmgren, for her masterful technical skills and tireless work on this edition. Finally, I owe much to Karen Paciorck for her friendship and guidance throughout the process.

Linda Carol Edwards


Chapter One Beginning the Music and Movement Journey 1

Chapter Two Music and Movement for Young Children 31

Chapter Three Music and Movement for Children with Special Needs 53

Chapter Four Music and Movement for Infants and Toddlers 71

Chapter Five Music and Movement for 3-Year-Olds 103

Chapter Six Music and Movement for 4-Year-Olds 121

Chapter Seven Music and Movement for Kindergarten and Early Primary 137

Chapter Eight Music and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Approach 177

Appendix A Music Terminology and Approaches to Music Education 201

Appendix B Resources for Teachers in Early Childhood Classrooms 213

Appendix C Learning Autoharp ® and Guitar for the Classroom 219

Appendix D Instruments for the Classroom 223

Brief Contents

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Chapter One Beginning the Music and Movement Journey 1

Music and Movement: Enjoyment and Value for Children 3 Four Important Reasons for Including Music

in the Classroom 4

Beginning the Process of Planning 6 The Tourist Approach 7

Cultural Diversity Through Music and Movement 8 Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

Revised 9

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 10 Musical Intelligence 11 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence 11 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence 11

Supporting Children’s Intelligences 12 Gardner’s Message to Teachers 12

Basic Stages of Early Musical and Movement Development and the National Standards 13 National Standards for Music Education 14 Curriculum Guidelines 15 Assessment 16

Developmentally Appropriate Practice 17 Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

Revised 17

Selecting Songs, Fingerplays, and Instruments 17 Singing with Young Children 18 Selecting Songs for Singing 19

Music Instruments for Young Children 25

Appreciating Musical Instruments 25 Classical Music and Children 27

References 30

Chapter Two Music and Movement for Young Children 31

Childhood Obesity and Physical Inactivity 32 Head Start: I Am Moving, I Am Learning 33 Let’s Move! 33 Developmentally Appropriate Practice 35 Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale 35

Building on Children’s Natural Movements 36 National Association for Sport and Physical

Education 36

The Role of Movement in Creativity 38

Planning for Movement Activities 38 Finding Your Own Space 39 Three Approaches to Movement Activities 41

Singing as a Support to Movement 42

Music as a Support to Movement 43

Children and Dance in the Classroom 44

National Standards for Movement and Dance 45 Basic Dance Movements 45

Basic Materials for Movement 49

Fingerplays and Action Songs 50

Key Ideas 51


xviii Contents

Summary 51

Questions to Consider 51

References 51

Chapter Three Music and Movement for Children with Special Needs 53

Supportive Environments for Children with Special Needs 54 Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

Revised (ECERS-R) 55

Role of the Teacher 56 General Suggestions for Children with


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