Chat with us, powered by LiveChat What is 'the white man's burden' of which Kipling writes? What does this poem tell you about European rationalizations of colonialism? According to Professor Weber in the film, what motivat | WriteDen

What is ‘the white man’s burden’ of which Kipling writes? What does this poem tell you about European rationalizations of colonialism? According to Professor Weber in the film, what motivat

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If you choose to post on this forum, first read ch. 23 in Making of the West and watch the video "Age of Nation-States" (https://youtu.be/dLDq4O4VCRY). Next read Kipling's White Man's Burden (link below). Then answer the questions at the bottom.

White Man's Burden (http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/)

Questions:

(1) What is "the white man's burden" of which Kipling writes?

(2) What does this poem tell you about European rationalizations of colonialism?

(3) According to Professor Weber in the film, what motivated Europeans to conquer colonies?

(4) What position does Prof. Weber take on the morality of colonialism? (In other words, was it good, bad, or both?)

(5) Do you think views like those expressed in Kipling's poem have disappeared from Western culture?

The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures Sixth Edition

CHAPTER 23

Empire, Industry, and Everyday Life

1870–1890

Hunt • Martin • Rosenwein • Smith

Copyright © 2019 by Bedford/St. Martin’s

Distributed by Bedford/St. Martin’s/Macmillan Learning strictly for use with its products. Not for redistribution.

1

Empire, Industry, and Everyday Life 1870–1890

Chapter Twenty-Three

I. The New Imperialism

A. The Scramble for Africa – North and South

European takeover in North Africa

Reshaping economies

Effects on Asia Minor and the Middle East

I. The New Imperialism

A. The Scramble for Africa – North and South

1. The European countries eyed the African and Asian shores of the Mediterranean for the chance to profit from trade.

2. Europeans invested heavily in Egyptian development and infrastructure modernization, including the building of the Suez Canal, and lent money at exorbitant rates of interest to Egyptian rulers.

3. In 1879, the French and British took over the Egyptian treasury to secure their investments, and Britain used the nationalist resistance that ensued as an excuse to invade Egypt in 1882.

4. The British began to run the government, reshaping the Egyptian economy to meet British needs.

5. In place of a diversified and self-sufficient agricultural system, for example, British officials, working with local landowners and moneylenders, limited agricultural production to a few crops destined for export.

6. In Algeria, the French continued to extend their presence and occupied neighboring Tunisia in 1881.

7. Businessmen from Britain, France, and Germany flooded Asia Minor with cheap goods, driving out artisans from their trades and into low-paying work building railroads or processing tobacco.

8. European employers discriminated on the basis of ethnicity and religion, paying Muslims less than Christians and Arabs less than other ethnic groups.

9. After the British takeover of the Egyptian government, Europeans became more involved in sub-Saharan Africa, seeking to expand trade in raw materials such as palm oil, rubber, and diamonds, and to use coastal areas as stopover ports on the route to Asia.

10. In the 1880s, one African territory after another fell to the British, French, Belgians, Portuguese, Italians, and Germans.

11. The competition raised European tensions and prompted German chancellor Otto von Bismarck to call a conference in Berlin.

12. During a series of meetings in 1884 and 1885, the European powers agreed that settlements along the African coast guaranteed rights to internal territory, an agreement that divided Africa into territories along straight lines that cut across indigenous boundaries.

13. In southern Africa, farmers of European descent wrested farmland and mineral resources from native peoples.

14. British businessman Cecil Rhodes cornered the diamond market in southern Africa and claimed immense lands for Britain.

15. Social Darwinism reshaped racism to justify conquest of African lands.

16. Europeans destroyed African economic and political systems to ensure their own profit and domination.

17. Ignoring evidence to the contrary, most Europeans considered Africans barely civilized, unlike the Chinese and Indians, whom Europeans credited with a scientific and artistic heritage, deeming Africans good only for manual labor.

18. Traditional African agriculture, aimed at providing food for the family, was replaced with cash-crop agriculture.

4

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

A. The Scramble for Africa – North and South—cont’d

– Greed and Competition

– Berlin conference

– Europeans in South Africa

– Consequences and effects on African civilization

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

The Scramble for Africa – North and South—cont’d

1. The European countries eyed the African and Asian shores of the Mediterranean for the chance to profit from trade.

2. Europeans invested heavily in Egyptian development and infrastructure modernization, including the building of the Suez Canal, and lent money at exorbitant rates of interest to Egyptian rulers.

