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When researching cognitive psychology, which of the following are used:

When researching cognitive psychology, which of the following are used:

Question 1 options:


 Normal brains


 Abnormal brains




 All of the above


Question 2 Wundt’s Leipzig school believed consciousness to be the result of what type of processing?


Question 2 options:










Question 3 Early behaviorists emphasized the importance of


Question 3 options:










Question 4 The information about a match or mismatch between a desired end and an existing state is called


Question 4 options:


 Goal-directed achievement


 Matching hypothesis


 Cognitive titration


Question 5 Turing believed that


Question 5 options:


 Computers could think


 Computers were smarter than humans


 Computers were tools that input, stored, and manipulated information


 Computers should technically be considered unintelligent


Question 6 Three of the following are true. What is NOT an assumption commonly made by the cognitive approach to psychology?


Question 6 options:


 Answers to basic empirical questions can be given in terms of information processing models


 Cognitive capacities can differ between individuals


 Cognition can only be understood with reference to stimuli and response (S-R)


 Cognitive psychology tends to focus on the individual rather than on cultural or societal factors.


Question 7 You are at a holiday party with many family and friends. Even though there are many conversations, and it is noisy all around you, you are able to focus on the discussion with your interlocutor. This is due to the


Question 7 options:


 Face-name mnemonic


 Auditory reflex


 Cocktail party effect


 Cochlear cilia


Question 8 Studies wherein subjects listen to different stimuli in each ear in order to determine how well one could attend to and remember the stimuli in each ear is called ________.


Question 8 options:


 Echoic memory


 Broadbent task


 Parallel processing


 Dichotic listening


Question 9 _____ occurs in time, whereas _____ occurs in space


Question 9 options:


 Audition; Vision


 Vision; Audition


 Cognition; Perception


 Perception; Cognition


Question 10 Perceiving something without being aware of it can be tested using ______; perceiving something without attending to it can be tested using _____.


Question 10 options:


 Masking research; dichotic listening research


 Dichotic listening research; masking research


 Semantic research; episodic research


 Episodic research; semantic research


Question 11 A patient only eats food from the right half of a plate. What can you infer from this?


Question 11 options:


 There has been damage to the frontal lobe of the brain


 There has been damage to the occipital lobe of the brain


 There has been damage to the left lobe of the brain


 There has been damage to the right lobe of the brain


Question 12 Deutsch and Deutsch (1963) claim that:


Question 12 options:


 Messages receive greater amounts of processing if they are attended to


 All messages receive the same amount of processing whether they are attended to or not


 Attended information must receive at least sufficient processing to activate relevant semantic memories


 Only one message can be attended to at a time


Question 13 People analyze information from their senses using


Question 13 options:










Question 14 When you see an X on a piece of paper, you perceive this as two strait lines crossing in the middle. This is what Gestalt psychologists call


Question 14 options:


 Law of impressions


 Law of proximity


 Law of good continuation


 Law of closure


Question 15 When we say that an apple can be eaten, a bowl can hold things, and a box can contain things, this is what is referred to as


Question 15 options:










Question 16 The ventral stream in visual processing . . .


Question 16 options:


 Projects to regions of the brain that appear to be involved in pattern discrimination and object recognition


 Projects to regions of the brain that appear to be involved in the analysis of information involved in the position and movement of objects


 Projects to parts of the brain primarily involved in face recognition


 Projects to parts of the brain involved in line and edge detection


Question 17 The constructivist approach describes perception as


Question 17 options:










Question 18 Which of the following makes within-category distinctions?


Question 18 options:










Question 19 People are ______ capable of identifying familiar than unfamiliar faces when there is a change in pose or hairstyle.


Question 19 options:








 Research has been inconclusive


Question 20 What type of errors were most commonly made in Young et al’s (1985) study of everyday errors in face recognition?


Question 20 options:


 Difficulty retrieving full details of a person


 Person unrecognized


 Decision problems


 Person misidentification


Question 21 Research indicates that person _____ information is retrieved before person ______ information.


Question 21 options:


 Identity; name


 Name; identity


 Sequential; parallel


 Parallel; sequential


Question 22 Identifying a person, and identifying an emotional expression, use what kind of routes?


Question 22 options:


 Dorsal routes


 Ventral routes


 Separate routes


 Overlapping routes


Question 23 Recognizing someone without being aware of recognizing them is called


Question 23 options:


 Covert recognition


 Autonomic recognition


 Unconscious recognition


 Repressed recognition


Question 24 Perceptually-oriented processing is more likely with ____, whereas semantic processing is more likely with _____.


Question 24 options:


 Faces; objects


 Objects; faces


 Words; sentences


 Sentences; words


Question 25 Let’s say that you learn about many types of bias in your Cognitive Psychology class. One bias in particular, the hindsight bias, really resonates with you because you recognize it in yourself. You find that, when tested on all of the biases, you remember more about the hindsight bias than the other types of bias. This is due to the


Question 25 options:


 Ego involvement effect


 Self-bias effect


 Own-bias effect


 Self-reference effect


Question 26 Studies of HM revealed the importance of the hippocampus in . . .


Question 26 options:


 Forming new memories


 Remembering old memories


 Personality development




Question 27 Which of the following is considered to be part of declarative memory?


