Chat with us, powered by LiveChat What evidence suggests that memory involves separate short- and long-term stores? Why have some theorists suggested that the short-term store is best viewed as the items in the long-term store | WriteDen

What evidence suggests that memory involves separate short- and long-term stores? Why have some theorists suggested that the short-term store is best viewed as the items in the long-term store

What evidence suggests that memory involves separate short- and long-term stores? Why have some theorists suggested that the short-term store is best viewed as the items in the long-term store that are currently active?

*Short answer

Learning objectives: By the end of this presentation you will be able to…

recognize that the leaky bucket is one of two conceptualizations of STM

describe the duration of STM and explain why STM is so short by interpreting findings from research using the Brown-Peterson task.

describe the capacity of STM by interpreting findings of research using the Digit-Span and Change-Detection tasks; describe the effects of chunking and of increasing informational complexity on STM capacity.

explain how a multi-component model of working memory can handle disparate estimates of STM capacity.

Short-Term Memory: Leaky Bucket

I. STM as Leaky Bucket vs Working Memory

II. What Is the Duration of STM and Why So Short?

Brown-Peterson Task -participants recall trigrams after intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds.

Peterson & Peterson (1959) found that participants were able to recall 80% of trigrams after a 3 seconds delay.

Really? You Try It! Oh, and you have to count backwards while remembering…

Interpretation: items in STM decay quickly.

Short-Term Memory: Leaky Bucket

I. STM as Leaky Bucket vs Working Memory

II. What Is the Duration of STM and Why So Short?

Brown-Peterson Task

Peterson & Peterson (1959)

Interpretation: items in STM decay quickly.

Keppel & Underwood (1962) found the first items on the Petersons’ list were remembered longer…

Revised Interpretation: items in STM suffer from proactive interference-forgetting due to interference from learning that occurred prior to the materials to be remembered.

Short-Term Memory: Leaky Bucket

I. STM as Leaky Bucket vs Working Memory

II. What Is the Duration of STM and Why So Short?

III. What is the Capacity of STM?

A. 7 ± 2 using Digit -Span task (Miller, 1952)

Miller (1956) found that STM capacity can be extended by chunking items…

chunk- a collection strongly associated elements, with weak associations to elements of other chunks

Short-Term Memory: Leaky Bucket

I. STM as Leaky Bucket vs Working Memory

II. What Is the Duration of STM and Why So Short?

III. What is the Capacity of STM?

A. 7 ± 2 using Digit-Span task (Miller, 1952)

B. about 4 items using Change- Detection task (Vogel et al, 2005)

# items decreases as item complexity increases (Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2004) …

Short-Term Memory

I. STM as Leaky Bucket vs Working Memory

II. What Is the Duration of STM and Why So Short?

III. What is the Capacity of STM?

A. 7 ± 2 using Digit-Span task (Miller, 1952)

B. about 4 items using Change- Detection task (Vogel et al, 2005)

C. How can we account for different estimates of STM capacity?

By reconceptualizing STM as a multicomponent model of “Working Memory”…

Short-Term Memory: Leaky Bucket

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Learning objectives: By the end of this presentation you will be able to…

define working memory

describe the characteristics of working memory and contrast it to the leaky-bucket conception of short-term memory

recognize examples of working memory

describe the n-back task and identify features of working memory that the task illustrates

describe findings from research using the n-back task to study cognitive decline with age and cognitive improvement with practice.

Overview of Working Memory

I. Introduction To Working Memory

A. Definition

working memory- a limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning and reasoning

B. Characteristics That distinguish it from the Leaky Bucket

it is dynamic (changeable)

it has multiple components

it both holds and processes information

in particular cases, it can multitask

C. An Example

Keep the following numbers in mind 7, 1, 4, and 9 while reading…

Overview of Working Memory

Baddeley reasoned that if STM had a limited storage capacity, then filling up that capacity with one task, should prevent completion of another task. But he found that people could hold a short string of numbers in memory while reading. Can you perform such tasks simultaneously? What are the numbers you were asked to keep in mind?

Overview of Working Memory

I. Introduction To Working Memory

A. Definition

B. Characteristics That distinguish it from the Leaky Bucket

C. An Example

D. A Second Example: The N-Back Task

Task is to keep track of letters presented and indicate whether each one matches the letter presented N-positions earlier in the series.

Demonstrates the maintenance and manipulation of information in “working” memory.

demo the N-back here.

Performance decreases with age.

Practice result in short-lived improvement (as do other such tasks common among memory training programs like luminosity).

Overview of Working Memory

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Learning objectives: By the end of this presentation you will be able to…

give an overview the various components of Baddeley’s model of working memory and their relations to one another.

define the phonological similarity effect, the word length effect, and describe the effect of articulatory suppression on the word length effect; describe how each of these effects supports the existence of a limited phonological memory system.

describe findings from research on mental rotation and on “holding a visual stimulus in mind” that support the existence of a limited visual memory system.

describe findings from research on high vs low WM capacity participants that supports the existence of a CE orchestrating working memory.

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

I. Overview

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

I. Overview

II. Model Components

A. Phonological (from phoneme) Loop

Existence of a limited phonetic memory system is supported by…

phonological similarity effect- confusion of letters or words that sound (rather than look) alike.

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

PIT

DAY

COW

PEN

HOT

CAT

MAP

MAN

CAP

MAD

Write the List

Phonological Similarity Effect

I. Overview

II. Model Components

A. Phonological (from phoneme) Loop

Existence of a limited phonetic memory system is supported by…

phonological similarity effect

word length effect- poorer memory for words that take longer to pronounce.