3. In 1879, the French and British took over the Egyptian treasury to secure their investments, and Britain used the nationalist resistance that ensued as an excuse to invade Egypt in 1882.

4. The British began to run the government, reshaping the Egyptian economy to meet British needs.

5. In place of a diversified and self-sufficient agricultural system, for example, British officials, working with local landowners and moneylenders, limited agricultural production to a few crops destined for export.

6. In Algeria, the French continued to extend their presence and occupied neighboring Tunisia in 1881.

7. Businessmen from Britain, France, and Germany flooded Asia Minor with cheap goods, driving out artisans from their trades and into low-paying work building railroads or processing tobacco.

8. European employers discriminated on the basis of ethnicity and religion, paying Muslims less than Christians and Arabs less than other ethnic groups.

9. After the British takeover of the Egyptian government, Europeans became more involved in sub-Saharan Africa, seeking to expand trade in raw materials such as palm oil, rubber, and diamonds, and to use coastal areas as stopover ports on the route to Asia.

10. In the 1880s, one African territory after another fell to the British, French, Belgians, Portuguese, Italians, and Germans.

11. The competition raised European tensions and prompted German chancellor Otto von Bismarck to call a conference in Berlin.

12. During a series of meetings in 1884 and 1885, the European powers agreed that settlements along the African coast guaranteed rights to internal territory, an agreement that divided Africa into territories along straight lines that cut across indigenous boundaries.

13. In southern Africa, farmers of European descent wrested farmland and mineral resources from native peoples.

14. British businessman Cecil Rhodes cornered the diamond market in southern Africa and claimed immense lands for Britain.

15. Social Darwinism reshaped racism to justify conquest of African lands.

16. Europeans destroyed African economic and political systems to ensure their own profit and domination.

17. Ignoring evidence to the contrary, most Europeans considered Africans barely civilized, unlike the Chinese and Indians, whom Europeans credited with a scientific and artistic heritage, deeming Africans good only for manual labor.

18. Traditional African agriculture, aimed at providing food for the family, was replaced with cash-crop agriculture.

6

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

B. Acquiring Territory in Asia

Britain in India and Malaysia

Russian and French imperial activity

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

B. Acquiring Territory in Asia

1. European expansion was occurring around the world. Much of Asia was integrated into European empires.

2. Discrimination drove educated elite Indians to found the Indian National Congress in 1885, which, while it accepted aspects of liberalism, challenged Britain’s right to rule.

3. To the east, Britain took control of the Malay Peninsula in 1874 and the interior of Burma in 1885, territories that provided natural resources and a trade route to China.

4. The British viewed with mistrust Russian annexations in central Asia. The Russians penetrated Persia and China as well as the Ottoman Empire and built the Trans-Siberian railroad, which opened up Siberia to large-scale settlement.

5. In 1887 France created the Union of Indochina from Cambodia, Tonkin, Annam, and Cochin China. (Laos was added in 1893.)

8

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

C. Japan’s Imperial Agenda

Industrial expansion

Constitution and imperialist mentality

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

C. Japan’s Imperial Agenda

1. Under the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese embraced foreign trade, imperialism, and industry.

2. The Japanese government directed the development of heavy industry.

3. In 1889, legal scholars drafted a constitution on the German model that emphasized state power rather than individual rights.

4. Japan also adopted the imperialist mentality of the West and conquered Okinawa, as well as beginning to intervene in Korea.

11

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

D. The Paradoxes of Imperialism

International distrust

Costs and profits of empire

“Civilizing mission”

Inferiority and superiority

I. The New Imperialism—cont’d

D. The Paradoxes of Imperialism

1. Although imperialism was intended to stabilize great-power status, international distrust intensified as countries vied for world influence.

2. Politicians began to question the value of colonies whose costs exceeded their profits.

3. Yet, for certain businesses, such as French soap making and metallurgy, colonies provided crucial markets.

4. They also provided jobs for people in European port cities, but all taxpayers shared the burden of paying for colonial armies and administration.