Question 27 options:






 Classical conditioning


 Procedural abilities


Question 28 When any memory is initially formed, it must first be encoded in


Question 28 options:


 Emotional memory


 Procedural memory


 Episodic memory


 Semantic memory


Question 29 Which two theories of memory are based on the importance of the relationship between encoding and retrieval?


Question 29 options:


 Transfer appropriate processing and encoding specificity


 Threshold process and relative distinctiveness


 Dual process and familiarity-based theory


 Single process signal detection theory and dual process signal detection theory


Question 30 When unconscious memory, or memory without awareness, is being examined, what types of tests are used?


Question 30 options:


 Intentional memory tests


 Exceptional memory tests


 Explicit memory tests


 Implicit memory tests


Question 31 We process and manipulate information in what type of memory?


Question 31 options:


 Long term memory


 Episodic memory


 Working memory


 Procedural memory


Question 32 Which of the following are synonymous?


Question 32 options:


 Short term memory and working memory


 Short term memory and long-term memory


 Working memory and long-term memory


 None of the above


Question 33 Think about your childhood bedroom. Picture where the bed, the windows, and the furniture were.  For this task, you are primarily using your


Question 33 options:


 Phonological loop


 Visuo-spatial sketchpad


 Central executive


 Occipital lobe


Question 34 When you are reading a book, or listening to a book on tape, the same system is used. Which system is this?


Question 34 options:


 Phonological loop


 Visuo-spatial sketchpad


 Controlling executive




Question 35 When you are intending to stop by the grocery store after work (less common event), but find yourself accidentally and automatically driving straight home instead (more common event), this is due to a failure of [the]


Question 35 options:


 Working memory


 Procedural memory


 Supervisory Attentional System


 Central workspace


Question 36 Which of the following memorization tasks is most predictive of being able to learn foreign language vocabulary?


Question 36 options:


 Word-word pairs (two real words paired together)


 Word-nonword pairs (a real word paired with a nonword)


 Both are equally predictive


 Neither are predictive since different processes are used


Question 37 If you wanted to figure out what steps a person goes through when solving a problem, or what the person’s thought process was, you would employ


Question 37 options:


 Protocol analysis


 Verbal analysis


 Cognitive analysis


 Freudian analysis


Question 38 If you think that a hammer can only be used to pound nails, and cannot conceive of other ways it can be used, you are illustrating the concept of


Question 38 options:




 Internal representation


 External representation


 Functional fixity


Question 39 When using analogies to solve problems without any additional hints or clues, subjects do better when there are


Question 39 options:


 Surface similarities


 Structural similarities


 Blatant similarities


 Verbal similarities


Question 40 When solving a problem, experts in a subject matter, as compared to novices, tend to


Question 40 options:


 Work backward, beginning with the end goal and working backward to the information given


 Work forward, beginning with the information given and using that to work toward the end goal


 Work backward and forward simultaneously to discover a solution


 Use the method of insight


Question 41 _____ theories of decision-making define the ideal decision whereas _____ theories of decision-making characterize how decisions are actually made.


Question 41 options:


 Normative; descriptive


 Descriptive; normative


 Problem-solving; judgment


 Judgment; problem-solving


Question 42 People may experience loss aversion in part due to the


Question 42 options:


 Gambling effect


 Possession effect


 Probability effect


 Endowment effect


Question 43 In making judgments, once a hypothesis is formed based on early information, later conflicting information tends to be disregarded. This is called the


Question 43 options:


 Disregarding effect


 Inertia effect


 Conservation effect


 Edwards effect


Question 44 Linda is afraid to fly because she hears about planes going down “all the time.” Linda is suffering from the


Question 44 options:


 Representativeness heuristic


 Availability heuristic


 Anchoring and adjustment heuristic


 Framing heuristic


Question 45 Bill is at a conference for accountants at a luxury resort in Las Vegas. The hotel is full of accountants, but there are other guests vacationing there too. Bill rides the elevator with a muscular man in workout clothes. He comments, “You aren’t here for the accountant’s conference, are you?!” The man replies, “Yes I am. I am just going for a workout after my last seminar.”  What fallacy did Bill fall prey to?


Question 45 options:


 Representativeness heuristic


 Availability heuristic


 Anchoring and adjustment heuristic


 Framing heuristic


Question 46 What type of reasoning do we use when we come to a conclusion based on things we assume, or things we believe?


Question 46 options:


 Parallel reasoning


 Logical reasoning


 Deductive reasoning


 Inductive reasoning


Question 47 Is the following syllogism true or false–


All A are B


All B are C


Therefore, All C are A


Question 47 options:






 Question 48 What is the most common form of reasoning?


Question 48 options:


 Parallel reasoning


 Logical reasoning


 Deductive reasoning


 Inductive reasoning


Question 49 A professional baseball pitcher wears his “lucky socks” for every game, believing them to be a factor in his success. This illustrates a(n)


Question 49 options:


 Illusory correlation


 Transitory correlation


 Psychological correlation


 Low IQ


Question 50 An “a-ha” moment, or gaining sudden insight into a problem, is a form of


Question 50 options:


 Parallel reasoning


 Ambivalent reasoning


 Deductive reasoning


 Inductive reasoning


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