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

Land

House

Star

Bronze

Book

Bike

Dress

Planet

Musician

Property

Orchestra

Rhinoceros

Tuberculosis

Uranium

Write the list.

Word Length Effect

I. Overview

II. Model Components

A. Phonological (from phoneme) Loop

Existence of a limited phonetic memory system is supported by…

phonological similarity effect

word length effect

phonological suppression effect- poorer recall while repeating a word (e.g. “the”) out loud during list exposure, presumably because the repeated word overloads the phonological loop, suppressing articulation…

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

Articulatory Suppression Obliterates the Word Length Effect

By Overloading the Phonological Loop

I. Overview

II. Model Components

A. Phonological (from phoneme) Loop

B. Visuospatial Sketchpad

Existence of a limited visual memory system is supported by…

increased time to match visual stimuli that require greater mental rotation (indicates analog representation of stimulus). Demo here.

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

I. Overview

II. Model Components

A. Phonological (from phoneme) Loop

B. Visuospatial Sketchpad

Existence of a limited visual memory system is supported by…

increased time to match visual stimuli that require greater mental rotation

greater ease providing a verbal than a visual description of a “spatial stimulus held in mind”(Brooks, 1968), presumably because the visual description overloads the sketchpad.

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

Close your eyes and, working clockwise from the asterisk, say “out” or “in” for each turn around the “F”

Place index fingers on left and right ALT keys on your keyboard. Close your eyes and, working clockwise from the asterisk, press left for “out” or right for “in” for each turn around the “F”

Visually Describing Spatial Stimulus Held In Mind

Overloads the Visuospatial Sketchpad

I. Overview

II. Model Components

A. Phonological (from phoneme) Loop

B. Visuospatial Sketchpad

C. Central Executive

Existence of a CE that Delegates Attention Among Components is supported by…

greater ability of high capacity WM participants to ignore stimuli (Vogel et al., 2005)…

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

(Vogel et al., 2005)…

identified participants with hi vs lo WM Capacity based on how many items they could hold in working memory.

measured event-related potentials (ERPs) indicative of how much space is being used in working memory.

instructed participants to attend to red stimuli and presented red only or red & green…

lo WM capacity participants were unable to ignore green stimuli

Notes on the Importance of the CE:

people whose CE is better at delegating attention, not only have higher WM capacity, they are also better readers & reasoners, skills that contribute to IQs

knowing how you learn & remember, metacognition, predicts academic performance.

Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

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Learning objectives: By the end of this presentation you will be able to…

explain why LTM is important

define the serial position curve (SPC) and its components

explain how the SPC supports the distinction and interaction between STM and LTM

compare the predominant forms of coding in STM with the predominant form of coding in LTM

explain how release from proactive interference supports the use of sematic coding in STM

Introduction To LTM: STM vs LTM

I. The importance of LTM

LTM is more than an archive of information

it interacts with STM, providing information that aids in making sense of an ambiguous environment.

Introduction To LTM: STM vs LTM

I. The importance of LTM

II. Evidence of Two Interactive Stores: Serial-Position Curve (Murdoch, 1962)

demonstration (run SPE.exe)

components & interpretation

Introduction To LTM: STM vs LTM

I. The importance of LTM

II. Evidence of Two Interactive Stores: Serial-Position Curve (Murdoch, 1962)

demonstration

components & interpretation

support for interpretation…

Introduction To LTM: STM vs LTM

Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) eliminated the primacy effect by presenting all items quickly, forcing equal rehearsal (at zero) throughout the series. Therefore, the advantage to primary items is that they had entered LTM.

Glanzer & Cunitz (1966) eliminated the recency effect by asking participants to count backwards for 30 seconds after the last item. Therefore, the advantage of recent items is that they were in STM.

I. The importance of LTM

II. Evidence of Two Interactive Stores: Serial-Position Curve (Murdoch, 1962)

III. Memory Codes

A. Overview

B. Coding in STM

Baddeley’s Model Incorporates Acoustic & Visual Codes…

Release from PI Reveals Semantic Encoding in STM… (run PI & Release.exe)

Introduction To LTM: STM vs LTM

I. The importance of LTM

II. Evidence of Two Interactive Stores: Serial-Position Curve (Murdoch, 1962)

III. Memory Codes

A. Overview

B. Coding in STM

C. Coding in LTM

LT visual memory (e.g. imagine you room)

LT auditory memory (e.g. that unwanted song in your head)

LT semantic memory (Sachs, 1967) recognizing “gist”…

Introduction To LTM: STM vs LTM

There is an interesting story about the telescope. In Holland, a man named Lippershey was an eyeglass maker. One day his children were playing with some lenses. They discovered that things seemed very close if two lenses were held about a foot apart. Lippershey began experimenting, and his “spyglass” attracted much attention. He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. Galileo at once realized the importance of the discovery and set about building an instrument of his own.

Which of the following sentences is identical to a sentence in the passage and which sentences are changed?

He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. 


Galileo, the great Italian scientist, sent him a letter about it.

A letter about it was sent to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. 


He sent Galileo, the great Italian scientist, a letter about it. 


 

There is an interesting story about the telescope. In Holland, a man named Lippershey was an eyeglass maker. One day his children were playing with some lenses. They discovered that things seemed very close if two lenses were held about a foot apart. Lippershey began experimenting, and his “spyglass” attracted much attention. He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. Galileo at once realized the importance of the discovery and set about building an instrument of his own.

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