5. To those worried about the costs, imperial advocates argued that Europeans had a “civilizing mission” to bring their superior culture to the rest of the world.

6. The idea of the civilizing mission sometimes conflicted with the violence used to establish and impose imperial rule.

7. Europeans took the opportunities provided by imperialism to learn more about other cultures but continued to believe in their own superiority.

8. Missionaries viewed indigenous religion as inferior and sometimes supported military action to spread Christianity.

9. A few Europeans believed that conquered peoples were superior in that they were not corrupted by “civilization.”

10. Despite the paradoxes of imperialism, Europeans continued to take pride in the imperial accomplishments of their own nations.

13

II. The Industry of Empire

A. Industrial Innovation

Second Industrial Revolution in Britain

Agricultural changes

Challenges to British dominance

Areas of slower industrialization

II. The Industry of Empire

A. Industrial Innovation

1. Industrial, technological, and commercial innovation characterized the late nineteenth century.

2. New products — from the telephone to the internal combustion engine — provided proof of industrial progress. After 1880, electricity came into common use.

3. Leading industrial nations mined massive quantities of coal and iron and produced steel during the 1870s and 1880s, all necessary for the growth of industry.

4. For Great Britain, a second Industrial Revolution developed, founded this time not on steam and textiles but on heavy industrial products like iron and steel.

5. On the continent, the two industrial revolutions arrived simultaneously in many countries.

6. Outwork persisted in some industries such as garment making.

7. Industrialization transformed agriculture in the late nineteenth century, as chemical fertilizers boosted crop yields and reapers and threshers mechanized harvesting.

8. The development of refrigeration accommodated the transport of fruit and meat, diversifying and increasing the urban food supply, while the importation of tin from the colonies facilitated the large-scale commercial canning of foods.

9. European technological superiority, manifested in railroads, steamships, medicines, and guns, contributed to the success of imperialism.

10. Great Britain began to lose its industrial predominance to Germany and the United States, both of which rapidly industrialized during this period and came to exceed Britain in both research and innovation.

11. German industrialization was facilitated by the conquest of the resource-rich and technically advanced provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.

12. American industry drew on America’s rich natural resources and was more driven by entrepreneurs than state-driven German industrialization.

13. French industry grew, but French business establishments remained smaller than those in Germany and the United States.

14. In Spain, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, industry developed in highly concentrated areas, but the rest of these countries remained tied to nonmechanized agriculture.

15. Electricity allowed the coal-poor Scandinavian countries to industrialize, and Sweden and Norway became leaders in the use of hydroelectric power and the development of electrical products.

16. Russian industrialization continued to lag behind.

17. Russian peasants, still tied to the mir, only worked in small numbers in industry when they were not needed to work the land.

18. Russian workers and peasants could not afford to buy the goods they produced.

15

II. The Industry of Empire—cont’d

B. Facing Economic Crisis

Entrepreneurs and obstacles

Stock markets

Cartels, trusts, and vertical integration

End of free trade

II. The Industry of Empire—cont’d

B. Facing Economic Crisis

1. Before 1850, economic crises were usually caused by an agricultural crisis.

2. In 1873, however, a crisis of industry and finance developed on its own because entrepreneurs were facing more and more obstacles. The crisis spread from Europe to the rest of the world, evidence of how economies were increasingly tied together globally.

3. First, industry had become capital intensive because entrepreneurs had to invest heavily in expensive machinery to start a business.

4. Second, the distribution and consumption of goods were both inadequate to sustain growth because workers were paid too little to consume many industrial products. Slumps became common.

5. Governments responded to this crisis with new laws that limited personal liability in cases of bankruptcy, thereby increasing investor confidence.

6. Stock markets trading in a wide variety of securities raised money from larger, more international pools of capital. At the center of the international economy was the London Stock Exchange.

7. Businesses began to band together into cartels (favored in Germany) and trusts (predominant in the United States) in order to control prices and competition.

8. Trusts and cartels also vertically integrated companies, thereby enabling them to control the entire process of manufacturing from raw material to finished product.

9. Trusts and cartels restricted the free market. Governments also restricted the market by raising tariffs in response to recessions and trade deficits. All countries except Belgium, Britain, and the Netherlands ended free trade by the 1890s.

17

II. The Industry of Empire—cont’d

C. Revolution in Business Practices

White-collar service sector

Lower wages for women

The department store

II. The Industry of Empire—cont’d

C. Revolution in Business Practices

1. To minimize the effects of the economic crises, industrialists revolutionized the everyday conduct of their businesses by hiring specialized managers to run their complex operations, improving manufacturing, marketing, and worker productivity.

2. A white-collar service sector emerged simultaneously, consisting of office workers employed as secretaries, file clerks, typists, and bank tellers, all educated in state-run primary schools.

3. Women, including middle-class women, filled the majority of service-sector jobs, despite the strength of the domestic ideal that discouraged them from working.

4. Employers saved money by designating certain types of jobs as “female” and then paying women lower wages than they would have had to pay men.

5. The drive to boost consumption led to the development of merchandising.

6. The department store, developed after midcentury, sought to stimulate consumer desires, especially among female shoppers.

7. Such stores brought women out of the domestic sphere into the public, either as shoppers or as salesgirls.

8. Mail-order catalogs and the extension of the railroad system gave rural populations access to the variety of goods department stores had to offer, many of which (coffee, tea, or soap made from palm oil) were imported from the colonies.

9. Consumerism was shaped by empire and industry. New industrial goods and products from the colonies became more widespread and shaped ordinary life.

18

III. Imperial Society and Culture

A. The “Best Circles” and the Expanding Middle Class

Expansion of the upper class

Maintenance of exclusivity

Elite women

Growth and change in the middle class

III. Imperial Society and Culture

A. The “Best Circles” and the Expanding Middle Class

1. The profits from industry and empire building added new members to the upper classes, or “best circles,” as they were called.

2. Persons in these circles often came from the aristocracy, but new millionaires from the ranks of the bourgeoisie joined, and some intermarried.

3. The ranks of aristocrats and rich bourgeois became increasingly blurred, and millionaires without aristocratic connections made conspicuous displays of wealth and segregated themselves in suburbs or new urban areas away from the bourgeois and the indigent.

4. Rich aristocrats financed global business ventures, while poorer aristocrats married into rich bourgeois families.

5. Upper-class men popularized big-game hunting expeditions in Asia and Africa, which replaced the more modest fox and bird hunting as the fashionable masculine sport of the highest class.

6. Members of the best circles maintained exclusivity by controlling their children’s social and sexual lives, especially their marriages.

7. Many upper-class men seduced lower-class women, as a double standard endorsed promiscuity for men as normal while seeing it as immoral for women.

8. Once married, upper-class women devoted themselves to having children, directing staffs of servants, and maintaining standards of etiquette and social conduct. They also consumed and displayed a wide range of luxury goods, many from the colonized world.

9. A solid middle class was expanding in western and central Europe.

10. The lives of these businessmen and professionals remained modest; however, most households employed at least one servant.

11. In place of the conspicuous consumption of the very rich, the middle class proudly maintained a high level of cleanliness and polish.

20

III. Imperial Society and Culture —cont’d

B. Working People’s Strategies

Migration

Travel

Immigrant lives

Industrial change and drawbacks

III. Imperial Society and Culture—cont’d

B. Working People’s Strategies

1. Empire and industry were powerful factors in migration.

2. Parts of Europe simply could not produce enough or provide enough employment to support a growing population, so hundreds of thousands left their native lands to find work elsewhere in Europe or the United States.

3. Millions of rural eastern European Jews, Swedes, and Sicilian and Irish peasants left for economic reasons.

4. Russian Jews fled in the face of violent pogroms that destroyed Jewish homes, businesses, and lives.

5. Most immigrated to North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand to seek out new opportunities.

6. The development of railroads and steamships made the trip faster, cheaper, and more comfortable.

7. Once established in their new countries, immigrants frequently sent money home.

8. Male immigrants had to learn new languages and new civic practices in order to obtain employment, as did some female immigrants.

9. Immigrant women who stayed at home were insulated from their new environments and often preserved traditional ways and languages.

10. Within Europe, urbanization accelerated, although most still resided in rural areas; many urban dwellers returned to rural areas at harvest time.

11. In cities, changes in technology and management meant that workers had to adapt to an insecure job market and changing work conditions.

12. Stepped-up productivity demanded more physical exertion, but wages were not increased accordingly.

13. Men and women resented managers, and women were often sexually harassed.

14. Many workers, especially women, worked at home doing outwork for which they were paid extremely low wages, forcing them to work long hours to make ends meet.

15. By and large, however, the urban working classes grew more informed, more visible, and more connected to the progress of industry and empire.

21

III. Imperial Society and Culture —cont’d

C. National Fitness: Reform, Sports, and Leisure

Reform for the working classes

Birth control

Restrictions on women

Sports, leisure, and recreation

III. Imperial Society and Culture—cont’d

C. National Fitness: Reform, Sports, and Leisure

1. The social problems caused by economic instability, the uneven prosperity of industrialization, and the upheaval of migration were addressed through reform organizations and charities formed by the middle and upper classes.

2. Philanthropists, industrialists, schools, and governmental agencies, influenced by Social Darwinism, intervened in workers’ lives to teach mothers child-care techniques and to provide health care for children.

3. They expected working-class mothers to conform to middle-class standards of housekeeping and childrearing.

4. Dutch physician Aletta Jacobs began to make birth control available.

5. Working-class women sought out these clinics, and knowledge of birth control spread by word of mouth among workers. Churches and many reformers opposed the spread of birth control.

6. Governments sponsored laws that barred women from “unhealthy” night work and from trades such as pottery that were considered dangerous, despite evidence that women in strenuous jobs got sick less often than men.

7. Laws also limited women’s access to higher-paying jobs.

8. Organized team sports replaced village games, integrating immigrants as well as the lower and higher classes in a common pastime.

9. Newspapers reported the results of sporting contests such as the Tour de France, and competitive sports began to be viewed as a sign of national strength and spirit.

10. Demonstrating the increased belief in physical health and strength for both sexes, schools for girls introduced gymnastics and exercise. Team sports for women emerged, such as soccer, field hockey, and rowing; but individual sports, such as horseback riding, were considered more feminine.

11. The middle classes believed that leisure pursuits should strengthen the mind and fortify the body.

12. Working-class persons adopted middle-class habits by joining clubs for pursuits such as bicycling, touring, and hiking.

13. The new emphasis on healthy recreation afforded individuals a greater sense of individual freedom and power and thereby contributed to a developing sense of citizenship based less on constitutions and rights than on an individual nation’s exercise of raw power.

22

III. Imperial Society and Culture —cont’d

D. Artistic Responses to Empire and Industry

The arts and social anxiety

Mythical past

Cross-cultural influences on art

Impressionism

III. Imperial Society and Culture—cont’d

D. Artistic Responses to Empire and Industry

1. Darwin had theorized that strong civilizations that failed to keep up with changing conditions would perish, an idea that influenced many writers.

2. Émile Zola (1840–1902) produced a series of novels that described the effects of industrial society on individuals through the portrayal of a family plagued by alcoholism and madness.

3. Like Zola, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen (1828–1906) commented critically on women’s roles.

4. Country people used mass-produced textiles to design “traditional” costumes and concocted ceremonies based on a mythical past.

5. Thought to be old and authentic, these quaint “traditions” attracted tourists and caught the eye of architects and industrial designers, who turned to rural styles for models.

6. English designers William Morris (1834–1896) and his daughter Mary Morris (1862–1938) designed fabrics, wallpaper, and household items in traditional Persian and Indian motifs, such as the silhouettes of plants.

7. New photographers’ depictions of places and people were accessible to a wider public.

8. In response, painters altered their styles, employing new and varying techniques to distinguish their art from the photographic realism of the camera.

9. Artists, trying to capture a fleeting moment by focusing on the ever-changing light and color of everyday vision, experimented with a new style labeled impressionism. Impressionists Claude Monet (1840–1926) and Vincent Van Gogh (1853–1890) experimented with color and brush strokes. Georges Seurat (1859–1891) depicted white-collar workers at leisure in newly created parks.

10. Many impressionists, like the American expatriate Mary Cassatt (1845–1926), were influenced by Japanese art.

24

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